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Containing a pronouncing and defining 





the STORIES OF THE OPERAS; and numer- 

by distinguished AUTHORITIES. 

Compiled by 

Completely Revised and Newly Edited by 




Garden City, New York 

COPYRIGHT, 1913, 1939, 1947, H6^ *'54 






n <g o ,3 

was first compiled it was Rupert Hughes' effort to make 
it the most nearly complete desk reference work of its 
kind. In this he succeeded admirably. Time has, however, 
changed the whole world gallery of musicians and music lovers 
and we have therefore invited the outstanding authority in the 
field, Mr. Deems Taylor, to work with Mr. Russell Kerr, of 
Musical America, in the present complete revision of the book 
which has been the standard desk reference book on Music for 
nearly fifty years. 

We wish to make particular acknowledgment to Simon and 
Schuster for permission to reprint THE MONSTER by Deems 
Taylor, an excerpt from OF MEN AND Music, and to acknowl- 
Ravel is copyrighted by Opera Mundi, Paris. For permission to 
reprint a short passage from THE MAGIC MOUNTAIN by Thomas 
Mann we make acknowledgment to Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New 
York, and Martin Seeker and Warburg, Ltd., London. For the 
permission to quote from THE STORY OF Music by W. J. Hen- 
derson we make acknowledgment to Longmans, Green & Co. 

We have included the synopses of ninety operas. These, be- 
cause of exigencies of space, represent the barest outline of plot. 
We therefore encourage the reader to refer to the complete li- 
brettos (in English) available from the following music pub- 
lishers : 

Chas, E. Burden for Carmen, Lucia di Lammermoor, Hrodi- 
ade, The Tales of Hoffmann; Oliver Ditson for Mefistofcle, 
La Gioconda, Lakme, Romeo and Juliet, Les Huguenots, Thi 
Tales of Hoffmann, Don Giovanni, The Marriage of Figaro, Mi* 
gnon, The Flying Dutchman, Der Meister singer, Martha, LaJuive, 
Tristan und Isolde, Tannhduser, Das Rheingold, Die Walkure, 
Gotterdammerung, Parsifal; J. Fischer, The King's Henchman, 
Peter Ibbetson; Ricordi for La Bohtme, Tosca, Madame Butter- 
fly, The Girl of the Golden West, Gianni Schicchi, La Rondine, 
Turandot, UAmore dei Tre Re, Falstaff, Manon Lescaut; F, Rull- 
man for Fidelio, Norma, La Sonnambida, Ariadne and Bluebeard, 



Orfeo ed Euridice, Faust, Hansel und Gretel 
Valeria Rusticana, Manon, L' African, Le Prophet c, The 
Flute, The Barber of Seville, William Tell, The Bartered Bndc 
Salome, Aida, Otelli, Rigoletto, La Tratiata, II Trwtore .Lo- 
hengrin, Siegfried, Der Freischuts, Wertter ^ ffl ^^ 
peror Jones, La Juive, Boris Godunoff, Cos:. Fan Tutte L Heure 
Espagnole, Sadko, Simon Boccanegra Scteanda, The Snow 
Maiden, Le Ccq d'Or, Le Rossignol; G. Schemer for The Jj^s 
of the Madonna, Le Donne Curiose, I Paghaca, Secret of 6- 
zanne The Mm Without a Country, Cyrano, Natoma, Marouf; 
Stein^ay & Sons for Louise, Pelleas ct Mclisandc, Le Jongleur 
de Notre Dame, Thais, Elektra, The Tales of Hoffmann. 

For the use of the Bach Family Tree facing page 482, we make 
acknowledgment to the Macmillan Company, pubhshers of Dic- 
tionary of Music and Musicians, by Sir George Grove, edrted by 
J. A. Fuller Maitland. 


By Deems Taylor 

ONE OF MY EARLY recollections is that of poring de- 
lightedly over the pages of my father's encyclopaedia. 
It was entitled, as I recall, Chambers' Library of Uni- 
versal Knowledge, and had been published, in several volumes, 
some time in the early seventies. My father had acquired it as 
a young man. I mention it here because of a phrase from it that 
still sticks in my memory. It occurred in the course of the article 
on appendicitis, conveying the information that the only remedy 
for this malady was "the application of leeches to the abdomen." 
Which statement is, I think, a fairly vivid illustration of the 
reason why it is advisable, from time to time, to issue revised edi- 
tions of reference works. Not, I hasten to add, that the earlier 
editions of the Music Lovers* Encyclopedia contained such howlers 
as the one I have quoted. Music is a vaguer and at the same time 
more exact science than medicine. Its laws may be more in- 
tuitive than rational, but they are less liable to repeal. An elder 
generation of musicologists seldom needs to blush in the presence 
of its juniors. 

None the less this work has needed revision in order to repair, 
not its mistakes, but its omissions. Lamentable as these omissions 
were, they are pardonable, in view of the fact that the events that 
should have been chronicled had not yet occurred. Musical his- 
tory has moved fast during the past fifty years. In 1903, the 
year the first edition of this book appeared, Verdi had been dead 
just two years. Giacomo Puccini had finished his sixth opera, 
based on John Luther Long's play, "Madame Butterfly*' and was 
arranging for its production at La Scala in Milan; Richard 
Strauss had started work on an operatic version of Oscar Wilde's 
Salome; and Claude Debussy had just written to his publishers 
that he was busy with a trio of symphonic sketches to be called 
La Mer* Arnold Schonberg, who was later to horrify the con- 
ventional musical world with his harmonic theories, had not yet 
composed his pleasant but innocuous "Verklarte Nacht" ; Jan 
Sibelius had published his first symphony two years before; and 



a young Russian named Igor Stravinsky was studying orches- 
tration with Rimsky-Korsakov. 

Even in 1912, when the second edition appeared, Strauss's ">& 
Rosenkavalier" existed only as a mass of sketches ; Montemezzi's 
"UAmore Dei Tre Re" was promised for the following year, but 
no one had heard it. Maurice Ravel's "Daphnis et Chloe" had 
just had its first performance, in Paris, by the Diaghileff Ballet 
Russe. ' The young Russian, Stravinsky, was putting the finishing 
touches to another ballet for Diaghileff, "Le Sacre du Printemps" 
that was destined to make musical history. Jan Sibelius had just 
published his fourth symphony. Phonographs were using a me- 
chanical pickup ; the sound-film was unthought-of , and radio was 
a dream. 

Hence the need for this new edition of a work that has been 
proving its usefulness for many years. As in the earlier editions, 
:t is divided into two main sections: a dictionary of musical 
terms, and a biographical dictionary of musicians. This seems 
to me to be a sensible and convenient differentiation. One is not 
likely to be anxious for information concerning "Mendelssohn" 
and "metronome" at the same instant. The bulk of the revision, 
naturally, has been done in the biographical section; and in this 
department the revised edition of the Music Lovers? Encyclopedia 
may venture to claim to be tbe,most completely up-to-date work 
in this or any other country. Eight hundred new names have been 
added, making the chronology and necrology complete up to 1954* 
and encompassing a completely new "Supplementary List of Mod- 
ern Composers.*' 

As a rule, biographical dictionaries grade musicians according 
to their purely academic importance. This practice results in the 
inclusion and over-emphasising of many persons whose work is 
no actual, important contribution to music as a living art. In this 
edition we have attempted to indude new personalities that are 
playing an important part in the modern world of music, not only 
in the field of composition, but also in that of production and per- 

I say "we." As a matter of fact, the merits of the revised bio- 
graphical dictionary are almost entirely due to the extraordinarily 
conscientious and expert labours of Mr. Russell Kerr, of the staff 
of the New York Musical America, and whose share in the pro- 
duction of this work is hereby gratefully acknowledged* 


The charts and tables of the earlier editions have been retained 
and revised. They should be useful, particularly the table show- 
ing the pronunciation of the various letters of the alphabet as they 
occur in sixteen modern languages. There may be a similar chart 
published elsewhere; if there is, I am unfamiliar with it. Like- 
wise retained, verbatim, is the prefatory An Introduction to Music, 
by this book's first editor, Rupert Hughes. Mr. Hughes, who is 
chiefly known to the world as a novelist, is a musical amateur in 
the finest sense of the word, a music-lover who has studied and 
practiced the art of music all his life, purely for the fun of it, 
To realise that profound scholarship can be coexistent with an 
amateur standing, you have only to read his chapter. Naturally 
the science of music has progressed. The past quarter of a 
century has seen the development of theories concerning harmony, 
counterpoint, melody, and rhythm that were unthinkable in 1903. 
Nevertheless the fundamentals of music remain constant, and al- 
most any literate and intelligent lay music-lover should be able to 
obtain the' foundation of a musical education by reading this 
Introduction to Music. Written nearly fifty years ago, it remains 
a sound and useful little treatise. 

The section entitled Stories of the Operas originally contained 
synopses of the plots of sixty operas in the standard repertoire. 
Since the last edition of this book was published, a few have so 
definitely joined the limbo of forgotten things that there seemed 
to be no further use in including them. They have, accordingly, 
been dropped from the present roster. "In revenge/' as the 
French say, we have added the stories of thirty-four additional 
operas that have been either added or restored to the repertoire 
during the past twenty years. 

One of the most admired features of the Music Lovers 9 Ency- 
clopedia has been its series of contributed essays by eminent 
musical authorities, discussing various branches of music and the 
lives of famous composers. The best of these have been retained, 
and many more added. Moreover, instead of being scattered al- 
phabetically through the dictionary sections of the book, they have 
been brought together in two special sections of their own, to the 
great enhancement of their readability and accessibility, 

"The marriage of completeness with conciseness," writes Rupert 
Hughes in his preface to the first edition of this book, "is a hard 
knot to tie." That statement has lost none of its truth. It is 


manifestly hopeless, in a single volume, to cover every phase of 
music in the detail that is offered by the great musical encyclo- 
paedias and the countless biographies of individual composers that 
have appeared within the past decade. On the other hand, we 
offer discussions of more subjects, biographies of more musicians, 
than any other single volume that I know, Our definitions and 
biographical sketches may be brief, but they present the main facts ; 
and they are, so far as is humanly possible to make them so, ac- 
curate. It is our hope that this new edition of the Music Lovers' 
Encyclopedia may continue to be what it has always been, a store- 
house of information to the layman, and a useful reminder to the 



Deems Taylor 








Rupert Hughes .... 



Bach, Johann Sebastian 
Beethoven, Ludwig Von . 
Berlioz, Hector 
Bizet, Georges .... 
Brahms, Johannes . 
Chopin, Frederic Francois 
Debussy, Claude . 
Falla, Manuel de 
Franck, Cesar .... 
Gershwin, George . 
Herbert, Victor . 
Liszt, Franz .... 

Sir Charles Hubert H. Parry 
H. E. Krehbiel .... 
Ernest Newman .... 
Edward E. Ziegler . 
James Huneker .... 
James Huneker .... 
Richard Anthony Leonard . 
Richard Anthony Leonard . 
Richard Anthony Leonard 

Ferde Grofe 

Deems Taylor 

Henry T. Finck .... 
Richard Anthony Leonard . 

MacDowell, Edward * 
Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Felix 

Vernon Blackburn 

Meyerbeer, Giacomo . . Irenaeus Prime-Stevenson 
Moussorgsky, Modest Petrovich 

Richard Anthony Leonard . 
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus 

Vernon Blackburn 
. W. J. Henderson . 

John F. Runciman . 

Richard Anthony Leonard . 

Richard Anthony Leonard . 
Lazy Childhood 

Maurice Ravel 

Richard Anthony Leonard . 

Irenacus Prime-Stevenson . 

Palestrina, Giovanni 
Purcell, Henry . 
Rachmaninoff, Sergei 
Ravel, Maurice 
Recollections Of My 

Rimsky-Korsakoff . 
Rossini , Gioacchino 















Schonberg Richard Anthony Leonard 





Schubert, Franz . . . H. A. Scott 521 

Schumann, Robert . . Richard Aldrich .... 523 

Sibelius, Jean .... Richard Anthony Leonard . 526 

Strauss, Richard . . . James Huneker .... 5^9 

Stravinsky, Igor . . . Richard Anthony Leonard . 5JO 

Sullivan, Arthur Seymour Eric Hodgins ^jj 

Tschaikowsky, Peter Ilyitch 

Ernest Newman . . . . 557 

Verdi, Giuseppe . W. /. Henderson . . . 55$ 

Wagner, Richard . . . Henry T. Finck . , . . 538 

Wagner The Monster. . Deems Taylor .... 543 

Williams, Vaughan . . Richard Anthony Leonard . 544 




Acoustics J. S. Shedlock . . . . 7/<? 

Altered Chords . . . Charles W. Pearce * . . 720 
The Conductor and His Art 

Deems Taylor . 723 

Counterpoint .... Homer A N orris . . . 7-?7 

Electric Organ, The . . Rudolph Ganz. . . , . 728 

Folk-Song B. E. Krehbid . . . . 731 

Form John C. Runciman . . . 

Fugue Jlomer A , N orris . . . 

Grace Rupert Sughes . 

Harmony in Practice . . ^4 * J. Goodrich * 
Harmonic Warnings for Composers 

A* J, Goodrich , ... 74% 

Hymnology . . * . H. E. Krehbid . 7^9 

Jazz Robert C. Bagar 750 

Leading-Motives . . . Gustaoe Kobbi . 756 

Modern Harmony. . . Quincy Porter * 75<? 

Modes Rupert Hughes .... 762 

Notation Rupert Hughes * . , . 7<57 

Opera, The ^&er< E. JSrodty .... ;t5p 

Oratorio, The . . . . i/, . KreJ&id . ... 776 
Orchestra and Orchestration, The 

W. y. Henderson . //<? 
Orchestration of Theatre and Dance Music 

Robert Russell Bennett . ^0 
Orchestras in America . Leonard Liebling . . 


Organ Rupert Hughes .... 792 

Phonograph Music . . R. D. Darrell 7^4 

Pianoforte Rupert Hughes .... 800 

Piano Studies .... James Huneker . . . 802 

Radio Music .... Lawrence Abbott . . . . 802 
Story of Orchestra and Band Instruments, The 

H. W. Schwartz .... Sir 

Swing Music .... James A. Poling .... 8i'8 



Beethoven Fidelio 828 

Bellini Nor ma '. 84.5 

Bellini La Sonnambula , . . . 859 

Berg Wozzeck 865 

Bizet Carmen 823 

Boito Mephistofele 843 

Borodin Prince Igor 849 

Charpentier .... Louise 838 

Damrosch Cyrano 823 

Damrosch The Man Without a Country 84.1 

Debussy Pellias and MSlisande . . 848 

Delibes Lakm6 837 

Donizetti Lucia di Lammermoor . . 838 

Dukas Ariadne and Bluebeard . . 821 

Flotow Martha 842 

Gluck Orpheus and Eurydice . . 846 

Gounod Faust 828 

Gounod Romeo and Juliet . . . 854. 

Gruenberg The Emperor Jones . . - 827 

HalSvy La Juive ...... 835 

Herbert Natoma 845 

Humperdinck .... Die K&nigskinder . . . . 836 

Humperdmck .... H&nsel und Gretel . . . 832 

Leoncavallo .... Pagliacci 847 

Mascagni Cavalleria Rusticana . . . 823 

Massenet HSrodiade 833 

Massenet . ... The Juggler of Notre Dame . 833 

Massenet .... Manon 840 

Massenet Thai's 86* 

Massenet Werther 864 

Meyerbeer UAfricaine 8xg 

Meverbeer Les Huguenots .... 834 


Meyerbeer Le Propkete 849 

Montemezzi .... UAmore dei Tre Re . . 820 

Moussorgsky .... Boris Godunoff .... 823 

Mozart Cosi Fan Tuttc .... 824 

Mozart Don Giovanni .... 825 

Mozart ..... The Magic Flute .... 839 

Mozart The Marriage of Figaro . . 842 

Nicolai The Merry Wives of Windsor 844 

Offenbach The Tales of Hoffmann . . 859 

Ponchielli La Gioconda ..... $31 

Puccini La Boheme 822 

Puccini Gianni Schicchi . 830 

Puccini The Girl of the Golden West . 832 

Puccini Madame Butterfly . . . 83$ 

Puccini Manon Lescaut .... 840 

Puccini La Rondine 854 

Puccini Tosca 861 

Puccini Turandot 863 

Rabaud-MSxouf . . . Savetier Du Caire . . 841 

Ravel UBeure Espagnole . . . 833 

Rimsky-Korsakov. . . Le Coq D'Or 824 

Rimsky-Korsakov. . . Sadko 856 

Rimsky-Korsakov. . . Snegourotchka 838 

Rossini The Barber of Seville . . 821 

Rossini Wittiam Tett ..... 864 

Smetana The Bartered Bride . . . Aa? 

Strauss Elektra 826 

Strauss ...... Der Friedenstag . . . , 830 

Strauss Der Rosenkavalier . . . ^55 

Strauss Salome #56 

Stravinsky . . . . Le JRossignol 855 

Taylor The King's Henchman . . 836 

Taylor Peter Ibbctson .... 848 

Thomas Mignon ...... 844 

Verdi A'ida 8ig 

Verdi Falstaff 827 

Verdi OteUo 846 

Verdi Rigoletto 850 

Verdi Simon Boccanegra . . 858 

Verdi La Traviata 862 

Verdi II Travatore ..... 863 

Wagner The Flying Dutchman . , 829 

Wagner ..... Lohengrin 837 

Wagner Die Afeistersinger . , . . 843 


Wagner Parsifal 847 

Wagner Rienzi, The Last of the Trib- 
unes 850 

Wagner Ring of the Nibelung 

Das Rheingold .... 851 

Die Walkure .... 852 

Siegfried 852 

Gotterdammerung . . . 853 

Wagner Tannhauser 860 

Wagnei .... Tristan and Isolde . . . 862 

Weber Der Freischutz .... 829 

Weinberger . Schwanda der Dudelsack- 

Pfeifer 857 

Wolf-Ferrari Le Donne Curiose . . . 826 

Wolf-Ferrari .... The Jewels of the Madonna . 834 

Wolf-Ferrari .... The Secret of Suzanne . . 857 















& as in father; a as in fate; U as 
in fat; cLii and Un as in French 

b as in bob. 

c used only in ch, as in church. 

The Scotch and German gut- 

tural as in loch and ich is 

indicated by kh. 
if as in deed; dh as th in these; 

dj as in adjoin. 
e as in bean; as in pet at the 

en4 of words it is almost like 


f as in fife. 
g as in gig. 
A as in hate. 
5 as in fight; $ as in pin. 
j as in jug. 
k as in kick; kh is used here to 

indicate the German or Scotch. 

ch or g. 

indicates the 

m as in mum. 
n as in nun; 

French nasal n or w. 
as in note; oi as in noise; 00 as 

in moon or foot; S as in wrong; 

ow as in cow; 6n as in French 

/> as in pop* 

r as in roar. 

^ as in sense. 

t as in tot; th as in think; the 

sound of th in these is indi- 

cated by dh. 
u always with the sound of you; 

the French u and the German 

long il are both indicated by U. 
v as in revive. 
w as in will. 
x as in fix. 
y as in yoke, 
z as in zone. 


abbate (ab'-ba-te"), /. abb (abba), P. 
Abbot (often honorary). 

PainS (ten-a), F. The elder, cadet 
(ka-da), F. The younger. Usually 
of brothers. 

camerlingo (ka-mr-ln'-g6), /. Cham- 

cantab(rigiensis). Of Cambridge Uni- 

cavaliere (k&-val-ya'-r), /. Knight, 

chevalier (shtt-vai-ya), F. Knight. 

de, F. Company; et de (a sS). & Co. 

comte (k6nt), F. 

conte (koV-te*), J. Count. 

detto or -a (d$t'-t6). "Called." 

doc (dttk), F. dwca (doo'-ka), 1. 

Edler von (ftt'-ler fta). Nobleman of. 

fils (fs), F. Son. 

Ftau (frow), G. Mrs. IFritulein (frf'- 
lin). Miss. 

Fteiherr (frf'-Mr), G. Baron. 

Geheimratti (gS-ilm'-rat), G. Privy 

Gesettschaft (g-zl '-shaft), (?. Asso- 
ciation, society. 

Graf (graf), G. Count. Orfifcx (gra- 
fTn). Countess. 

Herr (har), G. Mr. 

Hauptfcirche (howpt-fcCr^khfi), G. 
Cfiief church* 

HofkapellmeisteT (ml-shtftr). Court- 
conductor, Hofmusik'intendant 
(moo-2ek x ), <?. Supt. of court-music. 

le jeune (It! zhtSn), F. The younger, 

Justorath (yoos'-tsts-r&t), G. Coun- 
sellor of justice; often honorary. 

Kammersanger (zngk-6r^, G. Cham- 
ber-suager (to the court). 

maestro (ma-as'-tro), Z. Master* 

11 xnaggiore (el mad-j6'-r), J. The 

maistre (old French), or maitre 
(mfitr), P. Master. 

marchesa (mar-ka'-za), /. Marchion- 

mincare (Cl-mC-nO'-rS), /. The lesser. 

mus. bach(elor) and mus* doc(tor). 
Vide the J>. . 

oxon(ensis). Of Oxford University. 

pite (par), F- Father, 

Eeichsfreiiierr (rikhs'-frt-Mr), G. 
Baron of the empire, 

Bittr (rXt'-te*)* G. Knight, chevaUer. 

sieur (s'ytu:), F. Sir, Mr. 

und Sohn (oont zon), G. & Son. tind 
S6hne (oont za'-ne 1 ), G. & Sons. 

van (van), Dutch. von (fOn), G. de 
(du), F. di (ds), J. and S. From, 

vicomtesse (ve-k6n-t$s). Viscoiintess. 

le vieux (la v'yu), F. The elder, 

y (e), 5^. "And," used in joining two 
proper names somewhat as we use a 
hyphen; the Spaniard keeping his 
mother's as well as his father's name. 

zu (tsoo), G. To. 

(Others will be found in the D. D.) 

NOTE. In the Biographical Xtfction- 
ary, given names are regularly abbrevi- 
ated as in the following list, the same 
abbreviation serving for one name in its 
different forms in different languages. 

Abramo (a'-bra-m5), /. 

Adam (a'-dam), G. 

Adalbert (a'-dal-bSrt), G. 

Adelaide (a-da-la-e^-de*), /- *nd G. 

(Ad.) Adolf (a'-dtff), G. 

(Ad.) Adolph, G. 

(Ad.) Adolphe (&d-6lf), F, 

(Adr.) Adriano (a-drX-a'-nO), /. 

Adrien (ad'-rl-an), F. 

Agathon (a'-ga-tOn), G. 

(Ag.) Agostino (a-g6s-te'-n5), I. 

Aixnable (Sm-ab'l), F. 

(Alb.) Albrecht (al'-brkht), G. 

(Ales.) Aleseandro (a 

(Alex.) Alexander. 

(Alex.) AJexandre (ai-ex-aadrO, F. 

Alexis (^l-x-5s), F. 

Aloys (a-lois). 

Aloysia (a-loi'-25l-a), G, 

Amadeo (am-a-da'-C), I. 

oos), G. 

Amalie (a^-mai-6), G. 
Ambroise (a6-bwaz), F. 
Am6d6e (am'-a-da), F. 
AmSlie (am'-a-le), F. 
Anatole (an-a-t61), F. 
Andre* (aft-dra), F. 
(And.) Andrea (an'-dra-ii), J, 
(Ands) Andreas (an'-dra-as), G. 
Ange (aftzh), F. 
Angelica (an-ja'-l-ka), 7. 
(Ang.) Angelo (an'-ja-lo), /. 
(A. or AntO Antoine (aft'-twan). F, 
(Ant.) Anton (an'-tSn), G. 



(A. or Ant.) Anto'nio, 7. 

(ApO Apollon (ap-61-16n), F. 

Anstide (ar-Is-ted), F. 

Armin (ar'-men), G. 

Arnaud (r-n5), F. 

Arrigo (ar'-r6-go), 7. 

Arsene (r-sSn), F. 

Arthur (ar-tiir), F. 

Attilio (St-te'-ll-a), 7. 

(Aug.) August (ow'-goost), G. 

Auguste (o-gust), F. 

Augustin (ow'-goos-ten, G.) (6-gtts- 

tan, F.). 
(Aug.) Augusto (a-oo-goost'-a), 7. 

Baldassare (bal-das-sa'-re*), 7. 

E) Balthasar (bai-ta-z&r'), F. 
.) Baptiste (ba-tst), F. 
:.) Bartolommeo (bar-t5-lAm- 
ma'-o), 7. 

<Bat.) Battista (bat-ts'-sta), 7. 
Benedikt (ba'-nS-dekt), G. 
Beniamino (ban-y-mS'-n5), 7. 
CBv.) Benvenuto (ban-vS-noo'-tO), 7, 
(Bdo.) Bernardo (bSr-nar'-dO), 7. 
CBdO Bernhard (barn'-hart), G. 

^^^f*Yfl*^T^ o. (bax~*ti*anj *^. 

Bianca (bS-an'-ka), 7, 
Blasius (bla'-zi-oos), G. 
Bonaventure (b6n.-av-au-tQj') > F. 
Bonifacio (bO-nS-fa'-cha), 7. 
Bonafazio (b5n-5-fa'-tsI-a), 7. 
Brigida (brS'-jS-da), 7. 

aroille (kam-'-yd), F. 
Carlo (kar'-ld), 7. 
Casimir (kas-i-m5r), F. 
Catherine (kat-tfcr-rS'-na), 7. 
Caytan (ka'-S-tan), Sp. 
O^sar (sa-z^r), F. 
Cesare (cha-za'-rS), 7. 
(Chas.) Charles (sharl), F. 
Ghrisostomus (kr5-s6s -t5-moos). G. 
Christian (kr5st'-X-an), GL 
i Christoph (kre*s'-tApii), G. 

Claude (fcl5d), F. " 
Otfonent (kla-man), F. 
Olotilde (kla-t6l'-d), G. 
Colin (k6-ian), F. 
Constanze (kdn-stan'-tsS). G. 
Cornelius (kAr-na'-lX-oos), G. 
Costanzo (ka-stan'-tse), 7. 

Damaso (da-ma'-sa), Sp+ 

(D.*) David WW G. 
Delphin (del-faft), F. 
JJietncJji \oj5t "rUkjjLjf Cr* 
jjieudonne Cd y\i"Kliin"*Dia7* JP 
Diogenio (d-3-ja-n6'-8), 7. 
Dioma (d6-6'-ma), 7. 

(Dion.) Dionisio (dfc-o-nt'-sI-), Sp. 
Dionys (dS'-o-nCs), G. 
(Dom.) Domenico (dS-m&'-nf-kd), 7. 
(Dom,) Dominique (d6m-I-nk), F. 
DufrSsne (da-frn), F. 

) Edmond (^d-m6fi), F. 
) Edmund (at'-moont), ?. 
Lw.) Edward (ad-var), F. 
Jdio (a-je'-dX-a), 7. 


El^onore (&-l&-$-norX 

culine name. 
Elias (a-le'-fis), ^?. 
Eligio (a-lg'-ja), 7. 
Eliodoro (a-H-d-d6 
Eliseo (S-lg'-za-C), 7. 
Eliza (a-te'-za), 7. 
(Em.) Emanuel (ft-mn-wel), 
Emil (a-m6l), G. 
EmiUe (a'-mM5), F. 
OSm.) Emilio (fi-ipel'-ydX 7. 

Also a mas- 

(Eng.) Engelbert i,_._^ 
&uSo (fe-rt^to), 7. 
Jsrasmo \a*~3ras ~m^) 7* 
Ercole (ar'-k^laO* ^ 
(Erh.) Erhard (ar ; -hirt), G. 
Ernst (S-rnst), <?. 
Errico (Sr'-rX-k^S), 7* 

) Btienne (ftt'-ya), F, 


Felix (fa-lex), 

(&r'~dl-n*&t G.) 
--, .. 
(Fdo.) Ferdinando (fr-dfr-tJLn'-<i6), 7. 
Ferencz (f*r'-ns), 


Feanando rr-ixan-<6, 7. 

Femxccio (f*r-root'-dbd), /, 

Finnin (fr-man), F. 

Florence (fi6r-&6s), F, Commonly 

masculine name. 

Florian (fidr-yftjBu F.) (fldrM-ta, G. 
OPt) Fortunate (f6r-too-nt'-t6)7- 



Ftandtoco (fraja-tiita'-kC), Sp* 
(Fran.) Franpois (frafi-swi), 


(Fz.) Franz (f rants), G. 
CFr.) Ftedric (f ra-da-rSk), F. 
Ftidolin (fre'-de-l5n), G. 
(Ft.) Friedrich (fret'-rlkh), G. 

Gabriele (ga-brf-a'-ie), G. 
(Gaet.) Gaetaao tea-a-ta'-n5), I. 
(Gasp.) Gaspare (gas-pa'-ro 1 ), /. 
Geffio Oa'-lf-a), I. 
j&eminiano O^ 1 ^-^ 11 "^-^ 7 -^^)* ! 
Gennaro (gfcn-na'-rS), /. 

Geoig (ga-drkh'), G. 

George, J. 

Georges (zh6rzh), F. 
tGer*) Gerolamp (jS-r5'-lS-m6), /. 
{Geron.) Geronimo (jS-r6'-nX-m6), /. 
Gervais (zliSr-vS'), F. 
Gesu (ha'-zoo), Sp. 
Giiislein (ges-lan) ? J7. 
Giacinto ya-ch6n / -to), I. 
Giacomo oak'-d-mC), /. 
Gialdino Qai-dfi'-nd), I. 

(Giov*) CMovanne 
Giaditta (joo-dlt'-ta), J. 
Giulia (jool'-ya), /. 
GitiHo Qool'-yO), J. 
(Gius-) Giuseppe (joo-s^p'-pfi), 

Gottfied (g6tMrt), G. 
Gotthard (gdt'-hUrt), G. 
(Gh.) Gotllilf (g6t / -hnf), G. 
(GL) Gottlieb (got'-lep), G- 
Gotttob te6tMGp) f G, 
Gxworio (grt-gC'-rX-O), /. 
Guide <goo~*'-dS), / 
(GuiL) Guillaume (g-ySm), j 
CGv.) Gtistav (goos^tM). G. 
(Ore.) Gustave (gUs-tav), F. 

Hans (bans), G* 
~ f Heimicli ( 
f Henri <&d-r), 
.) Hermann 
ronymus (h- 

(p-9-let) F. 

Jiace (n-y&s) : 
lazlo 05H""ylit' 
(kh'-rats), i 
iitch ('-13Ctsh), " 
BJa (el'-j*), ,R* 


Jacob (yak'-op), G. 

Jacopo (yak'-6-p5), /. 

(Jac.) Jacques (zMk), J?. 

Jan (yanV Dutch. 

Jan (yS,n), Polish. 

Javier (hav-yar), Sj>. 

(J.) Jean (zhan), F. 

Jefte (y&'-tS), J. 

Jerome (zha-rAm), F. 

(Joa.) Joachim (yS'-a-khSm), G. 

Joaquin (wa'-kn), 5^>. 

n.) Johann (yS'-han), G. 
ns.) Johannes (yO-han'-nfis), G* 
.) John. 

Jos6 (h5-zaO, Sp. 
(Jos.) Josef, or Joseph (y<tf-*Sfy G.) 


Josquin (zh6s-kan), 
Juan (hoo-an'), Sp. 
Jules (zhUl), -F. 
Julie (zhii-lS), F. 
JuHen (zhul-ya&) ? 
Juliette (zhul-ySt), . 
Julius (yooMX-oos), G. 
Juste (zhtist), F. 
Justin (zhtis-tan), F. 

Karl (karl), G. 

Karoline (ka-r5-l6'-n6), G. 

Kasper (kas'-per), G. 

(Kd.) Konrad (k^n'-rat), G. 

(Konst.) Konstantin (k5n-stan-t6n), 

Ladislaw (lad'-ls-iaf), PoL 
Laure (l5r), F. 
Laurent (l$-ran), F. 
Leberecht (la'-b^-rSkht), G. 
L6on (la'-^n), F. 
Leonard (la-6-nar), JP. 
L^once (la-6As), F. 
Leone (la-a'-ne;, /. 
(Ld.) Leopold (la-tt-pold), F. 

la-6-pOlt), G* 

), Sp. 

Is'-rfints), G. 

(Ld.) Leopold 
Lopez (la'-pSt 

(L.) Louis (loo-e), 

Louise (loo-6z), / ? . 

Luca (loo'-ka), JT. 

Lucien (lUs-y&n), F. 

Lucrezia (loo-kra'-tsfi-a), J. 

(Lud.) Ludovico (Ioo-d0-v / -k5) /. 

CL.) Ludwig (loot'-vXkh), G. 

(L.) Luigi (loo-a'-j) 9 * 

Luigia (loo-S'-j^), /. 

Luise (loo-S'-ze), G. 



Manuel (man'-oo-el), 
MarceUo (mar-ch^lMc, . 
Marco (mar'-ks), /- 
Marguerite (mar-gtt-rt') & 
(MO Maria (ma-rC'-a), G,, /. and 
Commonly a masculine name* 



Marie (mi-rS), F. Commonly a mas- 
culine name. 

Mathias (ma-t5'-as), F. and G. 
Mathieu (mat-ytt), F. 
(Mat.) Matteo (mat-ta'-6), 7. 
MatthSus (mat-ta'-oos), G. 
Mattia (mat-tS'-a), 7. 
Maturin (m3,t-ii-ran), F. 
Maurice (mo-rSs), F. 
Max (max), & 

Maximilian (max-X-mSl'-X-an), G. 
Melchior (mSL-shl->6r), F. 
Melchiore (mfil-kW-re'), 7. 
Michael (me'-ka-el), 7. 
Michel (mg-shgl), .P. 
Michele (mfc-ka'-le"), /. 
Miroslaw (me'-rS-slaf), Russian. 
Modeste (mo-dst), F. 
Moritz (m5'-r6ts), <?. 
Muzio (moo'-tsl-S), 7. 

Napoteon (na-p5'-la-6n), F. 
Natale (na-ta'-lS), 7. 
Wepomuk (nS'-po-mook), G. 
TOccola (nk'-k5-la), 7. 
~ Nidi'olas, . 

Nicolas (ne-k6-Ias), F. 
r.) Wicold (n-kd-l5'), /- 

lai (ne'-k^-laO, (?. 

Nikolaus (ne ; -k5-lows), G. 

Octave (6k-tav), F. 
Orazio (C-rS'-tsI'-S), J. 
Otto (dtMtf), G. 
Ottokar (dt'-to-kar), Pol. 

Pantaloon (pan-ta-la-6n). J?. 
Paolo (pa'-O-IS), /. 
Pascal (p&s-kal), F. 
Pasquale (pfis-kwa'-le*), /, 
Paul (pdl), F. 
Pedro (pa'-dhrS), Sff. 
Peregriao (pa-ra-gr**- no), /. 
CP) Peter. 

(P.) Peter (pa'-ter), G, 
PhiHbert {f6-lX-bar), F. 

~ ' "'pp (feMip), G. 

ippe (f5-lep), F. 
^ (p3-ar-loo-S'-j6), I. 
i. Pierre (pt-arO, F. 
(P.) Pietro (p^a'-tro), /. 
Polibio (po-le'-be-d), 7. 
Pompeo (pdm-pa'-C), /. 
Primo (pr'-m), 7. 
Prosper (prds'-par), F. 
Prudent (prtt-da6), F. 

Rafael (ra'-fa-el). 7. and 5>. 
Regnault (r^n-y6)* F. 
B^icbardt (rtkh'-art), G* 
Reinhold (rin'-hOlt), G. 

(ra-na), F. 
(R.) Rob'ert^ JS. (in F. ifc'-bfcr, ia GL 

Roberte {r5-bArt), F, 
(R.) Roberto, 7. 
Romano, 7. 
Romualdo ' 
Rose (r6z), 
(Rud.) Rudolf i 
Ruggiero (rood-j** -*v/> , 
Ruprecht (roo'-pikht), G. 

Sabine (z&'-be' / ~ni5}> < 

(S.) Salvatore (sal-vft-tC'-rt), J* 

(Sml.) Samuel <z&m'-oo-*i), C. 

Scipione (shc-plf-d'-ii^), 7. 

Sebald (za'-bfilt), C. 

(S^b.) Sebastian (sa-bast-yftn), F. 

(Seb.) Sebastiano <sft~b&*-tl'-l.*-a5) f >. 

and 5/. 

Siegfried (zkh'-fr5t), G. 
Siegmund (zikh'-moont), G. 

(Sim.) Simone (S'-E 
Splro (spC'-rd). 
Steffano (st-ftt. -nC/, / 
Sylvain (sftl-vaa), F 

Teodulo (ta-e-doo'-lo) t /* 
Teresa (t&-rfi/-a), 7. 
Theobald (ta'-<5-balt), C. 
Xbeodor (ta'-5-d6r), 6* 
(The.) Theodore (UL-fi-ddr), 
(T,) Thomas, 
Thueskon <tooa'-kSn), 67. 


(trow'-gdt), C?* 
' 4 40UO,G. 

% .) Tommasso (tdjcn-nx&s'-ao), 7 
augott (trow'-w 
Turlogh (toorM6k 

(Val.) Valentin ^ 
*> Viaoeat (va6-kn), >. " 

(V.) Vincent (f*n'-Unt) 
<y.) Vincenzo (ven-chan 
Vincesleo (vftn-dh^s-Ul'-o), 7. 


l (vta'-tsel), 
Werner (var^aar), <. 
(Wm.) WUhttlm (vr-hin), G. 
WHhelzaine (v^-hil-me'-ni), ffi, 
WIHbald (vMMllt) 9 C?. 

Hi6-mEr), G* 
<v61f-gtjag), <?. 


Acad., Academy. 

a capp. (/., a cappetta), unaccompanied. 

ace., according (ly). 

accomp., accompaniment. 

allg., aUgem. (<?., allgemein), universal, 


app., appointed, 
apt., appointment. 
Arab., Arabian. 
Archbp., Archbishop, 
am, arranged, arrangement, 
asst., assistant. 

b., born* 

bandm., bandmaster. 

bar.* barytone. 

B* >. used of the Biographical Die- 

tionary in this volume, 
biog., biography, biographical. 

c,, composed. 

ca, circa (.), about. 

cath,, cathedral. 

Cav. ( I. r Cavaliers), Chevalier. 

cent., century, as x8th cent. 

cf* (jL, confer), compare* 

ch., church, chorus, choir. 

chapelle (F.), chapel, choir. 

Chev*, Chevalier. 

cho^rra,, choirmaster. 

clar, clarinet* 

coll., collected, collection, collector, 

collab., collaborated, collaboration. 

comp(s)., composition(s), 

cond., conducted, conductor (this ab* ( 
breviation is here used for the equiv- 
alents in various languages, Kapell*- 
master, maestro di cappeUa, mattre 
d* ckapttte, etc*)* 

Cons., Conservatory (Conservatoire, 
Conservator^ Conservatorium). 

cpt., counterpoint* 

cptist., contrapuntist (used of an early 
composer of highly contrapuntal 

ttj court; ct*-cond. court-conductor; 
cL-Tli^ court-theatre; ct,-opera, 

d* died. 

D D, used of the Dictionary of Defi* 

nltions in this volume. 
diet*, dictionary. 

dir., (Krector. 

do,, ditto. 

dram., dramatic. 

Dr. jur. (L. 9 doctor juris), Doctor of 

Dr. phil. (L., doctor philosophic^^ Doc- 

tor of Philosophy, h, c. (X. honoris 

causa, i.e., honorarily.) 

eccl., ecclesiastical. 
ed., edited, editor, edition. 
e. g. (,, exempli gratia), for example. 
eng., engaged. 
Engl., England, English. 
est., establ., established. 
et seq. (L., ei sequent es, sequential and 
the following, 

y.> Ft.. French. 

Fest., Festival. 

fl., flute. 

fragm.. fragmentary; fragment (s). 

F. (R.) C. O,, Fellow of the (Royaty 

College of Organists, London. 
EriL (<?., Fr&ulein), Miss. 

G. 9 Ger., German. 
gen., general. 
Govt., Government. 
Gr., Greek. 
gr., grand. 

GL), Granddncal. 
Gym., Gymnasium 

Harm., harmony* 

harps., harpsichord. 

h. c. (X., honoris causa), used of hon- 
orary titles* 

Heb., Hebrew. 

herzSglich (G.), Ducal. 

H. M.'s Tfcu, Her Majesty's Theatre, 

Hochschule' (h^kh'-shpo-l^ <?.), "Higji 
School," college, university. 

ifitof (hof, <9.), court; a frequent prefix 
as in Hof-kapelle, court-chapel, or 
court-orchestra; Hof Kapellmeis- 
ter, court-conductor; Hofmusiki** 
tendant, superintendent of the court- 
music, etc. 

hon., honorary. 

Hun., Hungarian* 


L, It., Ital., ItaHan. 

ib., ibid. (L., ibidem}, in the same place. 

id. (., idem), the same. 

L e. (., id est), that is, 

Imp., Imperial. ^ 

lnlSdr w Snirariacrdental music (to a 

incl., including. 
inst., institute, institution, 
instr(s)., instrument(s), instrumental, 
introd., introduction, introduced. 
inv., invented, inventor. 

Jap., Japanese. 

L., Latin. 
libr., librarian. 
lit., literally. 
lyr., lyric. 

in., married. 

M(aestro) (/.), teacher, conductor; 
in. al cembalo, the conductor, who 
formerly sat at the harpsichord; m. 
dei pwtti, Master of the choir-boys. 

m. de chap. (7?., mattre de chappeUe), 

BX, di capp. (/., maestro di cappella) 

M. E., ^Methodist Episcopal. 

melodr., melodrama. 

Met. Op., Metropolitan Opera House, 
New York. 

mfr., manufacturer. 

mgr., manager. 

mid., middle. 

miii., minor. 

mod., moderately. 

m.-sopr., mezzo-soprano. 

M.^T. <JT) A., Music Teachers* (Na- 
tional) Association. 

mus., music, musical, musician. 

Mus. Antiq. Soc., Musical Antiqua- 
rian Society, London. 

JM&s. Bac. (Doc.), Bachelor (Doctor) 
of Music. Vide D. D. 

n., near. 

Nat. Cons., National Conservatory. 
New York. 

N. E. Cons., New England Conserva- 
tory, Boston. 

a, s., new style (referring to the use of 
our calendar in place of the Russian 
or old style). 

N t Y,, New York, TJ. S. A. 

O., Ohio, U. S. A. 
Obbl., obbligato. 
obs., obsolete. 


op., opus, opera. r^*_ 

Op. com., op&ra-comique; or tne Opera 

Comique at Paris. 
Oper (GO, opera. 
Opera, used of the Grand Qpe'ra at 


orch., orchl., orchestra, orchestral, 
org., organ, organist. 
o, s., old style, see n, s. above. 
Ozon. (., Oxoniae), of Oxford. 

p., part. 

i>cs., pieces. 

P. E., Protestant Episcopal. 

perf., performed. 

pf., pianoforte. 

Phim., Pfailharxn., Philharmonic. 

Pol., Polish. 

pop.! popular. 
Port., Portuguese. 

pres., president. 

Presb., Presbyterian. 

prod., produced. 

Prof., Professor (a special title of great 

distinction in Germany). 
pseud,, pseudonym. 
pt.. pianist. 
pub., published, publisher. 

R., Royal. 

R. A. M., Royal Academy of Music, 


R. C Roman Catholic. 
R. C. M., Royal College of Music, 


Regius musicus, Royal musidaa, 
ret., retired, retiring, returned* 
rev*, revised. 
Rev., Reverend. 
Rus M Russian* 


soc-, society. 
sopr*. soprano. 
Sp., Spanish. 

st., studied, studying, student, 
succ., successfully, success. 
supt, superintendent. 
symph., symphonic, symphony* 

t., teacher, taught. 

th., theatre. 

th., theorist (writer of treatises). 

tiu-cond., conductor of theatre-orches- 


transcr,, transcribed, transcription. 
transl** translated* translat!o{i trans* 

Tur., Turkish* 


var.(s), variation(s). 

TJ, S., United States. via., viola. 

U., Univ., university. vln., violin. 

. vt., violinist. 
c-., i, (JL., mdey see; as v. B. D., see the 

Biographical part of this volume, v. w., with. 
D. !>., see the Defining Dictionary. Wis M Wisconsin, TJ. S. A. 
2. very, as v. succ. f very successful- 
ly)- Ztg- (G., Zeitung), Gazette. 


A. Free Translation of its Technicalities into Untedhnical Language 

(especially for those who do not Read Music and 

do not Care to Study it). 

By Rupert Hughes 

THERE is almost as much humbug about the mysteries of 
music as there was about the oracles of Delphi. And the 
vast majority of music-lovers have as meek and uninquiring 
a dread of the inner art and science of composition as the old pagans 
had of priestcraft. 

There is no deeper mystery about the tools and the trade of music 
than about those of any other carpentry and joinery. It is far 
easier for some people to write a melody than to drive a nail straight. 
But anybody who will earnestly try, can learn to do the one as 
easily as the other. And there are thousands of professional com- 
posers who ought to be earning honest livings driving nails home 
instead of starving to death dishonestly driving audiences home. 

The one mystery of music is the one mystery of all art and aU 
other human intercourse personality. Everybody can write a 
novel or a play. Almost everybody does. So everyone can write 
a sonata or a string-quartet. But the number of those who possess 
the spark (divine, prenatal, accidental or howsoever secured) the 
spark of magnetism, felicity, and eloquence, that number is small 
and is no more superabundant than on the day when little Hermes 
found the old tortoise-shell and made the first harp out of it. 

The reason the Editor is desirous of taking the veil from certain 
of the arcana of music is not that he wishes to increase the number 
of composers Heaven forbid I The one object is to increase the 
number of those who will listen to music intelligently and know 
just what they are hearing, and pretty well why they like this and 
dislike that. For like and dislike by pure instinct are relics of mere 

The open highway to the enjoyment of so-called classic music 
is the hearing of it in large quantities. There is a short cut for 
those who lack the time or the inclination for this long training 
and it is by wav of learning the elements of musical form. For it 


is the crystallisation of human passion into some graceful and power- 
ful form that gives music long life. Many wretched pedants think 
that the number of forms is limited; but this is a fallacy that is dis- 
proved every day. 

Some form, however, is as necessary in music as in sculpture. 
And though the number and variety of forms available are as 
infinite and illimitable in music as in sculpture, still some definite 
shape must be in the artist's mind and must be discoverable by an 
unprejudiced, attentive, and educated audience. 

If you do not already know the skeleton that underlies the 
shapely contours and full, fair flesh of melody and harmony, you 
can find some enlightenment in the anatomical lecture that follows, 
provided you will use your own scalpel, and carry out the suggestions 
made. It is not easy to avoid asking the reader to master the 
language and symbols of music, but much that is important can 
be learned from the following, without this long special study, if 
an occasional general truth will be allowed to stand without stating 
its exceptions, and if permission be granted to arrive at certain facts 
in a homely and button-hole manner* 

FIRST, turn to a piano or organ either of these is more 
convenient for illustration than a bow or wind-instrument. 
The highly-organised instrument before you is the result of 
centuries of blind groping in the dark, of unnumbered great failures 
for every little triumph* This is true not only of the mechanism 
of strings, hammers, keys, shape, size and materials of wood and 
metal, but of the veiy music the instrument is intended to send 
out upon the air. 

If you will simply glide your finger-nail along tlie white keys 
you will produce a scale which in itself is the result not only of 
ages of experiment but of the bitterest conflict between scholarly 
musicians, a conflict still raging. But this cannot be discussed 
here. Let us for the present take the instrument as we find it* 

On page 877 of this book will be found a chart of the middle 
portion of the key-board, with the letter-names that have been, 
for convenience* sake, given to the tones marked on it* They are 
easily recognisable by the alternation of the black keys in groups 
of twos and threes. For convenience it might be well to transfer 


the letter-names to the white keys with ink, which will be easily 
washed off with a wet doth. 

The first thing noteworthy about the diagram is that this series 
of letter-names is made of only seven letters and begins over again 
at every eighth tone* This is because the eighth tone (or octave) 
is produced by a string or a column of air making just twice as 
many vibrations as the original tone; the i$th tone by 4 times as 
many, etc., and because each group of seven steps plus the octave 
or 8th step, is built on a uniform model of ratios. The series from 
one letter-name to its reappearance, as from c to c', is subdivided 
into 12 half -steps or semitones. 

This extended series of tones thus divided into octaves is the 
material from which all European and American music is made. 
Save for a few changes and choices made for convenience, this scale 
is based on human nature and physical law, and is not likely to be 
materially altered in our generation- Other fundamental facts 
will be discovered on studying this array of whole-steps (white keys 
except e to f and b to c) and half -steps (from a black key to the 
next white also from b to c and e to f)* 

You will observe that the black keys carry the same names as the 
white keys they interpose between, except that the letter-name 
carries the symbol b ("flat") for the key next below or the symbol 
# ("sharp") for the key next above. The same black key represents 
two white keys. If you are advancing from f to g, for instance, 
the black key between is a half -step above f ; it is said to " sharpen" 
the note, by a half-step (or a "chromatic" degree); if, however, 
you are moving down the scale from g to f the black key is said to 
"flatten" the note g by a half-step (or a " chromatic" degree), 
The same black key serves conveniently then both as f$ (f " sharp ") 
and gb (g " flat ") in our system of music* Tones not thus " chromati- 
cally altered" by a sharp or flat are said to be "natural." If you 
have struck gb or $ and wish to reassert the white key, the tone is 
now called gfc( (g "natural") or f natural. 

The signs, $* s, b's and fcj's are called "sharps, flats and naturals," 
or in general "chromatics*" 

Put your finger at random on any of the white keys and move 
downwards on the white keys in strict succession. You will find 
(if you have a normal ear) that, whatever the tone you sounded 
first, you do not feel a willingness to stop till you reach a certain 
tone or one of itsoctaves. That tone will invariably be one of the 
notes lettered C- 


If now you begin at random on any note and move upward 
keeping to the white keys except in the case of f, for which you 
substitute #, you will find that the letter c no longer gives a sense 
of repose, but that you unconsciously desire and demand one of the 
letters marked g. 

If you run a scale on all the white keys except b, and substitute 
for this note the bb, you will find no resting-place except upon one 
of the letters marked f . 

It is a physical fact, then, that a scale with neither sharps nor 
flats finds its end on the note c; a scale with one sharp (which is 
always f) is based on the note g; a scale with one flat (b flat) is 
based on the note f . Hence one speaks of the scale of C, or of G, 
or of F. 

If you try the substitution of some other single sharp or flat for 
the f sharp or b flat, you will get no satisfactory point of repose at 
all. But by keeping b flat and adding e flat you will find b flat a 
comfortable pausing-place; by adding a flat to the bb and eb, you 
will find a pleasant scale ending on eb. By adding flats in the 
following order (and only in the following order), b, e, a, d, g, c, 
you will construct symmetrical scales reposing always on the next 
to the last flat added. 

By substituting sharps for the natural tones of the original scale 
of C, you build scales satisfactorily only by heaping up sharps m 
the following order, f , c, g, d> a, e, which scales are based respectively 
on the notes g, d, a, e, b, f , the point of repose being in each case a 
half-tone above the last sharp added. 

The scales take their names from the note of repose* A scale 
together with all the chords that can be built upon its notes is 
called a key. The word "key" is often loosdy used (and has been 
used in this essay thus far) to indicate a finger-lever which causes a 
string to sound; this is better called a "digital." From now on the 
word "key" will be used only to designate a group of harmonies 
and a scale belonging to some series of progressions ending on a 
certain note, as the "key of C," the "key of G" (which contains 
f sharp), the "key of D" (which contains f sharp and c sharp), the 
"key of E flat" (which contains b flat, e flat and a flat), and the 

Since practically every musical composition has some principal key to which 
Jt harks back as its home, however far or often it may wander away, so you 
will find at the beginning of every new line of a >mp<xrftfoa a list of the sharp* 
or flats in that key which predominate*, and these sharps or fiats affect every 


tone not otherwise marked throughout the composition. This group is called 
the key-signature. 

A convenient trick of deciding the key from the number of sharps or flats 
is as follows: where there are flats the key is next to the last flat; where there 
are sharps the key is always the next letter-name above the last sharp. This 
is true of every key except three which are easily remembered, F with one flat, 
G with one sharp, C with neither flats nor sharps. 

Before studying chords, it will be necessary to have another look 
at the diagram of the key-board. We have spoken of half-steps 
and whole steps. But it is possible also (and often desirable) to 
desert the monotonous progression of whole and half -steps and skip 
several steps, as one does in singing a tune. The space covered by a 
skip is called an interval. As geography has its imaginary equator, 
and as geometry has its imaginary lines without breadth and its 
planes without depth, so music has one imaginary interval which 
is no interval at all, but identity. The distance from a note to the 
very same note is called a prime. (This is sometimes useful when 
speaking, for instance, of ab and a#, which are a prime apart, and 
are called primes of each other.) The interval from one white 
digital to the next white digital is called a second, the skip to the 
next but one is called a third (the original note being always num- 
bered one), the skip to the third white digital is called a, fourth, and 
so on; the interval of an eighth being called an octave. Also the 
tones separated by an interval may be called by the names of the 
interval as c and g, or d and a are called fifths; f and d, or g and e 
are called sixths^ etc. 

It will greatly clear the belt of fog we are now going through if 
you will pick out the examples on the key-board. 

The skip from a white to a black digital results in an interval 
which is either greater or less than the nearest interval on the white 
digitals alone. The normal or greater of two similarly named 
intervals as c to e is called a major third, while c to eb is called a 
lesser or minor third. C to eft is greater even than the major and 
is called an augmented third, while c to ebb (" double flat") is a 
diminished third. 

Owing to the elasticity of the letter-names of the notes, an interval 
may be expressed or spelled in different ways, thus c to eb is called 
a minor third, but the very same tones may be called c to d$, an 
augmented second, c-fbb a diminished fourth, b#-d$ a minor third, 
etc. The name of the interval depends upon the key we happen 
to have most in mind at the time. 


It is a curious fact that all major scales are made up of exactly 
the same intervals in the same order. Try over any of the scales 
you wish, and you will find that you move upward by the following 
degrees, in the following order: (i) a whole step, (2) a whole step, 
(3) a half-step, (4) a whole step, (5) a whole step, (6) a whole step, 
(7) a half-step; this last bringing you to the octave of the note you 
started from. 

As earnestly as the soul demands that in the last act of a play 
we shall see the villain sent to prison and the hero and heroine 
locked in each other's arms, so our nature demands this arrangement 
of tones, and when it says half -step or whole step we must move so, 
or leave the key we started in and take up another. 

This explains why there is no black digital between the notes, 
b-c, and e~f : the scale of C, which has no sharps or flats, must 
still have its two half-steps at these points; there is accordingly no 
sharp or flat to be put there. 


"1C "IT TE HAVE now had a bird's-eye view of the natural arrange- 

%/%/ ment of tones, one at a time. But we grow tired of one 

T T note at a time. Four men singing along a midnight street 

or a picnic group riding home in a moonstruck mood fall to singing 

favourite melodies and naturally avoid singing in unison. They 

spontaneously sing in chords. These chords are formed individually 

and succeed one another according to certain fundamental demands 

of the ear just as noticeably as the tones of the scale followed a 

rigid pattern. 

First, let us combine various tones. Take the middle c f and 
strike this tone with the right thumb while another finger strikes 
another tone above, c' and c'# do not sound well together, nor 
yet c' and d'; c' and d'# (or e'b) is not unpleasant, but rather sombre 
(it is indeed a minor harmony, the interval c'-e'b being a minor 
third); c' and e' mate a pure, sweet concord, however. Let us 
keep c' and e 7 and see if we can add another tone, c' + e' + f ' is 
very bad; c' + e' + f'# is also rough; c 7 + e' 4- g' is very com- 
fortable. We have now a three-tone chord, which we may call 
a triad; it happens to be based on the ist, 3d and sth degrees o' 
the scale. 

Let us see if we can build triads on other tones of the C scale. 
We find by trying all the combinations on the note d' , that while 


the triad d'-f'-a' is pleasant but sombre (it is minor), the only clear 
harmony is d'-f'#-a'; but as f$ does not belong to the scale of C, 
we cannot include it. On the note e' we find e'-g'-b', minor, and 
e'-g'^-b' pleasant; this again is outlawed by the g#. On f, how- 
ever, we can form a triad f'-a'-c', which has no foreign chromatics 
and is yet satisfying. On g' we find another triad, g'-b'-d", which 
is native to the C scale and which impels us strongly to substitute 
the e" above for the d", and c" for the b'; when we have done this 
we find we have the chord c'-e'-g' again, only now arranged differ- 
ently, as g'-c"-e". 

If we rearrange the chord on g' differently, as b'^d"-g", we shall 
be impelled to move on to c"-e"-g", which is again our oH riend 
the original triad on c' in its original form. 

This hankering after the original triad on the key-note whenever 
we form a triad on the fifth tone of the scale, is one of the most 
noteworthy and inescapable factors of the chord-world. 

But let us proceed with our triads; on a' we find a'--c"-e" to be 
minor; the major chord b'-d#"-fi#" is doubly ruled out; while 
b'-d"H?" is doubly minor, the fifth (b'-f") being imperfect and the 
third (b'-d") being minor. 

It may be well to state here a bandy way of telling the majority or minority 
of intervals; imagine the lower note to be the key-note; if the upper note would 
occur in a major scale on that key-note its interval is major or diatonic. Thus 
on b: the key of B has 5 sharps, f, c, g, d, and a; both d and f are sharp, there- 
fore b-dl?-f fci has neither interval major. 

Looking back over the chords of the scale of C, we find the only 
major triads to be those on c', f 7 and g'. Since that on g' is so 
urgent in demanding the main triad on C, it is called the dominant 
triad, and the tone g is called the dominant of the scale of C. f 
being beneath it is called subdominant, and its chord the subdominant 
chord; the note c being the foundation note of the whole scale and 
key is called the tonic (tonus being an old name for scale). 

The principal chord-material of any scale is, then, made up of 
the triads on the tonic (or ist)> the dominant (or sth) and the 
subdominant (or 4th). 

Try another Key, F for instance, which has b(?- After testing all 
the combinations on the key-note or tonic f' we find only f'-a"-c"; 
on g* the triad, to be in the key, must be g'-b'b-d" (since bl? is a 
characteristic of the key of F), and this is a minor chord; a'-c"-e" 
Is also minor, but b'k>~d"-f" is a major triad; it is indeed a chord 


on the subdominant. We should expect also to find a major triad 
on the dominant (which, in the key of F, is the tone c), and so we 
find c"-e"-g", which we recognise as the tonic chord of the scale 
of C. But strange to say it offers no repose in its new environment 
with the other chords of the key of F; on the contrary, we have an 
irresistible desire to move on from it to c"-f "-a" (the same as the 
key-chord or tonic chord, f'-a'-c", where we feel at home). The 
two remaining tones of the scale of F offer no satisfactory chords. 

Let us try a key with one sharp in it, that is to say, the key of 
G. Beginning on g' we find after groping about that the only 
chord endurable is g'-b'-d". Building triads on all the other tones> 
a, b, c, d, e and #, we find all of them outlawed as unpleasant or 
at least minor, except two, which again axe on the subdominant 
and the dominant tones of the key of G, and are c"-V-g", and 

Taking the sum-total of the chords of these three keys, c, f , and 
g, we have the following chords: (C) e-e-g, f-a-c, g-b-d; (F) f-a-c, 
bb-d~f, c-e-g; (G) g-b-d, c-e-g, d-f$-a. You will see that each 
of the two subordinate keys has two of the chords of the key of C, 
This will be found the case with any group of three keys similarly 
differing only by one sharp or flat, that is to say, having their tonics 
a fifth above or below. On this account the keys based on the 
dominant and subdominant tones of the scale of any given key are 
said to be closely related in the first degree of relationship. 

Add another flat and another sharp, that is, taJke the key of Bb 
and the key of D, and we find the following principal chords: 
(Bb) bb-d-f, eb-g-bb and fr-*-*; (D) d-i$ha, g-b-d, a-c#-e- 
Each of these keys has only one of the chords belonging to the key 
of C. These keys are then related^ but only in the second degree* 

If we add three flats or three sharps and study the keys of Eb 
and A we find the chords (Eb) eb-g~bb, ab-o-eb, bb-d-f; (A) a~c$-e 
d-f#-a> e-g#~bb. None of these chords occur in C, and these keys 
are said to be remote from it. On the other hand comparing Eb 
with the key which had only 2 flats (Bb), we find that Eb has two 
chords belonging to Bb. We also find that A has two of the chords 
belonging to the key with one sharp less, viz., D. We may general- 
ise, then, by saying that the most closely related keys are those 
that differ by one flat or one sharp; the pext nearest relations are 
those differing by two flats or sharps* 



WHILE we are on the subject of heredity take another point 
of view of this family-tree: 
The tone f, which is four steps above c', is called its 
subdominant; on looking below the note c, we find another f, but 
where it was four tones above, it is five tones below. The key of 
F has added one flat to the key of C. Counting five more whole 
steps down (always counting the note you began on as first) we 
find the note Bb- The scale on that tone has yet another flat, 
two more than C. The tone a full fifth below (Eb) has three flats. 
So we find that moving downward by fifths we add one flat every 
step. Ab has 4, Db has 5, and Gb has 6 flats. 

Now counting upwards from our starting point on c', we find 
that the key based on the fifth (g 7 ) adds one sharp; a fifth above 
G is D, a key with two sharps; a fifth above is A with three sharps, 
a fifth further is E with four sharps, and, as we continue, B with 
five sharps and F$ with six sharps. 

But the key of F# on our piano or organ passes over the very 
same digitals as the key of Gb, is identical with it in fact. We have 
therefore been personally conducted through the grand tour of keys 
by way of the circle of fifths, twelve in all. 

We see therefore that all keys are related, and by careful proce- 
dure in chords a player can move through them all in succession 
with the greatest smoothness. The more modern the composition 
the more widely does it rove from key to key until in some works, 
Wagner's for instance, it is sometimes hard to say just what key 
we are driving at. Instead of keeping to the iron rails of one key 
as earlier music aimed to do, and only leaving the main line at cer- 
tain definite set switches, the art has recently left the hard and 
fast railroad and taken to the pathless waters where, to use Wagner's 
words, it " swims in a sea of tone." 

Some very formal minds grow speedily sea-sick and prefer the 
rigid grooves of the older school. Each one to his tastes. But the 
broadest mind will find pleasure both in land-travel and sea-change, 
insisting only that the composer shall have a plan and know what 
he is about, and aot send his locomotives slashing and sinking in the 
buxom waves, nor drag his yacht gratingly along the hard ground. 
Live and let live is the best art motto. 

One more point is worth noting in this increasingly important 


subject of key-relationships. Reverting for a moment to the key 
of C with its first cousins f and g, we find if we take the tonic triads 
of the three keys and arrange them as follows: 



I ( L _J 

subdominant doEodnant 

These tones include the complete scale of C. So it will be found of 
every key-scale that it contains within itself the tonic triads of 
itself, of its subdominant and its dominant keys. 

This scale and key principle is further justified by a study of the 
mathematics and physics of music. And the Relationship of Keys 
is given a still greater importance in the more recent writers on the 
theory of music, especially in Riemann's beautiful theory of clang- 
keys (see this word in the Dictionary of Definitions). 


NOW that we have laboriously picked out our triads, they 
will be found more elastic than they look* Take the triad 
c'-e'-g', the tonic triad of the key of C, which is now said 
to be in the root or first position, c' being the root or generator of 
the triad. We can place the c' uppermost and have e'-g'-c^, 
which is in effect the same chord, though a chord is said to be in- 
verted when any note except its root is in the bass* The second 
inversion places the fifth in the bass, as g'-c"-e" or g-c'-e'-g* or 
g-e'-g'-c". These 3 positions are all we have for a 3-tone chord or 
triad. They can be sounded anywhere on the key-board, however* 

Still another possibility is to repeat some of these letter-names, 
as to sound the triad c'-e'-g' with the right hand and touch the 
tone c an octave below with the left hand; or the tones c-g with the 
left hand and e'-g'-c" with the right- This process called doubling 
may be carried on indefinitely. In a piano-duet, sometimes twenty 
notes or more are struck, all of them repetitions of the inner kernel 
or triad of three notes. 

Strike the left-hand note c first, then the right-hand triad c'~e'~g f 
twice; then strike the note f with the left hand and the subdominant 
triad c'-f'-a' twice, now c and the tonic triad again; then strike g 
with the left hand and the dominant triad b-d'-g' twice; and return 


finally to C and the tonic triad. This little plot in three instalments 
constitutes the whole harmonic accompaniment of many a modern 
popular song and many an old work of classic reputation. 

You can usually tell the key of a song by humming it and picking 
out on the piano or organ its very last note; nine times in ten this 
will be the tonic or homenote of the composition. Suppose this 
to be Bb- How shall one find chords to accompany it? Build a 
major triad on b'b ; it will be b'b-d'-f; build a triad on the dominant 
or fifth (f), f a' c"; build another on the subdominant or fourth 
(eb), e'b-g'-b'b- Play these three notes (Bb, f, eb) with the left 
hand, and use triads with the right, rearranging the three notes in 
any of the inversions ELS they run most smoothly into one another. 
Your ear will help you find the right order of the chords. This will 
serve as a recipe for easy accompaniments. 

More elaborate songs rove through so many keys with so little 
warning that only trained ears and hands can pick out their accom- 
paniment; but it will clear up a deal of the construction of music 
if you will take some simple tune and study out its accompaniment 
on these lines, however painful the operation may be to yourself 
and your neighbors. (Familiar songs requiring only these three 
chords are "The Star Spangled Banner," "God Save the King," 
"Home Sweet Home," "Suwanee River," "Dixie," etc., and most 
of the hymn-tunes.) 

BUT the simple triads grow monotonous, and it is desirable, 
if possible, to enrich them. Take the all important domi- 
nant triad of the key of C (namely, g'-b'-d") and see if we 
can lay another third on top of it like a musical brick. The next 
major third above d" is f"#. But # does not belong to the key 
of C* The minor third f "fc| does beautifully, however, and we have 
a warm rich chord which more than ever goads us on to the tonic 
triad; the g' holding over, the b' and the d" both merging into c", 
and the f" subsiding blissfully into e". 

A chord of 4 tones is called a chord of the seventh or seventh chord, 
because the interval between the first and last tones is a seventh 
(g'~f"). This chord, gf-b'-d"-t" 9 is a dominant 7th, then. If we 
wish, we can add another third, a", and make a chord g-b-d-f-a, 
called a, ninth chord. The dominant yth, however, is far the more 
useful. In fact it is the most energetic chord in all music, and 


whatever key you may be in, if you stray into the dominant seventh 
of a foreign key, it drags you along eagerly and hales you into that 
foreign key to which it belongs and for which it is a most eager 

This seventh chord, pleasant as it is, is only a go-between, it offers 
no point of repose, but requires an almost immediate dissolution 
into another chord. The musical term for one of these restless 
chords is dissonance; the musical term for the necessity and process 
of merging it into another is called resolution. The word dissonant 
does not necessarily mean "ugly" or " harsh" in music, but merely 
implies lack of stability. 

This dominant 7th chord has magical powers for transition* 
Take the tonic triad of the key of C major in the second inversion, 
that is, touch g with the left hand and e'-g'-c" with the right. 
Now lift the finger off the upper gf and place it on bV Instantly 
you find it undesirable to go back to the c'-e'-g' triad arid you are 
impelled to lower that b'b to a 7 , bring the e' up to f, keep the c" 
where it is and lower the g in the left hand to f. Now you feel 
at rest; if you will pause and look, you will find that the b'b, which 
is characteristic of the key of F, has led you into the triad f'-a'-c", 
which is the tonic triad of the key of F. If you revert to the state 
of affairs existing when that foreigner b'b entered the peaceful key 
of C, you will find that the chord formed by its entrance could be 
arranged to read c'-e'-g'-bV This is a ?th chord on the tone c. 
But while the tone c 7 is tonic of the key of C, it is the fifth or domi- 
nant of the key of F. Yet, though this 7th chord was built on the 
tonic of C, as it happened to be the dominant of F, it forced the 
key over into the tonality of F. This is the case with every domi- 
nant 7th chord. 

It is possible by a slight diversion to throw the resolution of the 
chord into other keys, but this always comes as a surprise to the 
hearer. It may be justified and it may be pleasurable, but it is a 
surprise, and in a sense abnormal. 

Going back to the first formation of the 7th chord, it will be found 
that the 7th chord, on other tones than the dominant, are rather 
murky or even distressing. These are called secondary 7ths and 
must be handled in gingerly manner. 



NOW if we take our dominant 7th of the key of C, that is, 
g'~b'-d"-f", and raise the g 7 a half-step so that the chord 
reads g 7 #~b 7 -d /7 ~f ", it will most naturally resolve itself into 
this chord, a' c"-e 77 , a sombre chord which is minor because its 
third from a-c is minor (the major third being a-c#, as eft would 
be characteristic of the key of A). This chord, a'-c"-c", has the 
look of a chord in the key of C, but it seems to offer a sense of de- 
jected repose and makes no demand for progress to the tonic chord, 
c'-e'-g'. We arrived at this chord by way of a curious chord with 
ft) but g#. The chord g'-b'-d"-f " had been a minor 7th (the inter- 
val from g 7 to f 77 being less than the major interval, which would 
be g 7 to f 7 #), but this chord, g'#-b 7 -d' 7 -f", is even narrower than 
minor. It is hence called a diminished 7th chord. 

We have been led to believe that the first sharp of a major key 
was f, and that c followed, then g. This is true of a major key, 
but here we are under a different flag. You can construct a scale 
out of these two chords, the diminished 7th and its resolution, and 
3$-b~d-f; a-c-e gives us a-b-c-d-e~f-g#-a as an octave scale. 
This scale, which is closely related to the C major scale, is founded 
on a 7 , which is a minor third below c 77 . So it will be found that 
every major key has one of these disappointed relative keys a minor 
third below and differing from it, for harmonic purposes, only in 
the fact that the 7th tone of this minor scale is raised a half-step 
above the tone of the same name in the major scale (in the scale of 
A minor, the 7th tone, g#, is the only tone foreign to the scale of 
C major, and it is a half-tone higher than the tone g; the key of 
C minor corresponds exactly with the major key a minor third 
above, that is Eb, except that where b is flattened in the key of 
Eb major, it is made natural in the scale of C minor). This is the 
case with every major and minor key; the related minor key is a 
minor third below and raises the 7th tone of its major scale a half- 
otep (as g to g$; eb to etj). Thus far we have concerned ourselves 
only with major scales, keys and intervals. But life would be very 
monotonous if it were all sunshine, blue sky and laughter* Music 
could not represent or stimulate human emotion, as it does, without 
a large armoury of sombre colours, bitter dissonances and, in place 
of a sense of cheerful repose, a feeling of resigned despair. These 
purposes are subserved by the minor key- 


In looking at scales and intervals we find that certain of the inter- 
vals were to be distinguished as "greater" and "lesser-" The 
Latin words meaning greater and lesser are major and minor. 
(And as the mediaeval Latinity of the Catholic Church was the 
fountain-head of modern music, many of its terms persist.) On the 
major scale there were indeed four minor triads to only three ir,ajor. 
There is abundance of minor material then in music. Its arrange- 
ment into scales and keys cannot be so easily explained as that of 
the major mode; indeed upon this subject scientists are mutually 
discordant and commonly as "troubled" (betrtibf) as the great 
musical scientist Helmholtz found the minor scale itself. 

Where doctors disagree, the layman would do best to pass by 
on the other side. Let us take the minor keys as we find them and 
thank Heaven for their existence as mirrors to the chillier, grayer 
moods of the mind. Music has indeed laid up something for a 
rainy day. 

To go any further into the construction of chords would be to 
write a text-book on Harmony. 

Those who wish to pursue the subject of chord construction and progression 
will find further information in such articles as Chord, Harmony, Thorough* 
bass, Parallel, Covered, Anticipation, Suspension, Interval, Altered, etc., in 
the Dictionary of Definitions. 


GtVEN the scales for melody and the chords for harmony, 
with an unlimited variety of progressions, the subject of 
rhythm enters* There was a time when the music of the 
scholars was all in notes of equal length; such music was well called 
plain-song (plarnts meaning literally " smooth"). But popular in- 
stinct and popular music still had drum-rhythms and dances and 
finally forced the music of the scholars to return to humanity; and 
so-called mensurable (i.e., measurable) music began* 

The definition of rhythm is so native and instinctive in everyone 
that it would be impertinence to foist it on the reader* It is to be 
noted, however, that in music it depends on the relative accent and 
duration of notes following a pattern more or less closely* The 
rhythm of a composition can be expressed by thumping it on a 
table with your fingers, for rhythm is independent of height or low- 
ness of the tone and the volume of sound* Struxn out in this way 
such tunes as "Comin' Thro' the Rye," "Yankee Doodle," "We 


Won't Go Home Until Morning," or the like, or airs of more dignity. 
If you mark the accents forcefully, the regularity of the rhythmical 
pattern becomes evident, and almost as monotonous as certain 
styles of wall-paper. If you tap with the left hand a regular beat 
like a clock's, only faster, the rhythm of the air will assume new 

Take "Comin' Thro' the Rye" for example, the rhythm could 
be expressed by underlining with the right hand a series of numbers 
to be ticked off by the left hand: 

If a bod-y meet a bod - y com - in' thro' the rye- 

-2, 3> 4-5, 6, 7-8, 9> I _2Tl2^ I2 > I 3~i4> 15, 16-17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 

If a bod-y kiss a bod-y need a bod-y cry 

25-26, 27, 28-29,30,31-32, 33/34-35,36,37-3S, 39 ? 40-41, 42, 43> 44, 45 

This covers two lines of the song, the rest of which follows the same 
model. We find 48 beats in the two lines of verse, 24 to each line* 
The rhythm is almost exactly stencilled all the way through; it be- 
gins over again, after every sixth count, each 7th count having a 
marked accent, the 4th of each group of 6 having a lighter accent. 
If, since the rhythm is the same, we simply repeat the first 6 numer- 
als and cut off with a line every group of 6, we shall have the song 
pictured in as simple a pattern as that of the r maid's own print gown. 

If a body meet a body corn-in* thro' the rye 

/x-2, 3, 4, 5, 6/1-2, 3, 4-5, 6/1-2, 3, 4-5, 6/1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6/ 

Call each of these groups a measure, the slanted line a bar, take a 
certain time or note- value as the unit in place of these numbers and 
you will have the musical terminology. As the notes are short the 
quick eighth note (one-eighth of a whole note) may be taken as the 
unit; there are 6 of these in each measure, and the time of the song is 
said to be six-eighths or 6-8 time* This is a combination of triple and 
duple rhythm, for, while each measure contains 6 Counts, these 
counts are divided into two groups of three each and there axe two 
accents to each measure, consequently 6-8 time is sometimes used 
for marches. 

But the typical march time for marches (as well as for many other 
moods, as "Auld lang syne," etc,) is, as you will find, divisible into 
measures of 4 counts each, with two accents to each measure. As 
the whole note is taken as the whole extent of each measure, the 
presence of four beats to the measure gives each beat a -fourth or 
quarter-note value. It is therefore called 4-4 time, or simply 


common-time. Very quick inarches are sometimes written in 24 
time with one beat to the measure. Waltzes are written with 3 
beats and only one accent to the measure. This time is called 3-4 
time. Other rhythms are 3-2, a slow time (with 3 half-notes and 
3 accents to the measure) ; 3-8 time (a light quick time with 3 eighth 
notes and one accent to the measure) ; 64 time (a slower form of 6-8 
measure, differing from 3-2 only in having two accents to the meas- 
ure); 9-8 (with 9 eighth notes and 3 accents), &c. (v. article on 


NO WAY of submitting music to the all-devouring decimal 
system has yet been brought into play. The measure- 
notes are all multiples of 2 and 4: whole notes, half, quar- 
ter, 8th, 1 6th, 32d, and 64th notes. 

The larger divisions of music also fail to follow the decimal sys- 
tem. In the analysis of "Comin' Thro' the Rye" the measures 
themselves can be collected into groups of 2, 4 and 8. There is a 
-slight pause after every other measure, a perceptible pause at the 
2nd of the- 4th measure, a longer pause at the end of the 8th, Th* 
aext group of 8 measures is likewise divisible into groups of 2 and 4. 

This quality of divisibility into 4 and 8 measures is a fundamental 
kiw of musical structure. Because it is such a law many coxnpoaers 
strive to hide its nakedness or re-shape it to special purposes, but 
these are exceptions which by their very sense of novelty and oddity 
prove and emphasise the general rule. 

A group of eight measures is called a period; this period contains 
two phrases of four measures each; each phrase contains two sections, 
ef 2 measures; and each section is generally divisible into Its melodic 
or rhythmic motive or subject. The song "Coimn* Thro* the Rye** 
is especially clean-cut in its divisions. They correspond in spirit to 
the comma, semicolon, colon and period of ordinary prose, but occur 
with far -more regularity. Frequently the periods themselves can 
be collected into larger groups or compound periods corresponding 
to paragraphs. The first accent of a measure has a stronger accent 
than thle second br third. So the first accent of the first measure of a 
period should receive a greater stress than the first accent of the 
first measure of a phrase, and so on. In the proper distribution of 
accents 'He$ the larger part of musical punctuation, or, as it is called, 



IN THE first group of 8 measures of "Comin' Thro' the Rye'* 
there is a general upward tendency to the melody. The second 
period begins on a high note (at the words ct Ilka body ") and has 
a downward tendency. This desire for a contrast is at the root of 
all musical form. This song is condensed even beyond the usual 
popular form, partly because of the stanza-form of its poetry. 
"The Last Rose of Summer" fulfils the typical song-form which 
contains a theme of one or more periods, followed by a contrasting o r 
subsidiary theme of one or more periods, the song concluding with a, 
repetition of the first or principal theme. Practically the same idea 
governs the typical dance-form though the themes are likely to be 
more elaborate and the second theme is still stupidly called a trie 
(from the fact that it was actually in old times given to a trio of 
instruments in order to contrast its simple song-like manner with 
the more ornate and broken progress of the principal theme). 

It would naturally occur to composers seeking variety, to put thi 
subsidiary theme into a different key, to emphasise the contrast. 
The key naturally chosen would be a closely related key. This is 
usually the case, and the contrast of keys is a most important part 
of classic forms. 

The elaboration or variation of the themes in a way to show off 
the composer's scholarship and cleverness, was also as inevitable as 
human pride in skill. 

The word variations has, in the general mind, a thought of "The 
Old Oaken Bucket" and "Nearer, My God, to Thee" "with varia- 
tions." " Variations" is an incorrect word here; the proper term for 
these cheap and gaudy works being embellishments, for the air is 
simply made a trellis for all manner of running vines and frippery. 

The true variation of a theme is its genuine manipulation. Take 
the first 2 measures of "Comin' Thro' the Rye" as a theme; i.e., 
the notes to the words "Gin a body meet a body," sit down again 
before the piano and play this theme, picking out the notes as in- 
dicated from their letter-names as shown in the Chart. 

Suppose the notes to be placed 

/c' c' c' e'/ d' c' d' e'/g g a g/c'. 

If with the right hand you play the theme as indicated, and shortly 
after follow in with the left hand (as you would follow the leading 


voice in singing such a round as "Three Blind Mice"), you will use 
the frequent device called for evident reasons imitation, as here* 

Right hand/c' c' c' e' / d' c' d' e'/g g a g/c' - - - /&c. 
Left hand / ..... / --------- /c c c e/d c d e/&c. 

This is imitation at the octave and at two measures* distance; imitation 
may be at a different interval and distance, at the fifth, for instance: 

Right hand/ c' c' c' e / d' c 7 d? e 7 / &c. 
Left hand / - / f f a / &c. 

Imitation need not be so sJrwtf as this; it may be/r^, the intervals 
being slightly changed to enrich the harmony, for it Is not every air 
that can be treated smoothly and strictly at the same time* Here, 
for instance, the a in the left hand might be reduced to a g. Imita- 
tion in the orchestra has vast scope. The trombones may proclaim 
a splendid phrase which the oboes will cackle over ludicrously, the 
flutes whistle gaily, the clarinets echo gurgingly, the 'cellos bemoan 
nasally, and the violins murmur deliciously. 

But in piano or organ composition, imitation is more restricted. 
Sometimes a composer in mathematical mood will set an elaborate 
air jogging, and when it has gone a few spaces along, will start after 
it its very double. The two will race like twin snakes. 

When the imitation is exact, whole step by whole step, skip by 
skip, whole note by whole note, and half -note by half-note, the com- 
position is said to be a canon. The canon may set more than two 
snakes wriggling swiftly along at always the same distance from 
head to head. Fugue is only a special form of composition in which 
the canon plays a large part, the word "fuga" meaning "flight* 1 * 


f | ^HE devices for varying a theme are infinite. It can be 
I played in longer notes while another theme chosen from 

JL another part of the song ripples about it; or the duration 
of the notes can be shortened. The new treatment of a theme by 
lengthening its notes is called augmentation; the shortening of the 
notes is diminution. 

The upper of two themes can be made the lower at different in- 
tervals than the octave; this is called tmemtm. Another form of 
inversion is the turning of a theme upside down, so that whenever it 


went up before, it goes down now, and vice versa; this is imitation 
by contrary motion. 

A theme can be picked to pieces and different fragments of it 
tossed to and fro with the skill of a juggler (and about as much im- 
portance). The first 4 notes of "Comin ? Thro 7 the Rye" could be 
taken as a figure and repeated. Thus: 

c' c' c' e', e' e' e' g'fc g'# g'# g'# b', etc. 

This would be called a sequence. The themes could be played ia 
octaves, or in varied and key-changing chords as: 

If a bod -y 

eb-g-c 1 , f-ab-c 1 , g-bb-c 1 , g-bb-e 1 

It could be ornamented as: 

If a bod -y 

c 7 c 7 d 7 c' b 7 c' d 7 c 7 e 7 e 7 e' e 7 

C , t, , U 9 C , U,C,tL,C,C,C,C,e* 

In fact, there is no hinting here the dissection and reconstruction 
of which a theme is capable. As opposed to a melodious or lyric 
treatment, this method is called thematic. Common names for this 
sort of treatment are "development, elaboration, variation, working- 
out, free fantasy," &c., &c., the Germans calling it Durchfiihrung, 
"going through," 


highest and noblest form of strictly academic and 
I formal composition is the sonata, for the symphony is only 
1 a sonata for orchestra. We have now arrived hastily at a 
point where a rough explanation of this form is possible. 

This is the way you should set about writing a sonata, or rather, 
one of the ways, for the sonata is elastic and has some room for in- 
dividual tastes. 

First you select a melody, one with an elocutionary and sen- 
tentious manner, and containing many good texts to develop. You 
write it out plainly and emphatically in the key that suits it best. 
As a sidelight and a foil you select some more lyrical and song-like 
air, and for contrast you put it in another key, naturally one of the 
related keys, most naturally the nearest related key, or the domi- 
nant. Or you might put the second melody in the relative minor. 
Having stated your two subjects, you may choose to repeat them 


word for word, or note for note, so that there shall be no mistaking 
them; you may then add a concluding reflection more or less elabo- 
rate. This is the first section of the sonata. 

Having stated the two texts, the principal and the subsidiary, 
you now propose to show their true profoundness, and your own true 
skill as an orator. You employ the devices of elaboration mentioned 
above, and you play battledore and shuttlecock with the two themes 
in all the keys you wish till they fly to pieces; then you juggle the 
pieces; you modulate from grave to gay; from cold to tropical, from 
whisper to shriek, from insinuation to fervid appeal, from metaphor 
to homely paraphrase; in fact, you invoke every art and artifice you 
can borrow from the schools or can find in the promptings of your 
own emotions. When you have exhausted all the devices propriety 
or your knowledge permits, you have finished the second section of 
the sonata, the so-called Working-out, or Development, or Free 
Fantasy, or Elaboration. 

The third section consists of a re-statement of the first theme in 
the original or tonic key, followed by the second theme, not in its 
related key, but now in the same key as ike first theme > in order that 
a definite key may be left in the mind to give an effect of unity. A 
short peroration or coda ends the sermon like a welcome benediction. 

This is what is strictly called the sonata form. It is reasonable 
and based on a natural and artistic arrangement of ideas and their 

The sonata is not complete in this one composition, or movement 
as it is called. Three or usually four contrasted movements are 
strung together. They usually have some faint suggestion of simi- 
larity of theme, but variety of mood and key is the chief endeavor, 
A slow movement (called from its slowness by one of the Italian 
words meaning "slow'" Andante, lento, largo), marked by deep 
pathos or tragedy, usually follows the passionate outburst. Then 
comes a lighter mood in one or two movements in the form of (a) 
a,n optimistic and prettily braided Rondo with one chief theme and 
two attendant themes; (b) a gallant Minuet; or (c) a witty and 
jocose scherzo. 

The sonata ends with a Finale of stormy and brilliant character 
generally built on the same scheme as the first movement and writ- 
ten in the same key. 

The whole group of three or four movements makes up a sonata. 
The first movement of the sonata is often also called the " sonata- 


An overture (excepting one that is a medley of airs) is merely the 
first movement of a sonata, written out for an orchestra. A sym- 
phony is merely a whole sonata written to take advantage of the en- 
larged opportunities of a great orchestra of from 50 to 120 instru- 
ments. The sonata-formula is also the basis of the string-quartet , 
-quintet, etc., and of concertos for solo instruments with orchestra. 

A symphonic poem is a symphony only in the breadth of its orches, 
tration and its high demands. Like many smaller forms it forsakes 
the somewhat rigid arrangement of the sonata and other classical 
forms and lets the moods or the story it tells furnish the programme 
of musical events. A composition which has some programme 
other than the classic arrangement of keys and sections; a pro- 
gramme for instance representing musically a storm or the tragedy 
of "Romeo and Juliet" such a composition is said to be programme 
music. In its worst form, when programme music descends to cheap 
and unconvincing imitations of natural sounds instead of contenting 
itself with an artistic suggestion of them to the hearers' imagination, 
such music, if music it can be called, becomes quite as hopeless trash 
as that school of music which stoops to cheap and unconvincing 
imitations of classical masters and parrots devices which only the 
original spontaneity of the old master himself can keep alive. But 
generalisations are vain. What is poison as one man serves it up, 
is meat from another's hands. One failure or one triumph no more 
makes a rule than one bluebird brings the spring. 

This hasty and incomplete sketch will have failed in its purpose 
if it leads its reader to the delusion that he need investigate no fur- 
ther the real mysteries of the art of music; if it lead to the delusion 
that because the art is founded on certain physical laws of inner and 
outer nature, the artistic imagination is to be hobbled to them; or if 
it lead to the delusion that any one form, symmetrical or natural 
soever, can suffice for all generations or all moods, or that any school 
of masters can hope to embody all that is good and solid in the art. 

The classic masters were once living, breathing, passionate young 
artists, impatient of precedent and breaking rules for sheer pleasure 
as wanton boys smash windows. He who approaches them with 
intelligence and sympathy will find them still made of bone and 
blood, sinew and spirit. But once he has had the inestimable de- 
light of their acquaintance, he must, above all things, avoid the be- 
lief that art and glory died with them. He should approach every 
new work, howsoever startling, with a readiness to be convinced 
that the new trumpeter, standing on the outer hilltop which we 


it is tie rk of the art, may, after all, be 


I I 



lift us, but only itt tie great nev wder-kd be sees bejwl, 


I I i * 

wly stilled, E t idd not ke it a dead language 



N.B. The German modified vowels 
a", 5, u, are often spelled ae, oe, ue. 
For convenience they will here be ar- 
ranged alphabetically as if a, o, u. 

For the system on which given names 
are abbreviated, and for their pronun- 
ciation, see the pages devoted to them. 

The word "Gerbert," or "Cousse- 
maker" in a parenthesis means that 
some of the composer's works are in 
the great collections of Gerbert or Cous- 
semaker (q. v.). Where not otherwise 
stated the man is a composer. 

Aaron (S'-ron), (i) d. Cologne, 1052; 
abbot and theorist. (2) (or Aron), 
Pietro, Florence, 1480 or '90 bet. 
1545-62; theorist. 

Abaco (d6l S'-bS-k5), E. Fel. dall, 
Verona, July 12, 1675 Munich, 
July 12, 1742; court-conductor and 

Abblt-Coraaglia (ab-ba' kAr-nal'-ya), 
Alessandria, Piedmont, 1851 1894; 
composed operas and church-music. 

Abbadia (fi.b-ba-d5'-a), (i) Natale, 
Genoa, 1792 Milan, ca. 1875; dram, 
and ch. composer. (2) Luigia, daugh- 
ter of above, b. Genoa, 1821; mezzo- 

Abbatini (&b-bL-te'-nS), A. M., Cas- 
tello, ca. 1595 1677; composer. 

Abb6 (ab-ba), (i) Philippe P. de St. 
Sevln, lived iSth cent.; 'cellist. 
(2) Pierre de St. Sevin, bro. of above; 

AbTbey, (i) J,, Northamptonshire, 
1785 Versailles, 1859; organ- 
builder. (2) Henry Eugene, Akron, 
O,, 1846 New York, 1896; impre- 
sario; manager of Met. Op., N. Y., 
1883-4, 1891-2, and 1894-6. 

Abbott, (i) Emma, Chicago, 1850 
Salt Lake City, 1891; operatic so- 
prano; toured America with great 
popular success. (2) Bessie (Abbott), 
Riverdale, N. Y., 1878 New York, 
191:0; soprano; pupil of Mrs, Ashford, 
N. Y., and of Koenig, Paris; clbut 
1902 at the Ope"ra there, after sing- 
ing in ballad concerts in England; 
1906, U. S. 

Abeille (a-bi'-lS), Jn. Chr. L., Bay- 
reuth, 1761 Stuttgart, 1838; com- 
poser and court-conductor. 

Abel (a'-bel), (i) Clamor H., b. West- 
phalia 1 7th cent,; court-mus. (2) 
Chr. Fd., gambist at K6then, 1720- 
37. (3) Ld. Aug., b. KQthen, 1717, 
son of above; court- violinist. (4) 
K. Fr., Kothen, 1725 London, 
1787; bro. of above and the last 
virtuoso on the gamba, (5) L., 
Eckartsberga, Thuringia, Jan. 14, 
1834 Neu-Pasing, Aug. 13, 1895; 

AbelT, J., London, ca. 1660 (Cam- 
bridge (?) ca. 1724; alto (musico) 
and lutenist; collector and composer. 

Abendroth (a'-bnd-r6t), Hermann, 
b. Frankfort, Jan. 19, 1883; conduc- 
tor; pupil of Thuille; cond. in Munich, 
1903-4; Ltibeck, 1905-11; Essen, 
1911; after 1915, civic music dir. 
and head of Cons, at Cologne; in 
1922-3 also led concerts of Berlin 
State Op. and as guest in London 
and other European cities; cond. 
Gewandhaus Orch., Leipzig, after 


Abenheim (S'-bfin-hlm), Jos., Worms, 
1 804 Stuttgart, 1 89 1 ; conductor 
and violinist. 

Abert (S/-brt), (i) Jn. Jos., Kocho- 
witz, Bohemia, Sept. 21, 1832 
Stuttgart, April i, 1915; double-bass 
virtuoso and important composer 
for the instr.; also composed operas, 
etc. (2) Hermann, Stuttgart, March 
25, 1871 Aug. 13, 1927; son of (i); 
noted musical historian; Ph. IX, 
Tubingen Univ.; 1902, decent in 
mus. science, Halle Univ.; 1909, 
prof.; 1919, do., Heidelberg Univ,; 
1920, Leipzig Univ. (vice Riemann); 
1023, Berlin Univ.; author of biog. 
pjf Schumann and large number of 
important historical and scientific 
works on music; after 1914 ed. the 
"Cluck- Jahrbuch." 

Abora (a'-b$rn), (i) Milton, Marysville, 
Cal., May 18, 1864 New York, 
Nov. 13, 1933; impresario; early in 
life an acton after 1902 managed 
Aborn Op. Co., in productions in 
English; 1913-15, seasons at Century 




Theat., N. Y.; later Gilbert and 
Sullivan productions. (2) Sargent, 
b. Boston, 1866; brother of Milton, 
assoc. in his work as impresario and 
in Aborn Op. Sch., N. Y. 
Abos (a'bas) (or Avos, Avos'sa), Gir., 
Malta, ca. 1708 Naples, 1786 (?); 
composer of operas, etc. 
A'braharn, Gerald, b. 1904; Eng. writer; 
wrote "Stouties of Russian Music " etc. 
Abr&nyi, (i) Kernel, d. Budapest, 
Dec. 20, 1903; nobleman; editor and 
composer. His son (2) Emil, b. 
Budapest, Sept. 22, 1882; c. operas. 
Abra'vanel, Maurice, conductor; mus. 
dir., Utah Symph. Orch., after 1947. 
Abt (fipt), Franz, Eilenburg, Dec. 22, 
1819 Wiesbaden, March 31, 1885; 
court-conductor at Bernburg, Zurich 
and Brunswick; visited America, 
1872; immensely popular as a writer 
in the folk-song spirit, of such simple 
and pure songs as "When the Swal- 
lows Homeward Fly," etc.; c. 500 
works comprising over 3,000 numbers 
(the largest are 7 secular cantatas) 
and numerous choruses and other 
AVyngdon, Henry, d. Wells, England, 

1497; composer. 
Achenbach. Vide ALVARY. 
Achron (S,kh'-r5n), Joseph, b. Losd- 
seye, Russia, May i, 1886; composer; 
studied Petrograd Cons., violin with 
Auer (grad. gold medal), harmony 
with Liadoff, orchestration with 
Steinberg. Toured Russia at age 
of n; head of vln. and chamber 
music, Kharkov Cons., 1913-16; 
later toured widely, Russia, Pales- 
tine and Europe. Since 1925, res. 
in New York. C. chamber music 
and vln. works, d. Calif., 1943. 
Achscfcarumov (Ssli-tsh/-roo-ra6f), 
Demetrius Vladimirovitscli, b. 
Odessa, Sept. 20, 1864; violinist and 
c.: pupil of Auer. 

Ack'ermann, A. J., Rotterdam, April 
2, 1836 The Hague, April 22, 1914; 

Acktg (ak'-ts), Aino, b. Helsingfors, 

Finland, April 23, 1876; soprano; 

sang at Paris Op6ra; 1904-5. Met. 

Op., N. Y.j d. Helsinki, 1944. 

Ac'ton, J. B., b. Manchester (?), 1863; 

singing-teacher and composer. 
Adalid y Gurrea (ft-dha'-led h-5-goo- 
rS'-&), Marcel deL, Coruna, Aug. 
26, 1826 Longara, Dec. 16, 1881: 
pianist; pupil of Moscheles and 
Chopis- c. opera, etc. 

Adam (5-d-an), (i) Louis, Muttersholtz, 
Alsatia, 1758 Paris, 1848; teacher 
and composer. (2) Adolphe Charles, 
Paris, July 24, 1803 May 3, 1856: 
son of above; c, many successful 
operas; Pierre et Catherine (1829), 
Le Chalet (1834), Postmen de 
Longjumeau (1836), Le Fidele Berger, 
Le Brasseur de Preston (1838), Le 
Roi d 9 Yvetot (1842), La Poupte de 
Nuremberg, Cagliostro, and Richard 
en Palestine (1844), the ballets 
Giselle, Le Corsaire, Faust 7 etc.; in 
1847 he founded the Theatre Na- 
tional, but was made bankrupt by 
the revolution of 1848, and entered 
the Conservatoire as prof, of com- 
position to succeed his father. 
Adam (fit'-fim) K. F., Constappel, 
Saxony, Dec. 12, 1806 Leisnig, 
1867; cantor and composer. 
Adam de la Hale (or Halle) (&d~&& 
dti la a"!), Arras, ca. 1240 Naples, 
1287; called "Le bossu d' Arras* 1 
(Hunchback of Arras); a picturesque 
trouv&re of great historical impor- 
tance; c. chansons, jeux (operettas) 
and motets; his works wer% pub. 

Adamberger (St'-am-brkh-r), Valen- 
tin (not Joseph), Munich, 1743 Vi- 
enna, 1804; dram, tenor; assumed 
name "Adamonti"; Mozart wrote 
the r61e of Belmonte, etc,, for him. 
Adami da Boisena (or da Volterra) 
(fi^dS-mfi d bdl-s&'-nl), And*, Bo- 
logna, 1663 Rome, 174^; theorist. 
Adamon'ti. Vide ADAHBEKOEIC. 
AdamowsM (^d-M.mdf'*shkO, (i) 
Timotfc6e, Warsaw, March 34, tSsjH 
Boston, Apr. 18, 1943; vln. pupil 
of Kontchi, Warsaw Cons, and Mas- 
sart, Paris Cons.; 1879 travelled to 
America as soloist with Clara Louise 
Kellogg, and later with a company 
of his own 1885-86; teacher* New 
EngL Cons., Boston; organised the 
Adamowski String-quartet <i88fc). 

(2) Joseph, Warsaw, ift6j Boston, 
May 8, 1930; bro. of above*; 'cellist; 
member of the same quartet; married 
Szumowska; 3903, New Engl. Cons. 

Ad'aros, (x) Th.. London, * 785 1858; 
organist. (2} Charles &*, Charleston, 
Mass., ca. 1834 July ,*> i ooo; tenon 

(3) Suzanne, b. Cambridge, Mas*., 
1873* soprano; studied with liouhy 
in Paris; sang at the Op. there, 
1894-7; then in Nice; from 1808 to 
1006 at Covent Garden; 1808, 



Chicago; 1899 at Met. Op. House; 
m. Leo Stern, 'cellist; lived in 
England, 1903; d. London, 1953. 

Ad'cock, Jas., F-ton, England, 1778 
Cambridge, 1860; choir-master and 

Ad'dison, J., London, ca. 1766 1844; 
double-bass player, dram, composer. 

Adelburg (fon a'-dfil-boorkh), Aug., 
Ritter von, Constantinople, 1830 
(insane) Vienna, 1873; violinist. 

Adler (at'-lSr), Guido, Eibenschiitz, 
Moravia, Nov. i, 1855 Vienna, Feb- 
ruary, 1941; pupil at Academic 
Gym. in Vienna, and Vienna Cons.; 
('78) Dr. jur., and ( J 8o) Ph. D.; 1885 
prof, of mus. science Prague Univ.; 
('95) prof, of mus. history, Univ. of 
Vienna (vice Hanslick); from 1894, 
ed.-in-chief, "Denkmitter d. Ton- 
kunst in O ester r eich" \ after 1913, ed. 
"Studien zur Musikwissenschoft ; 
author of many valuable essays on 

Aolgasser (at'-'l-gSs-ser), Anton Ca- 
jotan, Innzell, Bavaria, 1728 1777; 

Adlung (at'-loongk), or A'delung, Ja- 
kob, Bindersleben, near Erfurt, 
1699 1762; organist, teacher and 

Adolf ati (a-d6l-fS/-tg), And., Venice, 
17x1 Genoa (?) 1760; composer. 

Adriano di Bologna. Vide BANCHXEKI. 

Ad'xiansen (or Hadrianus) , Emanuel; 
lived Antwerp i6th cent.; lutenist 
and collector. 

Adrien (&d-rX-an) or Andrien. Martin 

Joseph (called la Neuville, or PAin), 
i6ge, 1767 Paris, 1824; bass and 

^Bgid'ius de Muri'no, isth cent.; 

theorist, (Coussemaker.) 
.flBlsters (Sl'-stSrs), Georges Jacques, 

Ghent, 1770 1849, 
Mtts (Srts), Egide, Boom, Antwerp, 

1822 Brussels, 1853. 
Afanassiev (a-fa-nS,s'-s*-Sv), Nikolai 

Jakovlevich, Tobolsk, 1821 St. 

Petersburg, June 3, 1898; violinist 

and c. 
Affer'nl, TTgo, b. Florence, Jan. i, 1871; 

pianist and cond.; studied at Frank- 
fort and Leipzig; m. the violinist 

Mary Brammer, 1872; c. operas, etc. 
Affilard (laf '-ffi-l&r'), Michel F, 1683 

1708; singer to Louis XIV. 
Afranio (&-fra/-nI-3), b. Pavia, end of 

iSth cent.; canon at Ferrara; inv. 

the bassoon. 
Afzelius Ciif-tsa'-lr-oos), Arvid A- 

EnkSping, Sweden, 1785 1871; col- 

Agazza'ri (a-gad-za'-re), Ag., Siena, 
1578 1640; church-conductor. 

Agnelli (a,n-y 61 '-!), Salv., Palermo, 
1817 1874; pupil of Naples Cons.; 
lived Marseilles and c. operas, can- 
tata "Apotheose de NapoUon 7.," 

Agnesi (dSn-yS'-se), (i) M. Theresia 
d', Milan, 1724 1780; pianist and 
dram, composer. (2) Luigi (rightly 
F. L. Agniez), Erpent, Namur, 1833 
London, 1875; bass. 

Agniez (an-yez). Vide AGNESI (2). 

Agostini (ag-6s-t6'-ne), (i) Paolo, 
Vallerano, 1593 Rome, 1629; won- 
derful contrapuntist, some of his 
works being in 48 parts. (2) P. 
Simone, b. Rome, ca. 1650. c. an 
opera, etc. 

Agrel (a'-grel), J., Loth, Sweden, 1701 
Niirnberg, 1765; court-violinist 
and conductor. 

Agric'ola, (i) Alex., Germany (?) ca. 
1446 Valladolid, Spain, 1506; court- 
singer and church-composer. (2) 
Martin, Sorau, Saxony, 1486 
Magdeburg, June 10, 1556; eminent 
writer and theorist. (3) Jn., b, 
Niirnberg ca. 1570; prof, and com- 
poser. (4) Wolfgang Chp., German 
composer (1651); (5; G. L., Gross- 
furra, 1643 Gotha, 1676; conductor. 
(6) Jn. Fr., Dobitschen, 1720 
Berlin, 1774; court-cond. 

Agthe (akh'-tS), K. Ch., (i) Hettstadt, 
1762 Ballenstedt, 1797; composer. 
(2) W. Jos. Albrecht, Ballenstedt, 
1790 Berlin, 1873; son of above, 
teacher. (3) Fr. w., Sangershausen, 
1796 (insane) Sonnenstein, ca. 
1830; cantor. 

Aguado (a-gwa'-dhC), Dionisio, Ma- 
drid, 1784 1849; performer and 
composer for guitar. 

Aguiari, Lticrezia. Vide AGXTJAKI. 

Aguilar (&/-g5-lar), (i) Emanuel Abra- 
ham, London, Aug. 23, 1824 
London, Feb. 18, 1904; pianist of 
Spanish origin; c. 2 operas, 3 symph. 
(2) Elisa, (3) Ezequiel, (4) Francisco, 
(S; Jose", lute players, comprising 
Aguilar Lute Quartet; toured widely 
in Europe and America, New York 
d6but 1929-30. 

Aguilera de Heredia (JL-gwMa'-rS da 
a-ra'-dH5-a) T Seb., b. Sargossa, I7th 
cent.; monk and composer. 

Agujari (a-goo-ha'-rS) , Lucrezia (called 
La Bastardina, or Ba^tardella, being 



the natural daughter of a nobleman), 
Ferrara, 1743 Parma, May 18, 
1783; a phenomenal singer; Mozart 
remarked her * 'lovely voice, flexible 
throat, and incredibly high range," 
which reached from middle C three 
octaves up; she could shake on f" 
(vide CHART or PITCH) ; she m. Colla, 
1780, and retired from the stage. 
Able (a'-lS), (i) Jn. Rud., Mulhausen, 
1625 1673; theorist and church- 
composer. (2) Jn. G., Mulhausen, 
1651 1706; son of above; organist, 
poet and theorist. 

AhlstrBm (al'-shtr.m), (i) Olof, Stock- 
holm, Aug. 14, 1756 Aug. ii, 1835; 
organist. (2) Jkkob Niklas, Wisby, 
Sweden, June 5, 1805 Stockholm, 
May 14, 1859; son f above; dram, 

Anna. Vide DE AHNA. 
Aibl Ci'-bl), Jos., founded publishing 
firm, Munich, 1824; later heads were 
Eduard Spitz weg (1836) and his sons. 
Eugen and Otto. 

Aiblinger (I'-bling-Sr), Jn. Kasper, 
Wasserburg, Bavaria, 1779 Munich, 
1867; court-conductor, collector and 

Aichinger (I'-khing-e'r), Gregor, 
Regensburg ca. 1564 Augsburg, 
1628; canon and composer. 
Aigner (ikh'-nSr), Engelbert, Vienna, 

1798 1851; dram, composer. 
Aimo (a'--in5). Vide HAITM, N. r. 
Aimon (Sm-6n), Pamphile Ld. Fran., 
b. L'Isle, near Avignon, 1779; 'cellist, 
conductor, theorist. 
Ajolla. Vide IAYOLLE. 
A Kem/pis, Nicholas, organist and c., 

at Brussels, ca. 1628. 
Akinien'ko, Theodore, composer; b. 
Kharkov, Russia, Feb. 8, 1876; 
studied St. Petersburg Cons., 1895 
jpoo, harmony with Rimsky- 
]orsakoif and Liadoff, piano with 
Balakireff. C. two symphonies, 
orchestral poems, chamber music 
works, opera "Rudy." Resident in 
Ala (a'-l&J, Giov. Bat., Monza, 1580 

1612 (?); organist and composer. 
Alabieff (a-l&-bl-ef), Alex., Moscow, 
Aug. 1 6, 1787 March 6, 1851; 

Alaleona (al-Sll-5/-5-na) Domenico, 
composer, musicologist; Montegior- 
gio, Italy, Nov. 16, 1881 Dec. 29, 
1928; grad. St. Cecilia Acad., Rome, 
1906; studied piano with Bustini, 
composition with De Sanctis and 

Renzi; cond., Augusteo concerts, 
Rome, and prof., Rome Conserva- 
tory, after 1910. C. opera, "Aftrra," 
choral works, chamber music, songs; 
author articles on Cavalieri and 
other early Italian composers. 
Alard (l-&r), J. Delphln, Bayonne, 
March 8, 1815 Paris, Feb. 22, 1888; 
violinist, teacher and composer. 
Albanese (al-ba-n&'-ze) , Lida, soprano; 
studied in Milan; Met. Op. sifter 1939. 
Albanesi (al-ba'-na'-ze) , Luigi, Rome, 
March 3, 1821 Naples, Dec. 4* 
1897; pianist and composer. 
Albani (3l-ba'-nl) (stage name of 
Marie Louise Cecilia Emma La 
Jetmesse), Chambly, near Montreal, 
Nov. i, 1852 London, April 3, 
1930; operatic soprano; sang in 
Cathedral, Albany, N. Y., whence 
her name was mistakenly supposed 
to have been taken; pupil of Duprez, 
and of Lamperti; dbut at Messina 
in 1870; sang much in England, at 
Covent Garden and a favourite in 
concert; 1878, m. Ernest Gye, 
impresario; retired from stage, 1906. 
Albani, Mathias, Bozen, 1621 1673; 
famous father of more famous son of 
same name and trade, violin-making; 
the younger A/s violins (1702-9) 
rival Araati's. 

Albeniz (ai-bfi'-nSth), (i) Pedro, Lo- 
grono, 1795 Madrid, 1855; court- 
organist. (2) Pedro, b. Biscay, San 
Sebastian, 1755; monk, church- 
cond. and composer. (3) Isaac, 
Camprodon (Gerona), Spain, May 
29, 1860 Cambo-les-Bains, June 
1 6, 1909; eminent composer; a lead- 
ing representative of the "New 
Spanish" school of nationalistic 
composers. He was markedly pre- 
cocious as a child and appeared as a 
pianist at the age of 4 in Madrid. 
At 6 he was taken to Paris, where he 
studied with Marmontel, and from 
ix to 15 appeared as a concert player 
in North and South America. He 
attended the Leipzig Cons, for a 
short time, and later the Brussels 
Cons, with the aid of funds provided 
by Alfonso XII. He studied at 
various times with Brassin and 
Jadassohn, and also with Liszt at 
Weimar and Rome. His life was one 
of continuous uncertainties. As a 
comj>oser he was prolific, his com- 
positions falling into two separate 
groups, the first extending from 1883 
to about 1890, during which time be 


composed over 200 piano works 
including concertos and sonatas and 
many smaller pieces; after 1890 he 
undertook the study of composition 
in Paris with d'Indy and composed 
the operas "Pepita Jiminez" " Henry 
Clifford," a trilogy "King Arthur"- 
and the orch. suite "Catalonia" 
Among other compositions are 
"Iberia" suite for piano (several 
numbers orch. by Arbos), an oratorio 
"Cristo," and many songs. His 
piano music carries on the traditions 
of Chopin and Liszt, but is endowed 
with quite individual folk-colour and 
intensity of feeling, and also has 
many impressionistic influences. 
His trilogy "King Arthur"' was left 
unfinished at his death. In 1923 his 
"Pepita Jiminez" was restored with 
success at the Paris Op.-Comique. 

Albergati (dal-ber-ga'-teO, (i) Pirro 
Capacelli, Conte d*. Lived in Bo- 
logna, 1 7th cent.; composer. (2) Al- 
dobrandini, lived in Bologna, iyth 
cent.; dram, composer. 

Al'bert, Prinz von Sachsen-Coburg 
Gotha, Schloss Rosenau, 1819 1861; 
consort of Queen Victoria, patron of 
music and composer of an opera, 
"Jean le Fol" (Bagnidres de Bigorre, 
1865), an operetta, masses, etc. 

Albert (Sl'-bSrt), (i) H., Lobenstein, 
Saxony, 1604 KSnigsberg, 1651; 
poet, organist and composer, called 
the father of the German Lied, and, 
as he alludes to a "Comodien-musik"' 
(1644), he must have been, with 
Schultz, one of the founders of Ger- 
man opera. (2) Charles L. W. d% 
Nienstetten, near Hamburg, 1809 
London, 1886: dancing master and 
composer. (3) Eugen d% rightly 
EugSne (Francis Charles) (dSl-bar, 
or dal'-b&rt), Glasgow, April 10, 
1864 Riga, March 3, 1932; son and 
pupil of above; pianist; Newcastle 
scholar in the London Nat. Training 
School, 1876; pupil of Pauer (pf.) and 
Stainer, Prout and Sullivan (harm, 
and comp.); 1881, Mendelssohn 
scholar and pupil of Richter and 
Liszt, who called him "the young 
Tausig"; 1881, he played the Schu- 
mann concerto at the Crystal Palace, 
London; Oct. 24, a concerto of his 
own, at a Richter concert; he per- 
formed 5 Beethoven sonatas (op. 31, 
53, 90, 109, no) at a Gewandhaus 
recital, 1893; he married the pianist 
Carreno in 1892 (divorced 1895); first 

conductor at Weimar, vic Lassen, 
but soon resigned; composed a sym^. 
phony, 2 overtures ("Hyperion" and 
" Esther"), 2 pf. -concertos, libretto 
and music of the operas "Der Rubin" 
(Carlsruhe, Oct. 12, 1893), "Ghis- 
monda" (Dresden, 1895), "Gernot" 
(Mannheim, 1897), i-act mus. com- 
edy "Die Abreise" (Frankfort, 1898); 
operas " Kain" and "Der Improvi- 
sator"- (both Berlin. 1900), "Tief- 
land" (Prague, 1903), "Flauto solo"' 
(Prague, 1905), "Tragaldabas"' 
(Hamburg, 1907), "Die Verschenkte 
Frau" or "The Bartered Wife" (1912, 
Munich). His opera "Tieftand** 
(based on Guimera's play, "Marta 
of the Lowlands") has had immense 
success; in Berlin alone (prod. 1907) 
it reached its 4ooth performance in 
Feb., 1912; it was sung at the Met. 
Op., 1908, and throughout Europe: 
also c. tie operas " Liebesketten>> 
"Izeil," "Die Toten Augen" (1917); 
perf. also in N. Y. by German Op. 
Co., 1924); "Der Stier von Oliveir&"< 
(Leipzig, 1918); * * Revolutionshoch* 
zeit" (do, 1019); "Scirocco"' (Darm- 
stadt, 1921); "Mareike von Nym- 
wegen"' (1923); "Der Golem" '; "Di* 
Schwarze Orchidee" (musical detec- 
tive drama, using jazz effects) : and 
a posth. work, T< Jkfr. Wu," (prod. 
1932); string quartets, violin con- 
certo; pf. pieces, etc. His later 
marriages were to Hermine Finck, 
singer (1895-1910); Ida Theumann 
(1910-12); he is esj>. remembered for 
his piano transcriptions of Bach 
organ works; his revision of the 
"Well^Tempered Clavichord"; his edi- 
tions of various Liszt works and of 
the sonatas of Beethoven. 

Albertazzi (Sl-bSr-tad'-z5), Emma (nee 
Howson), London > x8i4 1847; 
operatic contralto. 

Alberti (Sl-br'-te), (i) Jn. I^r., Ton- 
ning, 1642 Merseburg, 1710; organ- 
ist. (2) Giusi Matteo, Bologna r 
1685 1 74^5 violinist and composer. 
(3) Domenico, Venice, ca. 1717 
Formio, 1740; singer then pianist; 
in his piano music he made use 
of the since-called "Alberti bass"- 
(vide r>. p.). 

Alberti'ni (Sl-bSr-te'-ne-), (i) Gioac- 
chino, b. 1751 Warsaw, April, 1812; 
conductor and dram, composer. 

Albicas'tro, Hemico (rightly, Weis- 
senburg), b. Switzerland, I7th cent,} 
court- violinist. 



Albino'ni, Tommaso, Venice, 1674 
1745; violinist. 

Albo'ni, Marietta, Cesena, Romagna, 
March 10, 1823 Villa d'Avray, near 
Paris, June 23, t8Q4; eminent dram. 
contralto, compass g-g" (vide PITCH, 
D. D.); pupil of Rossini; d6but La 
Scala, Milan, 1843; **. Count Pepoli, 

Albreditsberger (Sl-brSkhts-bgrkh-er), 
Jn. G., Klosternenburg, near Vienna, 
Feb, 3, 1736 Vienna, March 7, 
1809; eminent composer, court- 
organist, theorist and teacher (Bee- 
thoven was his unappreciated pupil). 

Albri'ci (al-brS'-che), V., Rome, 1631 
Prague, 1696; court-conductor. 

Alcarrot'ti, Giov. Fran., lived in Italy 
1 6th cent.; organist, 1740-91. 

Al'cock, (i) John, London, 171$ 
Lichfield, 1806, organist. (2) J., son 
of above; organist. 

Alda, Frances (rightly Davis), b. Christ- 
church, New Zealand, May 31, 1883; 
soprano; studied with Mathilde Mar- 
ches! ; dbut as Manon (Massenet), 
Paris Op.-Comique, 1905; sang in 
Brussels, London, Warsaw, Milan, 
and Buenos Aires; d6but with Met. 
\Op. Co., New York, 1908, as Gilda; 
$ang more than 30 r61es with this 
company. Retired from opera, 1929; 
also active in concert and radio; m. 
Giulio Gatti-Casazza, 1910; divorced 
19295(2) Ray Vir Den; d. Venice, 1052. 

Aldovrandini (al-d5-vr&n-d5'-n5) 7 Gins. 
A. V., b. Bologna, 1665; court- 
conductor and dram, composer. 

ATdrich, (i) H., Westminster, 1647 

-Oxfordj 1710, theorist and composer. 
(2) Richard, Providence, R, I., 
July 31, 1863 Rome, June 2, 1937; 
graduated Harvard, 1885, won schol- 
arships and honours; studied music 
under J, K. Paine; 1885 he went on 
the staff of the Providence Journal, 
soon reaching an editorial position, 
and being put in charge of tne musi- 
:al and other critical departments of 
the paper; 1888 he spent in study 
abroad, chiefly of music; 1889 to 
1891, private secretary to IT. S. Sena- 
tor N. F. Dixon; 1891 1902 joined 
the staff of the New York Tribune 
as associate musical critic with H. E* 
Krehbiel, and as collaborator in their 
"History of the Philharmonic Soci- 
ety" 1 $902-24, music critic, N. Y. 
Times; author of various magazine 
-articles. uad editor of a series of 
musical biographies; also guides to 

Wagner music-dramas, etc. (3) 
Mariska, b. Boston, 1881; soprano; 
pupil of Giraudet and Henschel; 
d6but, New York, 1908; sang with 
Met. Op. Co., 1900-13; Brfinnhilde 
at Bayreuth, 19*4- <4) Perley Dnn, 
Blackstone, Mass., 1863 New York, 
Nov. 21, 1933; singer and teacher; 
pupil of Shakespeare, Trabadello and 
Sbriglia; taught at Univ. of Kansas, 
1885-7; Utica Cons., 1889-91; after 
1003 in Philadelphia. 

Alembert (dal-an-bfir), J. Le Road d% 
Paris, 1717 * 783; theorist. 

Alessan'dri, (i) Giulio, c. an oratorio 
(ca. 1690). (2) Felice, Rome, 1747 
Casalbino, 1798; pianist and con- 
ductor. ^ 

Alessan'dro Merlo (or AUess. Ro- 
mano), called Delia Vlola b. Rome 
(?) ca. 1530; monk, singer and com- 

Alfano (fil-f&'-no), Franco, composer; 
b. Naples, March 8, 1877; studied at 
Naples and Leipzig COBS.; succeeded 
Busoni as dir. Bologna Liceo, 19*7; 
later, at Liceo Verdi, Turin, Toured 
as pianist. C. (operas), "Miranda," 
Leipzig, 1897; "La Font* d* EnskirJ* 
Breslau, 1898; " Risurrtxto tie " (based 
on Tolstoy's work), Turin* 1004, 
Chicago, 1935, with Mary Garden 
as Katiusha; "// Printipe Ml**." 
Genoa, 1909; "ISQmbra di Don 
Giovanni" x^is; "L<* Lezgcnda di 
Sakuntota" xpa*; "Madcmna Im- 
perial 1925 (Met. Op-, New York, 
1937*8); "II Piccolo Lord," comic 
opera (based on " LMe Lord Faunl- 
leroy")*, "Cyrano de BerRttac" (based 
on Rostand drama), *93$-6- Chosen 
to complete final act of Puccini's 
posth, opera, "Turandot** Also c. 
symphony, suites, ballet and piano 

Alfarabi Oil-fii-rft'-b*). or Alphara Trias, 
properly El Farftbi (abbr. F&HIbi} 
Far4b (now Othrax), QOO <?) 
Damascus, 050; Arabian theorist who 
vainly advocated Greek theories. 

Aideri (iU-fa-ft'-ra) t Abbate Pietro, 
Rome, iSox 1863; CamaduKan 
monk; teacher and theorist. 

AlfvSn (alf '-v*n), Hugo, b, Stockholm, 
May i, 1872; violinist; studied at 
the Cons, and with C*sar Thomson; 
xgoo received Jeanjr Lind scholar- 
ship for 3 years foreign study; from 
2904 prof, of c.omp. Stockholm Uni- 
versity: from IQXO mus. dir, Upaala 
Univ., in 2912 conducting a concert 



of Upsala students in Berlin; c. 3 
symphonies; symph. poem "Aus den 
SchZren": cantata "The Bells," "The 
Lord's Prayer,"- for chorus; scene 
with orch., male choruses, etc. 

Algarot'ti, Count Fran., Venice, 1712 
Pisa, 1764; writer. 

Alipran'di, (i) Bdo., b. Tuscany, Ba- 
varia, ca. 1730; his son (2) Bdo., 
'cellist at Munich, 1 780. 

Alkan (al-kan), (i) Chas. H. VaL 
(Faint), Paris, Nov. 30, 1813 
March 29, 1888; pianist, teacher, and 
brilliant composer for piano. 

AHacci (al-larche), Leone (or Leo 
AllAtius), Chios, 1586 Rome, 1669; 

All 'chin; conductor Oxford Music So- 
ciety, 1869-81. 

Allegran'ti, Maddalena; dram, so- 
prano; d6but, Venice, 1771. 

AUegri (al-la'-gre), (i) Gregorio, Rome, 
I5&4 Feb. 18, 1652; pupil of Nanini; 
composed a celebrated Miserere in 
9 parts, sung during Holy Week at 
the Sistine Chapel; its publication 
was forbidden on pain of excommuni- 
cation; but Mozart after twice hear- 
it, wrote it out, and it has since been 
frequently published. (2) Dora.; 
lived 1610-29 at Rome; one of the 
first to write instrumental accom- 
paniments not in mere unison with 
the voices. 

Allen, (i) H. R., Cork, 1809 London, 
1876^ bass. (2) G. B., London, 1822 
Brisbane, Queensland, 1897; singer, 
organist, conductor, manager, and 
composer. (3) Nathan H., Marion, 
Mass.j 1848 1925; pupil of Haupt, 
Berlin; organist, teacher in Hart- 
ford, Conn,; composer of cantatas r 
etc. (4) Sir Hugh Percy, b. Read- 
ing, KngL, 1869 Oxford, Feb. 20, 
1046; 1887, org. Chichester Cathe- 
dral; 1901 at Oxford, where he was 
made Mus. Doc. 1898, and Uni- 
versity Choregus 1909; 1908, mus. 
din Reading University College; 
1909, mus. dir., Oxford; 1918-3^ 
dir. R. C. M., London. 

Aliihn (ai-len'), H. Max., b. Halle-on- 
Saale, Aug. 31, 1851 Nov. 15, 1910; 
writer on organ-building. 

Al'Hson t (i) Richard, teacher at Lon- 
don, 1502. (2) Robt., member of 
Chapel Royal till 1609. (3) Horton 

and organ music, songs; d. (?). 

Almeida (dal-ma'-e-dha), Fernando 
d', Lisbon, ca. 1618 1660; monk 
and church-composer. 

Almenrader (al'-mSn-ra-der), Karl, 
Ronsdorf, 1786 Nassau, 1843; 
virtuoso and manufacturer of the 

Alois (3/-l5-es), Ladislaus, Prague, 
1860 Russia, 1917; 'cellist; pupil 
Paris Cons.; soloist Royal orch., St. 
Petersburg; c. concertos, etc. 

ATpaerts, Flor, b. Antwerp, Sept. 12, 
1876; composer; pupil of Cons, in 
native city, and after 1902 its dir.; 
also active as orch. cond.; c. operas, 
orch., chamber and choral works, 
piano pieces. 

Al sager, Thos. Massa, Cheshire, 1779 
1846; English amateur and patron, 

ATsen, Elsa, b. Germany; early sang 
as contralto, later dram, soprano; 
d6but as Fidelio, sang rdle in several 
German op. houses, also Isolde; came 
to U. S. 1923 with German Op. Co., 
singing leading Wagner r61es with 
succ.; Chicago Op., 1926-8; also- 
widely in concert. 

Alsleben (alsMa-bn), Julius, Berlin,. 
1832 1894; editor and writer. 

Alsted(t) (al'-shtat), Jn. H., Herborn, 
Nassau, 1588 Weissenburg, 1638; 

Altenburg (al'-tSn-boorkh), (i) Mi- 
chael, Alach, near Erfurt, 1584 Er- 
furt, 1640; pastor and composer. (2) 
Jn. Ernst, Weissenfels, 1736 Bitter- 
field, 1801; trumpet- virtuoso; son of 
(3) tn, Kasper, do. 

Altds (Sl-tes), (i) Jos. H., Rouen, 1826 
Paris, 1895; flutist. (2) Ernest- 
EugSne, Paris, March 28, 1830 St. 
Dye, July 8, 1899; bro. of above; 
pupil Paris Cons.; violinist and con- 
ductor; 1871 deputy conductor of 
the Op6ra; 1879-87, conductor* 

Alfhouse, Paul, tenor; b. Reading, Pa., 
Dec. 2, 1889; grad, Bucknell Uni- 
versity; d6but, Met. Op. Co., 1913, 
as Dmitri in "Boris Godounof"; sang 
Berlin State Op., Stockholm Royal 
Op., Landestheatre, Stuttgart; Phila- 
delphia Civic Op., Chicago Civic Op. 
(1930-31), returned to Met. Op. Co., 
as singer of Wagner roles, 1934. Alsa 
heard widely in concert, oratorio, 
festivals; d. N. Y., Feb. 6, 1954. 

Alt 'man n, WUhelm, b. Adelnau, Ger- 
many, April 4, 1862; editor and mu- 
sical historian; from 1000, chief 
librarian of Berlin Royal Library; 
aft^r 1914, chief of mus. section,. 



Prussian State Library; 1906, dir. 
of jDeutsche Musiksammlung; 1904, 
critic, " National-Zeitung"*, a prolific 
and scholarly writer on a great num- 
ber of musical subjects; ed. letters of 
Wagner and Brahms, etc. 
Altnikol (Slt'-nS-k61), Jii, Chp., d. 
Naumberg, 1759; son-in-law and 
pupil of J. S. Bach; organist and com- 

Altschuler (alt'-sh65l-r), Modeste, 
conductor; b. Mohilev, Russia, Feb. 
*5> T S73; studied Moscow Cons., 
'cello, orch., with Arensky, Safonoff, 
TaneiefT; European tour with Mos- 
cow Trio; came to America us 'cellist 
and teacher, 1900; founded Russian 
Symph. Orch., New York, 1903; 
cond. many first perf. of Russian 
works with this group, now dis- 
banded. Res. Los Angeles. 

Alvarez (&l-v'-rth), (i) Ferznin 
Maria, b. Saragossa; d. Barcelona, 
1898; c. popular songs, etc. (2) 
(al-va-rez), stage name of Albert 
Raymond Gouxron; Bordeaux, 1861 
Nice, Feb. i, 1933; tenor; pupil of 
A. de Martini; d6but at Ghent, later 
at Paris Op6ra as leading tenor for 
many years; 1898 Met- Op. House, 
New York. 

Alvary (al-vS, '-r), Mar (rightly Achen- 
bach), Dtisseldorf, 1856 Datenberg, 
Thuringia, Nov. 8, 1898; eminent 
Wagnerian tenor; de"but at Weimar. 

Alvsleben, Melitta. Vide OTXO-ALVS- 


AmadS (S,nHL-da), (x) Ladislaw, Baron 
von, Kaschau, Hungary* 1703 
Felbar, 1764; poet and composer, 
(a) Thaddilus, Graf von Presaburg, 
1783 Vienna, 1845; pianist* 

Amadei (am-a-dfi/-*), &., Loreto, Italy, 
Nov. ao, 1840 Dec. 13, 1913; suc- 
ceeded his father as organist and 

Amati (g-m&'-te'), a family of famous 
violin- makers at Cremona, Italy. 
(i) Andrea, 1530 (?) 1611 (?), 
evolved the violin from the viol; hia 
younger bro., (a) Nice old, made fine 
baas- viols 1568-86. A f s 2 sons* (3) 
Antonio, 1555 1638, and (4) Gero- 
nimo, d. 1630, produced violins of the 
.same style. The most famous was 
Geronimo's son, (5) lOccold* Sept. 3, 
1596 Aug. xa, 1684, who built the 
''Grand AmatiSj" large violins of 
powerful tone; his label Is "Nicolaus 
Amati Cremonens. Hierommi fiUus 
Antonii nepos. Fecit anno i6- n ; 

he trained Andrea Guam en and 
Antonio Stradivari. (6) His son 
Giralomo, the last of the family, was 
inferior. (7) Giuseppe A. t b 2 7th 
cent., Bologna, a violin- maker, may 
have been of the same family. (8) 
V. (called Amarus), Cimmina, Sicily. 
1629 Palermo, 1670, conductor and 
composer. (Q) Antonio and (10) 
Angelo, brothers, and organ-builders 
at Pavia, ca. i.\>o. 

Amato (&-mS'-t0), Pas^uale, Naples^ 
Mar. 21, 1878 X. \ ., Aug. 1042: 
barytone; deb, Naples, 1000; ;sang 
Milan, then at Trieste, etc.; igoo 
Manhattan Opera: from IQII Met. 
Op. 7 singing leading roles in variety 
of operas for a decade: heard widely 
in concerts and oj>era in U. S. and 
Europe; taught Louisiana Univ. 
Ambrogetti (am-bro-j<!t'-t*), G., sang 

1807 1838, basso-buffo. 
Ambros (ilm'-brds), Aug. W., Mauth, 
near Prague, Mov, 17, i&;6 Vienna, 
June 28, 1876, eminent historian and 

Ambrose (Ambro'sius), Troves A. D. 
333 Milan April 4* 307; Bishop of 
Milan, regulated (384) And devel- 
oped Western church-music by intro- 
ducing ritual as practised in the 
Eastern Church; the adoption of the 
lour authentic church- modes was 
probably due to htm; he has been 
called "The Father of Christian 
Hymnology," though his authorship 
of the so-called Ambroslma Hymn is 
discredited further than the trans* 
lation of the text into the "TV >f*i"; 
it is improbable thai he WAS ac- 
quainted with the use of letters for 

Am(m)erbmch (lm'-r-blkh), 

Nikolaut, ca. 1530 Lripxtg* 

organist, theorist and composer, 

Amfitheitrov, I>mcti!0 t b* Russia, 1001; 

assoc. cond. Minneapolis Symph. 

Amiot (am-yo), Father, b, Toulon, 
1718; Jesuit missionary and writer 
OR Chinese music. 

Ajea(m)on (am-mOn) (i) Blaslos, b. in 
the Tyrol d. Vienna, June, i5oo 
court-sopranist* later Franciscan 
friar, composer* (a) Jn. And8 7 I$am* 
berg, 1763 Otlingen, 18.5; virtuoso 
on the Waldhom. 

Am'ner, (i) John, b. Ule i6th cent 
d. 1641 ; organist, (a) Hit son Ralph, 
bass at Windsor, 10*31663* 



Amorevoli (a-mo-ra'-vo-le), Angelo, 
Venice, 1716 Dresden, 1798; singer. 

Anacker (a'-nak-er), Aug. Fd., Frei- 
berg, Saxony, 1790 1854; cantor 
and composer. 

Ancot (ah-ko) a family of pianists and 
composers at Bruges, (i) Jean 
(p&re), 1779 1848. His two sons, 

(2) Jean (Jils), 1799 Boulogne, 1829, 

(3) Louis, 1803 Bruges, 1836. 
Ander (an'-der), Aloys, Liebititz, Bo- 
hemia, 1824 Bad Wartenberg, 1864; 

An'ders, Gf. Eng., Bonn, 1795 Paris, 
1866; writer. 

Andersen (i) Joachim, Copenhagen, 
April 29, 1847 May 7, 1909. Solo- 
ist at 13. Toured widely; court 
musician, Copenhagen, Petersburg 
and Berlin; for 8 years solo flutist and 
assistant conductor of Berlin Phil. 
Orch., of which he was one of the 
founders; 1895 1909, the ruling 
musical force in Copenhagen, as con- 
ductor of the Palace concerts, the 
Tivoli Orchestra, the Municipal 
Summer concerts, his orchestral 
school, and Inspector (with rank of 
Captain) of all the military music of 
Denmark. Made Knight of Danne- 
brog Order by King Charles IX; 
received the "Palms* of the Acad. 
from the Pres. of France, and was 
made "Prof." .by King Frederik of 
Denmark. (2) Vigo, Copenhagen, 
April 21, 1852 Chicago, Jan. 29, 
1895; solo flutist with Thomas orch.; 
brother of (i). 

An'derson, (i) Lucy, ne'e Philpot, Bath, 
1790 London, 1878; pianist. \z) 
Geo. FT., King's bandmaster in Eng- 
land, 1848. (3) Tfcomas, Birming- 
ham, England, April 15, 1836 Sept. 
1 8, 1903; critic, organist and c. (4) 
Marian, b. Philadelphia; eminent 
Negro contralto; studied with Giu- 
seppe Boghetti; first gained promi- 
nence as soloist with Philadelphia 
Phil. Symph., and in New York 
recital dbut; winner of contest to 
appear with N. Y. Phil, at Stadium 
concerts, 1925 ^ European appear- 
ances, 1030-5, incl. Berlin, Vienna, 
Paris, wnere she gained remarkable 
triumphs and returned to U. S. in 
latter year, giving several N. Y. 
recitals with outstanding succ* 
Chosen to sing in Brahms' alto rhap- 
sody with Vienna Phil, under Bruno 
Walter during festival there in 1936. 

Andrade (ciftn-dra-dhe 1 ^ Fran. d% Lis- 

bon, 1859 Berlin, Feb. 8, 1921; 
barytone; studied with Miraglia and 
Ronconi; sang leading r61es in many 
European cities. 

Andre" (an-dra). a musical family of 
Offenbach, (i) Jn., 1741: *799, 
publisher and pianist; he originated in 
1783 the durchkomponirte Ballade 
(vide D. p.)- ( 2 ) J n - Ant., 1775 
1842; third son of above; pianist, 
publisher, theorist. (3) Karl Aug., 
1806 -Frankfort, 1887; publisher 
and writer. (4) Julius, 1808 
Frankfort, 1880; organist. (5) Jn. 
Aug., 1817 1887; publisher; his 2 
sons, (6) Karl (b. 1853) and (7) Adolf 
(b. 1885), were later the proprietors. 
(8) JeanBaptiste (de St. Gilles), 1823 
Frankfort, 1882; pianist and com- 

An'dreae, Votkmar, b. Berne, July 5, 
1879; conductor and composer; 
studied Cologne Cons.; led choruses 
in Winterthur and Zurich; after 1906, 
led symph. concerts of the Tonhalle 
Soc.; 1914, dir. of Zurich Cons.: 
president of the Swiss Composers' 
Soc. after 1920; has appeared as 
guest cond. in other European cities; 
c, (operas) "Ratcliff" and "Aben- 
teuer des Casanova"; also orch. and 
chamber music. 

Andreoli (an-dra-6'-lg), (i) Evanga- 
lista, 1 8 10 1875; organist at Mi- 
randola; his two sons, (2) Guglielmo 
(Modena, 1835 Nice, 1860) and (3) 
Carlo (Mirandola, J ?4o Regio 
Emilia, 1910 ?), were pianists, the 
latter also organist and composer. 
(4) Giuseppe, Milan, 1757 1832; 
double-bassist and harpist. 

Andreozzi (&n-dra-6d'-zS), Gaetano, 
Naples, 1763 Paris, 1826; dram, 

Andre*sen (an-dra'-zSn), Ivar, b, 1895; 
bass; sang Dresden Op., 1925-33; 
Bayreuth, 1927; Met. Op., 1930; 
Berlin Op., 1931. 

Andreva (an-dra'-va), Stella, b. Lon- 
don, of Scotch-German ancestry, 
coloratura soprano; studied singing 
at R. A. M.; sang in operettas, then 
engaged for three years at Stock- 
holm R. Op.; 1934-5, Co vent Gar- 
den; Met. Op., N. Y., 1936-37. 

Andrevi (Sn-drS/-v5), Fran. r Sanabuya, 
near Lerida, 1786 Barcelona, 1853; 
critic and writer. 

Andrien* Vide AE>KIEN. 

An 'dries, Jean, Ghent, 1798 1872; 
teacher and writer. 


Androt (an-drC), Albert Augusta, Paris, 
1781 Aug. 9, 1804; c. opera, re- 
quiem, etc. 

Anerio (a-n/-re-5), (i) Felice, Rome, 
1560 Sept. 26, 1614; successor to 
Palestrina. (2) Giovanni Fran., 
Rome, ca. 1567 1621 (?), bro. of 
above; conductor and church-com- 

Anfos'si, Pasquale, Taggia, near 
Naples, 1727 Rome, 179?; pupil 
and rival of Piccinni; composed 54 
operas, etc. 

Angelet (an'-zhti-la) , Chas. Pran., 
Ghent, 1797 Brussels, 1832. 

Angeli (dan-jfi'-te), Andrea d% b. 
Padua, Nov. 9, 1868; historian; c. 
opera " L' Innocente" (Bologna), etc, 

Angelini (JLn-ja-te'-nX), Bontempi Giov, 
And., Perugia, ca. 1624 1705; court- 
singer and dram, composer. 

Angeloni (n-ja-l6'-n*), Ltdgi, Frosi- 
none, Papal States, 1758 London, 
1842; writer. 

An'gerer, Gottfried, Waldsee, Feb. 3, 
1851 Zurich, Aug. 19, 1909; c, male 

Anglebert (da&-glti-bar) ; J. Bapt. H. 
d% 1628 (?) Paris, 1691; court-cla- 
vicembalist to Louis XIV* 

Animuccia (ftn-S-moot'-cha), (i) Giov* f 
Florence, ca. 1500 Rome, March, 
1571; wrote the first Laudi spiritual* 
for the lectures of Neri in the oratory 
of S. Philippo, has hence been called 
"Father of Oratorio"; he was Pa- 
lestrina's predecessor as conductor 
at the Vatican. (2) Paolo, d. Rome, 
1563, bro. of above. 

Ankerts, D* Vide BANKERS, GHISELIN. 

Annibale ^n-nf-ba"-le*), (i) (called B 
Padova'no, or Patavi'mis, from 
Padua, where he was born 1527) 
d. Groz 3:575; organist and composer. 
(2) Domenico, Italian sopranist in 
London, 1756, 

An'rooy, Peter van, b. Zalt-Bommel, 
Holland, Oct. 13, 1870; conductor; 
composer; pupil of Joh. Wngenaar 
and Tanexev; conc|L orchestras in 
Amsterdam, Groningen, Arnhem, 
and after 1917 of the Residentie 
Orch, in The Hague; hon. doctorate 
from Univ. of Gronigen; c, chamber, 
orch., and choral works. 

Ansani (an-sa'-nft) Giovanni, b. Rome, 
i8th cent,; dram, tenor, 

Anschiltz riln'- shuts), K., Coblcnz, 

5^ New York, 1870; cond. and 

Ansermet (fin-sSr-maOi Ernest, b, 
Vevey, Switzerland, Nov. i\, 1883; 
conductor; studied with Den^reaz^ 
Ge"da!ge, Barblan, Bloch; after 1912, 
cond. of concerts at Montreux Kur- 
saal; cond. Geneva subscription 
concerts, 1915-18; founder^ Or- 
chestre de la Suisse-Romande, 
Geneva, 1918; conductor after 2915 
with Diaghileff Ballet Russe, in 
Paris, London, Italy, Spain, Amer- 
ica. Made guest tours of other 
countries, also America. C. sym- 
phonic poem "Feuiltes au printemps** 
and other works, 

Ansorge (&n-s6r'-g) v (x) Max, b 
Striegau, Silesia, Oct. i. i86a; organ- 
ist; son of a cantor; studied at Berlin; 
c. songs, motets, etc. (a) Konrad 
(Eduard Reinhold), Buchwald, 
Silesia, Oct. 15, 1862 Berlin, Feb 
23, 1930; pianist; pupil Leipzig Cons 
and of Liszt; toured Amenca; c 
for orchestra, and piano. 

Ant'cllffe, Herbert, b. Sheffield, Engl. 
July 30, 1875; writer on music; an 
thor of studies of Schubert, Brahms, 

Antegnati (&n*ULn-y&'~tY), Costmnzo, 
Brescia, 1557 ca. 1620; organ- 
builder, etc. 

Antheil (fin'-tll), George, b. Trenton, 
N. J., July 8, 1900; composer; studied 
Sternberg Cons., Philadelphia; res. 
in Europe for some years; c. (opera) 
"Trjnsailaniic'^ based on modern 
American **Jaxz age" theme (Frank** 
fort State Op., ^930); Symphony in 
F (Paris, SQj6); Piano Concerto in 
A (Paris, 1917); music to Sophocles 9 
44 O*tfi>w w (Herlsn State Theat.. 
1929}: (ballet) "t-ttkiin* the H'dwj'* 
(text by W. B, Yeat) t Abbey Thea- 
tre, Dublin; (opera) Hrte* Rftirn" 
(book by Er*kme), N. Y., 1934; two 
string quartets, orchestral, chamber 
musk. Earlier manner radical to 
extent of introducing noise* making 
instruments as in 4 * Bait ft ZUeaniquc^ 
c, ojH'ra, Volpune (N\ Y., 1054), 

Aa'tiDOV, CoasUntiii, b, Russia, Jan. 
jH, 1850; c. symph. al!cro fur orth., 
and piano |U*CCA; d* (), 

Antokxe (iint-wan'). Josepfeine, b, Buul- 
ucr, l*uiu.; soprano; h tut! led juilliard 
Sch,; Met. <>p. after 

Ape! Wi*\i, Ja. Aug., 
ii6; writer, 



Ape*l, Willi, b. Konitz; Ph.D., Berlin 
Univ.; ed. "Harvard Diet, of Music." 

Apell (a-pl') , Jn.D.von, Cassel, 1754 
1833; conductor and dram, composer. 

Appel (Sp'-pel), K., Dessau, 1812 
Dec. 9, 1895; violinist, court-leader, 
composed opera "Die Rauberbraut" 
(Dessau, 1840), and humorous male 

Appun (ap-poon'), O. A. I., Hanau, 
1816 1885; versatile performer on 
nearly every instr.; writer on and 
experimenter in acoustics; made an 
harmonium of 53 degrees to the 

Aprile (a-prS'-le*), Gius, Bisceglia, 1738 
Martina, 1814; celebrated con- 
tralto musico and vocal teacher; 
writer and composer. 

Ap 'thorp, W. Foster, Boston, Mass., 
Oct. 24, 1848 Vevey, Feb. 19, 1013; 
Harvard, '69, studied piano, har- 
mony, cpt. with J. K. Paine and 
B. J. Lang; teacher of theory, and 
for many years distinguished critic 
and writer on music; author of 
"Hector Berlioz 19 ; "Musicians and 
Music- Lovers, and other Essays"; 
"By the Way, About Music and Mu- 
sicians"; "Opera and Opera Singers", 

Aptoxn'mas* (i) John, (2) Thomas, 
brothers; b. Bridgend, England, 
2826, and 1829; harp-players and 

Ar'a, Ugo, Venice, 1876 Lausanne, 
1936; pupil of Tirindelli, Thom- 
son and Fuchs; 1903-17, viola player 
in Flonzaley Quartet. 

Araja (a-rfc'-ytt), Fran., Naples, 1700 
Bologna, ca. 1767; dram, composer; 
composed the first opera written in 

Arauxo (&-r&-ooks'-3) (or Araujo (&- 
rfi-oo'-hd)}, Francisco Correa de, ca. 
1581 Segovia, 1663; bishop, the- 

Arbeau* Thoinot (twa-nS &r-bs). Vide 

Arb6s (&r'-vSs), B. Fernandez, b. Ma- 
drid, 1863 San Sebastian, 1939; 
violinist; grandfather & father were 
bandmasters in army; pupil Madrid 
Cons.; took prizes at 12; then studied 
with Vieustemps, GevaSrt and 
Joachim; cond. lierlin Phil. Society: 
taught at Hamburg, Madrid, and 
Royal College, London; c. comic 
opera "JKl Cieniro de la Tierra,"- 
Madrid, J^QS; also for violin and 
o\ch.; after 1908, cond. Madrid 

Orquesta Sinfonica; guest cond. in 
Europe and U. S. 

Ar'cadelt, Jacob (or Jachet Arkadelt, 
Archadet, Arcadet, Harcadelt), ca. 
1514 after 1557; distinguished 
Flemish composer and teacher; 1540, 
singer in Paris; 1557, Regiusmusicus; 
composed masses, etc. 

Archadet (ar-chii-da ') . Vide ARCADELT. 

Archambeau (ar'-shan-bo), Iwan d% 
b. Li6ge, 1879; 'cellist; pupil of his 
father, Massau and Jacobs; after 
1903 mem. of Flonzaley Quartet. 

Archangel'ski, Alexander A., Pensa, 
Russia, Oct. 23, 1846 Prague, 1924; 
organist and cond.; c. masses, a 
requiem, much church music. 

Ar'cher, Fredk., Oxford, England, 

Sane 16, 1838 Pittsburgh, Pa. 
ct. 22, 1901; pupil of his father; 
studied in London and Leipzig; 
organist and opera-director in Lon- 
don; 1 88 1, organist of Plymouth 
Church, Brooklyn, later in New 
York; 1887, conductor of Boston 
Oratorio Soc.; 1895-98, Pittsburgh 
(Pa.) Orchestra; composed cantata, 
organ-pieces, etc. 

Arditi (ar-d5'-te), (i) Michele, Mar- 
chese, Naples, 1745 1838; composer. 
(2) Luigi, Crescentino, Piedmont, 
July 1 6, 1822 Hove, England May 
i, 1903; pupil of Milan Cons.; violin- 
ist, then director of opera, 1843, 
Milan, Turin, and Havana. He 
visited New York with the Havana 
opera company, 1847, aru * at * nter " 
vals thereafter until 1856. Com- 
posed 3 operas, vocal waltzes, "II 
Bacio" etc.; wrote "My Reminis- 
cences" ( London, 1896). 

Arens (a -rns), Fz, Xaver, Neef, 
Germany, Oct. 28, 1856 Los An- 
geles, Jan. 28, 1932; came to America 
early in youth; pupil of his father, 
and of Rheinberger, etc.; conductor, 
organist; composer of symphonic 
fantasia, etc. 

Arenskv (a-r5n'-shk3t), Anton Step- 
anovitch, Novgorod, Russia, July 31, 
1 86 1 Tarioki, Finland, Feb. 25. 
1906; composer and pianist; pupil 
of Johanssen and Rimsky-Korsakov; 
Prof, Imp. Cons. Moscow, and con- 
ductor Imperial Court Choir; com- 
posed a symphony, 4 suites for orch., 
x-act opera "Rafaello" string quar- 
tets, concerto for piano, etc., includ- 
ing "Essais sur des rythmes oubltes" 
f. pf. 4 hands. 

Aretino. Vide GUIDO 



Argentina (arkh-Sn-te'-na), La (stage 
name of Antonia MercS) Buenos 
\ires Bayonne, France, July 18, 
1936; noted dancer, esp. famed for 
her perf. of Spanish dances and 
remarkable skill in playing on casta- 
nets; her parents were members of 
the R. Op. ballet, Madrid, of which 
she became prima ballerina at 19; 
later made world tours with great 
succ., incl. United States 

Aria (a'-rf-ft), Cesare, Bologna, 1820 
1894; singing- teacher. 

Aribo (a-re'-bS), Scholas 'ticus, d. ca, 
1078; probably from the Nether- 
lands; writer. (Gerbert.) 

Arien'zo (diir-X-eV-tsS), Nicolft d% 
Naples, Dec. 24, 1842 April 25, 
1915; composed 5 operas in Nea- 
politan dialect, "Monzu Gnassie" 
(Naples, 1860), and "I Due Mariti" 
(Naples, 1866), the most successful, 
realistic and original; also an ora- 
torio, a "Pensiero Sinfoitico" over- 
tures, etc. ; wrote a treatise advocating 
pure intonation instead of tempera- 
ment, and a third mode (the Minor 
Second), besides the usual major and 

A'rion, partly traditional Greek singer 
and lyrist (7th cent., B, c.)> hence, the 
name of a vocal society. 

Arios'ti, Attilio, Bologna, 1660 ca. 
1740; composed i operas; 1716 a 
rival of Buononcim, and of Handel; 
in London in 1720, the three com- 
posed the opera "Muzio Scaevola." 

Aristi'des QuintiHa'nus, Greek teacher 
and writer on music, ca. 160* 

Ar'istotle, (r) Stagyra, 384 B,c, 
322 B c.; Ureek philosopher, whose 
works include valuable information 
concerning Greek music. (2) Pseu- 
donym of a writer on mensurable 
music, i2th *3thcent, 

Aristox'enos, b Tarentum, ca. 354 
B.C.; one of the first Greek writers 
on music. 

Arrberg, Georg Ephraim, F,, Leksand, 
Sweden, 1830 Christiania, Feb. ax, 
1896; barytone. 

Armbrust (ftrm'-broost), K* F*, Ham- 
burg, 1849 Hanover, 1896; teacher 
and critic. 

Armbruster (arm'-broo-stSr), K*> 
Andernacb-on- Rhine, July *3, 1846 
London, June xo, 3:9x7; pupil of 
Hompesch; pianist ana lecturer; 
Hans Richter's assistant conductor 
at the Wagner concerts, 1882-84; 

later conducted at various London 

Armes, Philip, b. Norwich, England, 
1836; Mus. Doc. Oxon, 1864; organ 
composer; d. Durham, Feb* 10, 1908* 
Armmgaud (ar-maB-gd), Jules, Ba- 
yonne, May 3, 1820 Paris, Feb. 27, 
1900; was refused admission to the 
Paris Cons, at 19 since he was "toe 
far advanced"; leader of a string 
quartet enlarged to the Soci&t 
Classique; said to have introduced 
Beethoven's quartets into Paris. 
AnnsTieiiner, Ivan Ivanovitch, b. St. 
Petersburg, March 19, iS6o; pupil 
at the cons.; c. i-act opera "Sous la 
fevillte" (French text); 2-act opera 
">r Oberf&rstcr" (German text). 
3-act opera "Jatgerliv" (Danish 
text); cantatas, songs, etc, 
Araaud (ar-nd), (i) Abb6 Fran., Au- 
bignan, $72* Paris, 1784; writer. 
(a; J* Et. Guil,, Marseilles, 1807 
Jan., 1863: composer. 
Axne (ara), (r) Dr. Thomas Augustine, 
London, March 12, 1710 March s> 
2778; by secret nightly practice he 
learned the spinet and violin, his 
lather wishing him to study law; 
3:736, m. Cecilia Yjung, a favourite 
singer of Handel's; 3738, he was 
composer to the Drury Lane Th. and 
set Dalton's adaptation of Milton's 
"C0mitf"; in his masque "Alfred** 
(1740) is "Rule Britannia'*; in Dublin 
(3742-44) he produced two operas, 
" Britannia" and "/**'% and a musi- 
cal farce "Thomas a*4 Sally"; 1745, 
composer to Vau shall Gardens, Lon- 
don ; set to music the songs in" As Fe* 
Uke /l f " "Wkm ike B*? S*tk$," in 
"The Tempest" etc.; Mus. Doc. 
Oxon, I75Q; he was the first to use fe- 
male voices in oratorio-choruses ("/K* 
diik")\ composed J oratorios, many 
masques, orch. overtures, vla.- 
sonatas, organ- music, harpsichord- 
sonatas, glees, catches, canons, etc 
(2) Michael, London, 1741 Ian. 14, 
1786 (not 1806); natural son of above; 
conductor and dram, composer* 
Arneiro (d&r-na r -*-rdj, Jose Aug. Fr~ 
reira Veiga^ Viscount d% Macao, 
China, Nov. 22, 1838 San Re mo, 
July, 190,3; of Portuguese parents; 
composed 2 operas. 

Arnold (ar'-n6lty t (i) G., b. Wfidsberg, 
Tyrol, 1 7th cent.; organist, (2) 
Stmuel, London, 1740-1809; organ* 
1st Westminster Abbey. (3) Jo* 
Gottf,, near Oehringen, 1773 Frank* 



fort, 1806; 'cellist, etc. (4) Ignaz 
ErnstFd., Erfurt, 1774 1812; writer. 

(5) K., near Mergentheim, Wtirtem- 
berg, 1794 Chris tiania, 1873; son 
of (3) J- Cr.; pianist and composer. 

(6) K., b. St. Petersburg, 1820; son 
of (5); 'cellist in Royal Orch.; studied 
Stockholm. (7) Fr. W., near Heil- 
bronn, 1810 Elberfeld, 1864; col- 
lector and composer. (8) Yourij 
von, St. Petersburg, 1811 Simfero- 
pol, Crimea, 1898; singing-teacher 
and dram, composer. (9) Richard, 
Eilenburg, Jan. 10, 1845 New York, 
June 21, 1918; at 8 taken to U. S.; 
pupil of Fd. David, 1869*76; ist 
violinist of Theo. Thomas' orch., 
1878; leader New York Philh. Club, 
1891; 1897, organised a sextet. (10) 
Maurice (real name Strothotte), b. 
St. Louis, Jan. 19, 1865 New York, 
1937; pupil of the Cincinnati Coll., 
1883; Vierling and Urban, Berlin; 
Cologne Cons, and Max Bruch, 
Breslau; lived St. Louis, then New 
York as teacher in the Nat. Cons* 
and pupil of Dvorak; composed 
notable "Plantation Dances," a 
"Dramatic Overture" 2 comic operas, 
etc. Wrote "Some Points on Mod- 
ern Orchestration" 

Ar'noldson, (i) Oscar, Stockholm, 
1839 Carlsbad, 1881; tenor. (2) 
SIgrid, b. Stockholm, 1864; daughter 
of above; operatic soprano; pupil of 
Maurice Strakosch and DesirSe 
Artotj dbut, Moscow, 1886; has 
sung in Europe and America (1894) 
with success; m. Alfred Fischof. 

Arnould (Ar-noo), Madeleine Sophie, 
Paris, 1744 1802; soprano, created 
Gluck's "ipkigtnic." 

Ar'rau, Claudio, b. Chilian (Chile) 
Feb. 6, 1003; pianist; pupil of Paoli, 
Martin Krause; made first appear- 
ances as piano prodigy, winning 
international prize; later toured 
Europe and U. S,, developing into 
mature artist of strong powers. 

Arres'ti, GiuHo Cesare, ca. 1630 
ca 1695: organist and c. at Bologna. 

Arriaga y Balzola (dUr-rf-a'-gft e bal'- 
tha-ffi), Juan a J, A. dT, Bilboa, 
1806 18,26. 

Arrieta (&r-rl-a'-tl0, J. Emilio, Puenta 
la Reina, 18*3 Madrid, 1894; dram* 

Arrigoni (lir-rfi-Kft'-nd), Carlo, Flor- 
ence, ca. 1705 Tuscany (?) ca. 1743; 
lutenist and composer, rival in Lon- 
don to Hfcndel, 

Arronge (I&r-r6nzh), ^dolf 1% Ham- 
burg, March 8, 1838 Berlin, 1908; 
pupil of Gene"e, and at Leipzig Cons. ; 
1 8 74, theatre-manager, B reslau ; 
composed comic operas, " Sings piele,'- 9 ' 

Artaria (ar-ta-rg'-a), music publishing 
house in Vienna, founded by Carlo 
A., 1780, 

Arteaga (ar-ta-g'-a), Stefano, Madrid, 
1730 Paris, 1799; Jesuit; 

Artot (&r-t6), (i) Maurice Montagney 
(ancestor of a line of musicians 
named Montagney), Gray (Haute- 
Sa6ne), 1772 -Brussels, 1829; band- 
master. (2) J. Desire 1 M., Paris, 
1803 St. Josse ten Noode, 1887; 
son of above; horn-player and 
teacher. (3) Alex. Jos., son of 
Maurice, Brussels, 1815 Ville- 
d'Avray, 1845; notable violinist and 
composer. (4) Marguerite Joseph- 
ine D6sir6e, Paris, July 21. 1835; 
Vienna, April 3, 1907; daughter of 
(2) Jean-D6sire'; dram.-soprano, pu- 
pil of Viardot-Garcia (1855-57); d6- 
but Brussels, 1857; sang Grand 
Opera, Paris, 1858, etc., m. the 
Spanish barytone, Padilla, in 1860. 
(5) Lola (A. de Padilla), Sevres, 1885 
Berlin, 1933; daughter of the pre- 
ceding, also a noted operatic so- 

Artusi (ar-too'-z5), Giov. M., Bologna 
ca. 1545 1613; canon and theorist. 

Asantchevski (Asantschewski, Assant- 
chevski) (a-sfint-shSf'-shkS:), Michael 
Pavlovitch, Moscow, 1838 1881; 

Aschenbren'ner (a'-shn-) Chr. H., 
Altstettin, 1654 Jena, 1732; violin- 
ist and court-conductor. 

Ash/ley, (i) John, d. 1805; bassoonist 
and manager; his three sons were (2} 
General, d. 1818, violinist. (3; 
Chas. Jane, 1773 1843, 'cellist and 
manager. (4) J. Jas., 3:771 1815, 
organist and singing teacher. (5) J., 
"Ashley of Bath," 17801830, bas- 
soonist. (6) Richard, 1775 1837, 
London viola-player. 

Ash 'ton, Algernon Bennet Langton, b* 
Durham, Dec, 9, 1859 London, 
April ii, 1937; pupil Leipzig Cons., 
pf. teacher, R. C. M*, London: after 
1913 at London and Trinity Colleges; 

Ash 'well, Thos., i6th cent., organist 
and composer in England. 

Asioli (fts-e-o' '-15), Bonifacio, 


1769 1832; at the age of 8 he uad 
composed 3 masses, 20 other sacred 
works., a harpsichord-concerto, a vln. 
concerto, with orch., and 2 harp- 
sonatas for 4 hands; pupil of Morigi; 
successful cembalist, improviser; his 
first opera buffa, ' La Volubile" (i 785), 
was successful; his opera "Cinna," 
favourably received in 1793; prof, of 
cpt, at Milan Cons. 

Asola (or) Asula (S'-s5-lS), Giov. Mat., 
Verona ca. 1560 Venice, 1609; 
Aspa (as'-pa), Mario, Messina, 1799 

1 868; composed 42 operas. 
Assantsheffsky. Vide ASANTCHEVSKI. 
Assmayer (as x -mI-Sr), Ignaz, Salzburg, 

1790 Vienna, 1862; conductor. 
Astaxit'ta, Gennaro, Naples, ca. 1749 

1803; composed 20 operas. 
As 'ton, Hugh, English organist and 

composer in reign of Henry VIII. 
Astorga (dSs-t6r'gS) Emmanuele, 
Baron d% Sicily, 1680 Madrid (?), 
1736; church-composer. 
Ath'erton, Percy Lee, Roxbury, Mass., 
Sept. 25, 1871 Atlantic City, Mar., 
1944; grad. Harvard, 1893, studied 
music under Paine; studied two years 
in Munich with Rheinberser and 
Thuille, then a year in Berlin with 
O. B. Boise; 1900 studied with Sgam- 
bati and Widor; c. symph., tone 
poem for orch., " Noon in the Forest," 
opera-comique "The Maharaja," 
comic opera, and many songs. 
At'kins, Sir Ivor Algernon, b. Cardiff, 
Nov. 20, 1889; organist and cond.; 
son and pupil of an organist; later 
pupil and assistant of C. L. Williams; 
since 1897, org. Worcester Cath.; 
cond. of three Choirs Festivals in 
that city, Mas. D., Oxford; knighted 
1921; d. 1953* 

Attaignant (fit-tin '-van), Pierre (also 
Attaingnant, Attefgnant), i6th cent, 

Attenfcofer (at'-tSn-haf-er), K., Wet- 
tingen, Switzerland, May s 2837 
Zurich, May 22, 1914; pupil of Leip- 
zig Cons.; cond., organist, and 
teacher; notable composer of male 

At'terberg, Kurt; b. Gothenburg, 
Sweden, Dec. 12, 1887; composer, 
conductor; studied to be electrical 
engineer; also 'cello and composition; 
detiut with Gothenburg Symph. 
Orch,, 1912; pres,, Swedish Soc. of 
Composers; c, six symphonies, 2 
ot>eras, 2 ballets, violin and 'cello 

concertos, chamber music works; 
winner, Intern. Prize, Schubert Cen- 
tennial Contest, 1928. 
Attrup (lit'-troop), K., Copenhagen, 
March 4, 1848 Oct. 5, 1892; pupil 
of Gade, whom he succeeded as 
organ-teacher Copenhagen Cons.; 
composed studies for organ and 

Att'wood, Thos., London, Nov. 23, 
1765 Chelsea, March 24, 1838; im- 
portant English composer; chorister 
and court-organist; pupil of Mozart; 
1796 organist St. Paul's Cathedral; 
composed 19 operas, anthems, sona- 
tas for piano, etc. 

Auber (6-b&r), Daniel Francois Esprit, 
Caen, Normandy, Jan. 29, 1782 
Paris, May 12 (13?), 1871; notable 
opera-composer; his father an art- 
dealer in Paris, sent him to London 
to learn the trade; but in 2804 he re- 
turned to Paris; composed opera 
"/**/*>," produced by amateurs in 
1812 with an orch. of six stringed In- 
atrs.; Cherubim beard of it, recognised 
A,*& talent and taught him; 1842 din 
the Cons, of Music, Paris, as Cheru- 
bini's successor; 1857 imperial con- 
ductor to Napoleon III. A.'s first 
public productions were 2 unsuccess- 
ful operas; ' l La &ergre CkaUlaine^ 
(1820) was a success; before 1869, he 
composed over forty operas; his one 
serious opera, "MasanitUo ou la 
Muclte de P&rliti" (1828), with 
Meyerbeer's "Robert It DiMe" and 
RossinPs "GuiUaume TtUJ* estab- 
lished French grand opera; its vivid 
jx>rtrayai of popular fury caused 
riots in Brussels; his comic operas 
(to Scribe's librettos) are the best 
of France; his last opera, "Rto*s 
d* Amour " was produced when he 
was 87 years old. Other operas are: 
"La Marquise de BrinviUiers" (1831 
with eight other composers), "4 
Domino Noir" (1837), "Zanetta" 
(1840), "Lfs Diaments de la Cour- 
onne" (1841), "La Sirinc" (1844), 
"Haydte" <J8 4 7>, "L* Enfant Pro- 
digue" (1850), "Zerlinc" "Manen 
Le$tavt" (1856), 

Aubert (a-bftr) t (i) Jac. ("!e vieux"), 
b. 1678 -Belleville, 1753; violinist, 
(a) Louis, 3720 after 1770; son of 
above; violinist, etc, (3) T. Fran. 
Olivier* b. Amiens, 1763; 'cellist 
and composer. (4) Louis, b. Pa- 
rame 1 , France, Feb. 19, 1877: studied 
Paris Cons M mem. jury. Pans Cons., 



music critic; Chevalier, Legion of 
Honour; c. (opera) "LaForgt Bleue", 
(Boston, 1913); (symphonic poem) 
"Haoanera" (Paris, 1919); (ballet) 
"La Nuit Ensorcelee" (1922); cham- 
ber music works, songs, choruses, 
piano pieces. 

Aubery du Boulley (6-bS-re' du bool- 
16') , Prudent-L., Verneuil, Eure, 
1796 1870; teacher and composer. 

Aubry (5-br), Pierre, Paris, Feb. 14, 
1874 Dieppe, Aug. 31, 1910; his- 
torian of liturgical music. 

Audran (6-dran), (i) Marius-P., Aix, 
Provence, 1816 Marseilles, 1887; 
ist tenor at the Paris Op6ra- 
Comique. (2) Edmond, Lyons, April 
ii, 1842 Tierceville, n. Gisors, Aug. 
17, 1901; son of above; pupil of 
Ecole Niedermeyer, Paris; Mar- 
seilles, 1862, his first opera; produced 
36 others, chiefly of a light character. 
Among his most pop. works are, 
"Olivette," "La Mascotte" (1880), 
given over 1700 times; "Miss Hel- 
yett," "La Poupee," etc. 

Auer (ow'-r), (i) Ld., Veszprem, Hun- 
gary, June 7, 1845 near Dresden 
July 16, 1930 (of pneumonia); vln.- 
virtuoso; pupil of Khonetol at Pesth, 
of Dont, Vienna, then of Joachim; 
soloist to the Czar, who conferred 
on him the order of St. Vladimir, 
carrying hereditary nobility; from 
7868 violin- Prof, at the St. Peters- 
burg Cons.; 1887-92, dir. Imp. Mus. 
Soc. ; teacher of many eminent violin- 
ists; after 1918 he lived principally in 
New York, author book on vln.- 
playing (1921). 

Au'gener & Co*, London firm of music 
pub., founded by G. A., 1853. 

Auiin (ow'-lfin), Tor, Stockholm, Sept. 
xo, 1866 March t, 1914: violinist; 
pupil of Sauret and Ph. Scharwenka; 
from 1889 Konzertmeister Stock- 
holm, court-opera; 1887 organised 
the Aulin Quartet. 

Auric (&'-rk), Georges, b. Lodfcve, 
France, Feb. 15, 1899; composer; 
pupil of Paris Cons., and of d*Indy; 
c. ballets, orchestral and chamber 
music works, piano pieces, songs; 
member of former Group of Six: his 
ballets "Les Facheux" and "Les 
Matelote" had particular succ. when 
given by DiaghilefL 
s der Ohe (ows'-dr 6"-), Addle, 
Hanover, Germany, Dec. n, 1864 
Berlin, Dec. 8, 1937; noted pianist; 
pupil of KuliaV und Liszt; composed 

2 piano suites, concert tude, etc.; 
toured widely with great success. 

Aus'tin, (i) Frederic, b. London, Mar 
30, 1872 Agr. 10, i952jorg.atLiver- 
pool for some years; then teacher at 
the College of Music, there till 1906; 
then studied voice with Lunn; de"but r 
1902, favourite in oratorio and in 
Wagner operas; c. overture "Richard 
IP 9 (Liverpool, 1900); rhapsody 
"Spring" (Queens Hall, 1907), 
symph. poem "Isabella," also arr. 
music of "Beggar's Opera" by Gay 
and Pepusch, which had 1463 con- 
secutive perfs. in London, 1920-3. 
His brother (2) Ernest, b. London, 
Dec. 31, 1874; on the Board of 
Trade till 33 years old, then studied 
comp. with J. Davenport; c. symph., 
idyll, march; "Love Songs from Don 
Quixote," for voices and orch.; piano 
sonata, etc. 

Aus'tral, Florence (rightly Wilson); 
b. Richmond near Melbourne, Aus- 
tralia, April 26, 1894; studied Mel- 
bourne Cons, and London; d6but in 
opera as Briinnhilde, London, 1922; 
toured with British Nat'l. Op. Co., 
and heard as soloist with orchestras 
and in oratorio, London; d6but, 
Co vent Garden Op., 1929; concert 
tours, England, Australia, New 
Zealand, South Africa, and America. 
M. John Amadio, flutist. 

Auteri-Manzocchi (fi-oo-ta'-rf mSn- 

lini at Florence; composed successful 
operas, among them "Graziella" 
(Milan, 1894). 

Auvergne (d5-vSrn), A. d% Clermont- 
Ferrand, Oct. 4, 1713 Lyons, Feb. 
12, 1797; violinist and drarn. com- 

A'verkamp, Anton, Willige Langerak, 
Holland, Feb, 18, 1861 Bussum. 
Holland, June i, 1934; composer and 
conductor; pupil or Daniel de Lange, 
Kiel, Rheinberger, Messchaert; our. 
of a singing school in Amsterdam and 
(1890-1914) of a famous a cappella 
choir with which he perf. old church 
music; c. orch., chamber music, 
choral works, songs, etc. 

A'very, J., d. England, 1808; organ- 

Av'ison, Chas., Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
1710 May 9, 1770; organist, writer 
and composer; vide Robert Brown- 




Aylward (Sl'-wSrd), Hi., ca. 1730 

1801; teacher and composer. 
Ayrton (&r'-tiin), (i) Edm,, Ripon, 

Yorks, 1734 Westminster, 1808; 

composer. (2) "W., London, 1777 

1858; son of above; writer and editor. 
Azzopardi (ad-z5-par'-d5), Francesco, 

conductor and theorist at Malta, 

Azevedo (ath-S-vfi'-dhS), Alexis Jacob, 

Bordeaux, 1813 Paris, 1875; writer. 

Babbi (bab'-be), Christoph (or Cristo- 
foro), Cesena, 1748 Dresden, 1814; 
violinist and composer. 

Babbini (ba-b5'-n6), Mat., Bologna, 
1754 1816; tenor, dSbut, 1780. 

Ba'oell, Wm., ca. 1690 Canonbury, 
England, 1723; organist, teacher and 
composer; son of a bassoon-player. 

Bacc lord (bak--l5'-n6) , Salvat6re, 
noted Ital. buffo-bass; Met. Op., 

Bac'f ark (or Bacfarre), Valentin (rightly 
Gnraew (grfcv), Kronstadt, 1507 
Padua, 1576; lutenist and writer. 

Bach (bfckh), the name of a Thuringian 
family prominent for two centuries 
in music and furnishing so many 
organists, Kapellmeisters and cantors 
that town musicians were called "the 
Bachs," after them. Outstanding 
were: (x) Bach, Jn. Sebastian, Else* 
nach, March 21, 1685 Leipaag, 
July 28. 1750; youngest son of Jn. 
Ambrosms B. and Elizabeth (nee 
Lammerhit), of Erfurt; early left an 
orphan; both parents died when he 
was ID, his father having begun 
teaching him the violin. He went to 
the home of his brother Jn. Chris- 
toph, who taught him the clavichord, 
but forbade him inspection of a MS. 
vol. of works by Frohberger, Buxte- 
hude, etc., obtaining it secretly B* 
copied it by moonlight for 6 months, 
though near-sighted, with results 
fatal to his eyes in later life. This 
desire to study other men's work 
characterised his whole career. At 
15 his fine soprano voice secured him 
free tuition at St. Michael's Ch. in 
Ltineberg (he having already at-* 
tended tne Ohrdruff Lyceum). He 
went on foot on holidays to Hamburg 
to hear the great Dutch organist 
Reinken, and at Celle he heard the 
French instr. music used "in the 
Royal ChapeL He studied also the 

work of B$hm, organist at Luneberg, 
and practised violin, clavichord and 
org. often all night" 1703, in the 
Weimar ct.-orch.; 1724, organist at 
Arnstadt; 1705, walked 50 miles to 
Lubeck to hear Buxtehude, and 
stayed till a peremptory recall from 
the Church at Arnstadt; 1707, organ- 
ist at Muhlhausen. On Oct. 17, he 
m. Maria Barbara Bach, his cousin, 
who bore him 7 children, of whom 4 
died, leaving a daughter, Wm.- 
Friedemann, and K. P* E. (See be- 
low.) 2708, he played before the 
Duke at Weimar, and was made ct,- 
organist; 2714 Konzertmeister. In 
his vacations he made clavichord and 
org. tours. 1714, he furnished the 
organ-music for a service conducted 
in the Thomaskirche, Leipzig, and 
produced a cantata. Dresden, 1717, 
he challenged Ma re hand, a French 
organist of high reputation, who was 
afraid to compete. 1717 Kapell- 
meister to Prince Leopold of Anhalt, 
at Kdthen, and composed much 
orch.- and chamber-music. In 1710 
he revisited Halle, to meet Handel, 
but he had just gone to England. 
2720, his wife died. He applied for 
the organ of the Jacobskirche, Ham- 
burg* B. was now famous, but a 
young rival offered to pay 4,000 
marks for the place and got it. In 
1721 he m. Anna Magdalene WUlken, 
daughter of the ct. -trumpeter at 
Weissenfels. She bore him 13 chil- 
dren, o. of them sons, ol whom only 
a survived him: Jn., Christoph, Fr*, 
and Jn. Christian. His second wife 
had a fine voice and musical taste* 
and wrote out the parts ol many ol 
his cantatas; lor her be prepared 
2 books of music* In May, 1723, 
cantor at the Thomasachule, Leipzig. 
vice Jn. Ku&nau; also organist ana 
dir. of cans, at the Thomaskirche and 
the Nicolaikirche, continuing as 
"Kapellmeister vom Haus aus.** to 
Prince Leopold. He was made, 
1736) hon. cond. to the Duke of 
Weissenfels, and court-composer to 
the King of Poland, and Elector of 
Saxony. He kept his place at Leip- 
zig for twenty-seven years, and there 
wrote most of his sacred music. He 
often visited Dresden, where he could 
hear the Italian opera, cond. by 
Hasse. Frederick the Great having 
asked to hear him, on May 7, 1747, 
with his son WUhelm Fneoemaiux 



B. arrived at Potsdam. He impro- 
vised upon the various Silbermann 
pianos in the palace, followed from 
room to room by the king and his 
musicians. The next day he tried 
the principal organs in Potsdam, 
improvising a 6-part fugue on a 
theme proposed by the king. He 
afterward wrote a 3-part fugue on 
this theme, a Ricercare in 6 parts, 
several canons inscribed "Thematis 
regii elaborationes canonicae," and 
a trio for flute, violin, and bass, 
dedicating the " Musikalisches Opfer" 
to the king. 1749, two operations to 
restore his sight, weakened by copy- 
ing his own and other men's works 
and engraving his "Art of Fugue," 
left him totally blind and ruined his 
previous vigour. His sight was 
suddenly restored, July 10, 1750; 
but 10 days later he died of apoplexy. 
He dictated the choral "Vor deinen 
Thron ire? ich kiemit," shortly before 
bis death* 

Among his distinguished pupils were 
Krebs, Homilius, Agricola, Kirnber- 
ger, Goldberg, Marpurg; J* Kasper 
Vogler; Altmkol, his son-in-law, and 
his sons for whom he wrote the 
" Klavierbuchlein," and the " Kunst 
der Fuge." He engraved on copper; 
invented the "viola pomposa" and 
the "Lauten-Clavicembalum"; he 
advocated equal temperament (vide 
D. D.), tuning his own pianos and 
writing "Das Wohltemperirte Kla~ 
t%** to further the cause. This 
work (known in English as "The well- 
tempered Clavichord," or "The 48- 
Fugues**) is a set of 48 preludes and 
fugues, two of each to each key, 
major and minor* The works are 
very chromatic and use the keys 
eaharmonically. Some of his im- 
provements in fingering still survive. 
Bach was little known as a composer 
during his life, and few of his works 
were published then. He was not 
indeed established on his present 
pinnacle till Mendelssohn took up 
lus cause, in 1839; Franz was also an 
important agent in preparing his 
scores for general use. In 1850, a hun- 
dred years after his death, the BACH- 
GESELLSCHAFT began to publish 
bis complete works. Many other 
Bach societies now e*!at, B*s. enor- 
mous list of works includes: VOCAL, 
5 sets of cfcureh Cantatas for Sundays 
and feast-days, "Gottts ZeU ist die 

beste Zeit," etc., various secular 
cantatas, 2 comic cantatas, the 
"Bauern Cantate" and "Cofee-Can- 
tate," a protest against the excessive 
use of the beverage, and Trauerode, 
on the death of the Electress of Sax- 
ony; 5 Passions, incl. the St. Matthew, 
the St. John, and the St. Luke 
(doubtful); a Christmas Oratorio, in 

5 parts; 4 small masses and the 
Grand Mass in B min.; motets; 2 
Magnificats; 5 Sanctus. INSTRU- 
MENTAL, numerous pieces for clav- 
ichord: inventions in 2 and 3 parts; 

6 "small" French suites; 6 "large" 
English suites; Preludes and Fugues, 
incl. "Das Wohltemperirte Klavier"; 
the remarkable "Goldberg Varia- 
tions" $ pf. -sonatas with instrs., incl. 
6 famous sonatas for pf. and vln.; 
solo sonatas for vln. and 'cello; solos, 
trips, etc., for various combinations 
of instrs., concertos for i to 4 pf s. vln. 
and other instrs., concertos with 
orch.; 6 notable "Brandenburg" 
concertos; overtures and suites, and 
fantasias, toccatas, preludes, fugues, 
and chorale-arrangements for organ. 
The modern-minded musicians of the 
twentieth century have found new 
formal and harmonic interest in B's. 
works, and an entire school has used 
as its slogan, "Back to Bach," in an 
effort to throw off the influence of 
Romantic styles of thought and feel- 
ing. Such a work as his monumental 
"Art of the Fugue" has gained wide 
popularity in the concert-room, the 
latter arr. for orch. by W. Graeser, 
heard in Europe and U. S. often 
after 1926. The best biography of 

B. is by Spitta (Leipzig, 1873-80, 
2 vols.: Eng. transl., London, 1884- 
85)* Other memoirs by Forkel, 
Schweitzer, Parry, Pirro, C. S. 
Terry, Boughton, Buhrraaa. and 

C, F. A. Williams. The Bach 
"Jahrbucher," pub. by Breitkopf & 
Hartel, also hold much material of 
value. Books on Bs. music have 
been issued in great numbers, incl. 
works by Fuller-Maitland, Grace, 
Iliffe, Prout, Riemann, Schweitzer, 
Whittaker and C. S. Terry, (See 
article, page 482.) 

(2) Karl Philipp Ematmel ("the 
Berlin" or "Hamburg Bach"), Wei- 
mar, March (8?) 14, 17*4 Ham- 
burg (Sept. ?) Dec. 14, 1788. Son of 
above (Johann Sebastian Bach)* 
Studied philosophy and law at Lip- 


zig- and Frankfort; cond. a singing 
society at Frankfort, for which he 
composed. 1737 (38?) in Berlin. 
Chamber-mus, and clavecinist to 
Frederick the Great, 1746-57 [or 
1740-67?]. 1757 Hamburg as Ch. 
mus.-dir.; 1767 as Musik-director of 
the principal church there, vice Tele- 
mann, a position held till death. 
He was one of the chief virtuosos of 
the day. He was the founder of the 
modern school of piano-playing, and 
a pioneer of greatest importance in 
the sonata and symphony-forms and 
orchestration, his works having a 
graceful modernity not possessed 
even by most of his father's. He 
wrote "Versuch tiber die wahre Art 
das Clavier zu spielen" (2 parts, 
175362), an important work con- 
taining detailed explanations con* 
cerning ornaments. His very numer- 
ous comps. include 210 solo pieces; 
52 concertos with orclu; quartets, 
trios, duets, sonatas, sonatinas, min- 
uets, polonaises, solfeggi, fugues, 
marches, etc., for clavier; 18 sym- 
phonies; 34 miscellaneous pieces for 
wind-instrs*, trios; flute-, 'cello-, and 
oboe-concertos; soli for flute, viola 
di gamba, oboe, 'cello, and harp, 
etc., and a oratorios ("Die Israelites 
in der Waste," and "Die Aufersteh- 
ung und Himmclfakrt Jesu"), 22 
Passions; cantatas, etc. 

(3) Johann Chr. ("the London 
Bach")* Leipzig, Sept. 7 (?), 173$ 
London, Jan. i, 1702; youngest son 
of J. S. Bach; pupil of his brother 
Emanuel and Martini in Bologna; 
1760-2, org. Milan Cathedral; after 
1762 lived in London as music 
master, C. over xs operas, choral 
works, many symphonies or over- 
tures,clavier concertos and sonatas. 

(4) wllhelm Friedemann, Weimar, 
1710 Berlin, 1784; eldest son of 
J. S* Bach; gifted but dissolute; 
*733> org. in Dresden; 1747-64, 
Halle; c. 25 cantatas, many con- 
certos, etc. 

Baefce (bach), (r) Rands Edw n Bir- 
mingham, 1833 1858; violinist, (a) 
Walter* Birmingham, 1842 London. 
1888, bro. of above; pianist and 
teacher. (3) Constance, Edgbaston, 
March ri, 1846 Montreux, June 
28, 1903; sister and pupil of above; 
pupil of EUind worth and Hartvigson; 
teacher, translator, and composer in 

Baclxelet (bash-la), Alfred, b. Paris. 
Feb. 26, 1864 194-; studied at 
Cons, in Paris; won Prix de Rome; 
from 1919 dir. of Nancy Cons*: after 
almost a quarter century of obscur- 
ity, he prod, several lyric dramas that 
placed him in front rank of con- 
temporary French composers, esp. 
"Quand la Cloche Sonnera" (Paris 
Op.-Comique, 1922) and "Scemo" 
(Paris Op., 1914* later revived). 

Bachmann (bfikh-man), (2) Anton, 
1716 1800; court-musician at Ber- 
lin, instr.-maker; inv. the machine- 
head. His son and successor, (2) 
Karl L^ 1743 i8oo e court- violinist, 
player, married the pianist and singer 
(3) Charlotte Karoline WiHielmlne 
Stowe, Berlin, 1757 1817. (4) Pa- 
ter Sikttts, Kettershausen, Bavaria, 
July 18, 1754 Marchthai, near 
Vienna. 1818; organist and pianist of 
unusual precocity, and memory; said 
to have played by heart over 2oc 
pieces at 9; at 12 equalled Mozart, 
then xo years old, in organ-competi- 
tion, at Biberach; became a Premon- 
strant monk, composed Masses, etc* 
(5) O* Chr-^ Paderborn, 1804 Brus- 
sels, 1842; clarinet-maker, soloist and 
teacher. (6) Georges, ca* 1848 
Paris, 1894, (7) Gottlob, Bornitz, 
Saxony, 1763 Zeitc, 2840, organist* 
(8) Alberto (rightly Abraham), b. 
Geneva, Switzerland, March 20, 
1875; violin virtuoso; pupil of Thom- 
son, Hubay and Petri; lived ia Paris 
as teacher: made many tours of 
Europe and after xox6 in U. S.; ed 
4< Encyclopedia cf tk* VMi*" (1923). 

Bachofeu (b&kli'-ol-en), Jn. Kasper, 
Zurich, x6$7 X7ss; organist* 

Bachrich (bfikh'-rlkh), Sigismund, 
Zsambokreth, Hungary, Jan. 23, 
1841 Vienna, July 16, 1^*3; vioHn- 
ist, pupil and then teacher at Vienna 
Cons.; composed 4 comic operas incl. 
"D*r Fucks-Major" (Prague, 1889), 

Agathe, Holmestrand, Norway, Dec. 
i t 1847 Christiania, June 6, 1007; 
pianist and composer; pupil of Kje- 
rulf, Billow and Liszt; she married 
1375, Grondahl, singing-teacher in 

Backers, Americus. Vide BROADWOOD. 

Bac{k)haws (bak'-hows), WHheim* b. 
Leipzig, March 26, 1884; eminent 
pianist; pupil of Reckendorf and at 
the Cons-* later of d*A!bert; from 


900 toured; 1905, piano teacher 
R. C. M., Manchester, but won the 
Rubinstein prize and toured again; 
1911 the U. S.; 1907 taught master- 
courses at Sondershausen Cons. 

Back'ofen, Jn. G. H., Durlach, Baden, 
1768 Darmstadt, 1839; virtuoso 
and manufacturer of wind-instrs. at 
Darmstadt; writer and composer. 

Ba'con, (i) Richard Mackenzie, Nor- 
wich, Engl. 1 776 1844.; teacher and 
writer. (2 Catherine, b. Chester- 
field, EngL, June 2, 1896; pupil of 
Arthur News tea d, whom she married 
1916; toured United States and 
Canada, including series of Beetho- 
ven and Schubert sonatas, New 
York; member, faculty, Juilliard 
School of Music, New York. 

Bader (ba'-dSr), K. Adam, Bamberg, 
1789 Berlin, 1870: cathedral-organ- 
ist, Bamberg (1807); later first tenor 
Berlin court opera (1820-45). 

Badia (ba-de'-a), (i) Carlo Ag., Venice, 
1672 Vienna, 1738; court-composer 
at Vienna. (2) Luigi, Tirano, Na- 
ples, 1819 Milan, 1899; composed 
4 operas. 

Badiali (ba-dl-a'-le), Cesare, Imola, 
1810 Nov. 17, 1865; basso; dbut, 
Trieste, 1827; sang throughout Italy; 
1659 in London, 

Bagge (bag'-ge"), Selmar, Coburg, 1823 
Basal, 1*896; editor and composer. 

Bai (or Baj) (ba'-S), Tonamaso, Cre- 
valcuore, near Bologna, ca* 1650 
Rome, Dec. 22, 1714; tenor at the 
Vaticaa; conductor, 1 7 1 3 ; composed a 
"Mistrere," sung in the Papal Chapel, 
during Holy Week, alternately with 
those by Allegri arid Baini. 

Baif (blf), Jn, A. de, Venice, 1532 
Paris, 1589; composer. 

Bailey Apfelbeck, Marie Louise, b. 
Nashville, Tenn., Oct. 24, 1876; 
Leipzig, Cons. Pupil of C. Reinecke, 
winning a scholarship, and with 
Leschetizky; dbut, 1893, Gewand- 
haus, Leipzig; former chamber- 
virtuoso to King Albert of Saxony; 
after 1900 toured Europe and U. S. 

Bailly (bJ'-ye) Louis, b. Valenciennes, 
France; violist; pupil of Paris Cons., 
first prize for viola; played with 
Capet, Geloso, Flonzaley, Elman 
ana Curtis Quartets; soloist with 
leading Amer. orchestras; head of 
dept. of viola and chamber music, 
Curtis Inst., Philadelphia; cond. at 

Pittsfield Fest., 1918, and also of 
chamber ensemble of Curtis school. 

Baillot (bi'yo), (i) P. M, Fran, de 
Sales, Passy, Oct. i, 1771 Paris, 
Sept. 15, 1842; eminent violinist, 
pupil of Polidori, Sainte, Marie, and 
Pollani; later prof, of vln. at the Paris 
Cons.; toured Europe; 1821, leader 
at the Grand Opera; 1825, solo 
violinist, Royal Orch.; wrote famous 
"L'Art du Violon" (1834) and 
"M&thode dtt Violon*'; composed 10 
vln. concertos, 3 string-quartets, 24 
preludes in all keys, etc. (2) Re*n 
Paul, Paris, 1813 1889; son of 
above, Prof, at Paris Cons. 

Baini (ba-S'-ne"), Abbate, Gins,, Rome, 
*775 1844; composer and conductor 
at St. Peter's; wrote famous life of 
Pales trina. 

Bain 'ton, Edgar Leslie, b. London, 
Feb. 14, 1880; composer; studied 
R. Coll. of Music, under Davies, 
Stanford and Wood, winning several 
state prizes; after 1912, dir. of Cons, 
at Newcastle-on-Tyne, and led Phil, 
Orch. there, retiring in 1918; ap- 
peared as guest cond. with Amste*^ 
dam Concertgebouw; c. symph., 
choral* piano works, etc. 

Baj (ba'-S). Vide BAI. 

Bajetti (bS-ygt'-tg), Giov., Brescia, ca. 
1815 -Milan, 1876; violinist, con- 
ductor and dram, composer. 

Ba'ker, (i) G., Exeter, England, 1773 
Rugeley, 1847; organist, violinist, 
and composer. (2) Benj. Franklin^ 
Wenham, Mass., July 10, xSxi- 
Boston, 1889; singer, teacher, and 
editor. (3) Theodore, New York, 
June 3, 1851 Leipzig, Oct. 13, 1934; 
editor and author; Ph.D. s Leipzig 
Univ., 1882, with thesis on music or 
North American Indians; also stud- 
ied with Oscar Paul there; after 1892. 
literary ed. for publishing house of 
G. Schirmer, N. Y.; ed. Baker's 
'Dictionary of Musical Terms" and 
"Biographical Dictionary of Musi- 
cians ; tr. many technical works on 

Baklanoff (bak-lan'-of), Georges, b. 
St. Petersburg, 1882 Basle, 1938; 
barytone; LL. H., Petersburg Univ., 
1904; studied singing with Vittorio 
Vanzo; debut in Rubinstein's *'Z?- 
mon," 1905; sang Co vent Garden 
Op., Berlin Royal Op., Vienna Imp. 
Op*, Moscow, Petrograd, Monte 
Carlo, Budapest, Stockholm, Mu- 
nich; first visited U. S., 1909; membex 



Boston Op. Co., and after 1917 of 
Chicago Op. Co. 

Balafcirew (ba-la-k5'-rSf), Mily Alexe- 
jevitch, Nijni-Novgorod, Jan. 2, 1837 
St. Petersburg, May 28, 1910; 
eminent composer,; member Group 
of Five; studied at Kasan Univ., as 
a musician, self-taught; dSbut as 
pianist in St. Petersburg, 1855; 
Sounded the "Free Music School/' 
1862; 1866, opera-conductor Prague; 
1867-70, conductor Imj>. Music 
Society, St. Petersburg, retired 1872; 
composed sympbu poems "Russia 9 * 
and "Tamara"; music to "King 
Lear 9 '; 4 overtures; an Oriental fan- 
tasia, "Islamey," for pf., also sym- 
phonies in C and in D minor; piano 
concerto, many smaller works for the 
instrument and two collections of 
songs. His letters to and from 
Tschaikowsky were ed. by Liapunov 

Balart <b&-lart'), Gabriel, Barcelona, 
1824 1893; studied in Paris; conduc- 
tor, later director, Barcelona Cons.; 
composed zarzuelas (Vide D. :>.) 

Balafka, Hans, Hoffnungsthal, Mora- 
via, 1827 Chicago, 1899; stu ^ied 
at Vienna; i84p, Amenca; 1851, 
founded the Milwaukee Musikve- 
rein: 1860, conductor of Chicago 
Philh. Soc.; composed cantatas, etc. 

Balbtoe or Balbastre (bal-batr), 
Claude Louis, Dijon, 1720- Paris, 
1799; pupil and friend of Rameau; 
organist and composer. 

Balbl (bar-b5), (x) Ludovico, composer 
and conductor at S, Antonio, Padua; 
d* 1604, Franciscan monastery, 
Venice. (2) (Cav.) Melchiore, Ven- 
ice, 1796 Padua, 1879; church- 
conductor, theorist and composer. 

Baldewin (bal-dS-ven). Vide BAtn> 

Bald'win, (x) Ralph Lyman, East- 
hampton, Mass., March 27, 1872; 
educator and composer; active as 
organist, choir director and music 
supervisor in Northampton, Mass., 
and Hartford, Conn; after 1900 fac- 
ulty member of Inst. of Music 
Pedagogy at former city. (2) Sam- 
uel Atkinson, b. Lake City, Minn,, 
tn. 22, 1862; organist; studied at 
re&den Cons.; active as org. in 
Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis, and 
after 1895 in New York, where he 
taught at City College and gave a 
memorable series of recitals during 
many years. 

Balfe (balf), Michael Wm,, Dublin, 
May 15, 1808 Rowney Abbey, 
Hertfordshire, Oct. 20, 1870; operatic 
composer; pupil of O'Rourke, Ire- 
land, and C. F. Horn, London; 1824, 
violinist Drury Lane; also sang in 
London; went to Italy with his pa- 
tron Count Mazzara, and studied 
comp. with Frederici at Rome, and 
singing with F. Galli at Milan; his 
ballet "La Ptroust," prod, there 
(1826); pupil of Bordogni, and first 
barytone at the Ital. Opera, Paris 
(1828), and elsewhere till 1835; com- 
posed several Italian operas; m. the 
Hungarian singer Lina Rosen {1808 
London, 1888); he ret. to England 
3835, *Bd P^od- "Tkc ?*>* J R- 
cheUe^ (Drury Lane); failed as man- 
ager; went to Paris, returned 1843, 
and prod. " The Bohemian Girl" very- 
successful everywhere; prod. Paris, 
1850, in s-act version as "La Bok&~ 
miennc." In 1857, his daughter 
Victorie made her dbut in Italian 
opera; 1864, he retired to his country- 
seat, Rowney Abbey: he composed 
31 operas in all, including "Tbe Rose 
of Castile" (1857); "Satantlla"- 
(1858): "11 Talismano'* (1874); biog. 
by C. L. Kenny (London, 2878), and 
W. A. Barrett (do. 1882). 

Ballantirie, Edward, b. Oberlin, O., 
Aug. S, 1886; pianist and composer; 

Eupil of Schnaoel and Ganz (piano); 
palding and Converse (comp.); 
alter 19x2 taught theory at Harvard; 
c. orch. works tncl. "The Eve 0} Saint 
Agnts" (Boston Symph., 1917); 
chorus, piano, violin pieces, etc. 
Ballard fc*l-l&r'), a family of French 
music-printers; founded 2552 by 
Robert B., with a patent, from Henri 
II., as "Seul imprimeur de la causique 
de la chambre, chapelle et menus 
plaisirs du roy." The patent expired 

Bal^lLg, Michael, Heidingsfeld, Bava- 
ria, Aug. 28, 1866 Darmstadt, 
Sept. i, 1925; noted conductor; pupil 
of Wilrzburg Mus. Sch,; at 28 played 
'cello in Mainz City Orch.; and later 
in Schwerin and Bayreutb orchs.; 
founded inns. &cb. in Ne2Bon Aus- 
tralia; later a viola virtuoso in Eng- 
land; 7896, assistant cond. at Bay- 
reuth; choral dir. at Hamburg Op.; 
1898, first cond. at LObeck; alter 
1906, regularly cond. at Bayreuth; 
19x1*24, succeeded Richter as cond. 
is Manchester, Engl.; alter 


gen. mus. dir. in Darmstadt; one of 
the leading Wagner conductors of Ms 
day and ed. that composer's works 
for the Breitkopf and HSLrtel com- 
plete edition. 

Baltzell, Winton J., Shiremanstown, 
Penn., Dec. 18, 1864 -New York, 
Jan. 10, 1928; graduated Lebanon 
Valley College; at 24 took up music, 
studied with Emery and Thayer; 
later in London with Bridge and 
Parker, later with H. A. Clarke, 
Philadelphia, as editor; taught musi- 
cal history and theory at Ohio 
Wesleyan University one year, then 
returned to Philadelphia; edited a 
"Dictionary of Musicians" (1911). 

Bamp'ton, Rose, b. Cleveland, O., 
1910; soprano; studied at Curtis 
Inst. of Music, Philadelphia, with 
Horatio Connell and Queena Mario; 
sang with Chautauqua, N. Y., Op. 
Ass r n., 1929; with Philadelphia 
Grand Op. Co. for three seasons; with 
Philadelphia Orch., in Schonberg's 
"Gurrelieder" ; and after 1933 with 
Met. Op. Co.; toured Europe with 
succ., 1937. 

Banchieri (bn-kX-3/-rg), Adr., Bologna, 
1565 (?) 1634; theorist and organist. 

Banck (bnk), K., Magdeburg, 1809 
Dresden, 1889; critic and vocal 

Banderali (ban-dS-rfi/-lS), Davidde, 
Lodi, 1780 Paris, 1840, buffo tenor, 
then teacher at Paris (Jons. 

Bandini (b&n-dS'-neO (i) Prime, Parma, 
Nov. 29, 1857 Piacenza, May 3, 
1028, where he was dir. of Cons, 
after 1886; pupil R. School of Music 
there; composed successful operas 
"Eufemiodt Messina" (Parma, 1878), 
"Fausta" (Milan. 1886), "Janko^ 
(Turin, 1897). (2) Uberto Rieti, Um- 
bria, March 28, 1860 near Naples, 
Nov. 20, 1919; pupil of Giustimani, 
Boldoni, Rossi Tergiani, and Sgam- 
bati; composed prize overture <t Eleo- 
nora" symphony, etc. 

Bandrowsfa (bSn-drdf'-shkX), Alex. Rit- 
tervon, Lubackzow, Galicia, April 22, 
1860 Cracow, May 28, 1913; oper- 
atic tenor, studied Cracow University, 
then with Sangiovanni, Milan, and 
Salvi, Vienna; d6but Berlin, for some 
years leading tenor Cologne opera, 
also in Russia, and oratorio in Eng- 
land; sang Paderewski's "Manru" at 
Warsaw and in New York, 1902. 

Baa 'ester, Gilbert, x6th cent.: Eng- 
lish composer of Flemish influences. 


w Mala, b. Norway, April 1877; 

T Y. Oct. 1940; violinist. Dedagogue; 
pupil of Leipzig Cons., Marteau and 
Auer; d6but in Oslo, 1900, where she 
founded a music school; 1919 taught 
in Auer's Academy in New York; 
has toured and lectured extensively 
and is author of methods for violin. 
Banister, (i) J., London, 1630 1676 

1831; composer. (4) Hy. Joshua, 
London, 1803 1847. (5) Sy Chas., 
London, 1831 1897, son of (3); 
pianist, teacher, and writer, pub. 
"Lectures on Musical Analysis." etc. 

Banti-Giorgi (b&n'-tg-j6r'-je). Brigida, 
Crema, Lombardy, 1759 Bologna, 
Feb. 1 8, 1806; dram, soprano; first a 
chanteuse in a Paris cafe", later en- 
gaged at the Grand Opera; toured 
Europe with great success; her voice 
was remarkable in compass and even- 
ness, but she was musically illiterate; 
m. the dancer Zaccaria Banti. 

Ban'tock, Sir Granville, b. London, 
1868 d. 1946; studied R. A.M., took 
i st. Macfarren Prize for comp.; his 
first work, dram, cantata "The Fire- 
Worshippers" successfully prod., 
1889; successful i-act romantic opera 
"Caedmar" (London, 1892), conduc- 
tor of Gaiety Theatre Troupe: 1898 
he founded the New Brighton Choral 
Society; 1900 Principal Birmingham 
and Midland Inst. School of Music 
and cond. various societies; 1908 
succeeded Elgar in Peyton Chair of 
Music at Birmingham Univ.; 1898 
he married Helena von Schweitzer. 
He c. "Omar Khayyam" for voices 
and orch. Part I (Birmingham Fest v 
1906), Part II (Cardiff Fest., 1907), 
Part III (Birmingham Fest., 1909); 
comedy overture, "The Pierrot of the 
Minute" overture to "Oedipos at 
Kolonos" (Worcester Fest., 1911); 
mass for male voices; chamber music; 
choral symphs., "Atcdanta in Caly- 
don" and "Vanity of Vanities" i festi- 
val symph., "Christus"-, choral suite, 
"Pageant of Human Life"* tone- 
poems, "Thalabra," "Dante* "&u- 
dibras," "Witch of Atlas," "Lalla 
Rookh," "Great God Pan," "Dante 
and Beatrice," "Fifine at the Fair" 
" Hebridean" Symph.: overtures 
"Saul," "Cain," "Bdshazzar," "Ei*- 
gene Aram," "To a Greek Tragedy"} 
suites, "Russian Scenes," "English 


Scenes" "Dances and Scenes from 
Scottish Highlands," * ' Pagan" 
Symph.; ballets, songs, etc.; symph. 
overture "Saul"; dram, symphony in 
24 parts, "The Curse of Kehama" 

Bap 'tie, David, Edinburgh, Nov. 30, 
1822 Glasgow, March 26, 1906; 
composed anthems, etc.; compiled 

Barbacola. Vide BARBIREAU. 

Barbaja (br-b'-y&), Domenico, Mi- 
lan, 1778 Posilippo, 1841; impre- 

Barbarieu. Vide BARBIREAU. 

Barbedette (b&rb-dSt) H., Poitiers, 
1827 Paris, 1901; writer and com- 

Barbella, Emanuele, d. Naples, 1773; 
violinist and composer. 

Barker, Samuel, b. West Chester, Pa., 
1920; composer; nephew of Mme. 
Louise Homer; grad. Curtis Institute 
of Music; awarded fellowship at 
American Academy in Rome and 
Pulitzer Prize, 1955; c. (orch.) 
"Music for a Scene from Shelley"* 
(N. Y, Phil., 1935); 'cello and piano 
sonata; "Dover Beach" for voice and 
string quartet; songs and piano 
works, etc* 

Bar'bi, Alice, b. Brodena, 1862; mezzo- 
sopr,; pupil of Zamboni, Busi, and 
Vannucceni; de*but, Milan, 1882; 
toured Europe in concert; also a 
violinist and poet; (i) m. Baron 
Wolff -Stomersee; (2) Marchese della 
Torretta, Italian ambassador to 
London, 1920* 

Barbier (bfcrb-ya), (x) !Fr. fit*, Mets, 
1829 Paris, 1889; teacher and lead- 
er; composed over 30 operas, (2) 
Jules Paul, Paris, 1825 Jan., 19015. 
collaborator with Carre*, in the li- 
bretti of many operas, including "Les 
Noces de Jeannette" (Mass*): "I* 
Pardon de Plo'ermcl"* (Meyerbeer); 
"Faust" '(Gounod); "Philemon et 
Baucis" (Gounod): "Romeo et Juli- 
ette"- (Gounod); /c Hamlet"- (Ambr. 

Barbieri (bSr-bX-a'-re), (i) Carlo Emm. 
di, b. Genoa, 1822 Pesth, 1867; 
conductor and dxam, composer. 
(2) Francisco Asenjo, Madrid, 1823 
1894, very pop. composer of 
"Zarsuelas" (Vide *>.) 

Barbireau (b&r-bX-r$) (or Barbiriau, 
Barbarieu, Barbyria'nus, Barberau, 
Barbingaut (bar-b&fc-gO), or Bar- 

baco'la), d. Aug. 8, 149*; 
choirmaster of N6tre-Dame; notable 
cptist., composed masses, etc. 

BarbirolH (b8.r-be-r61'-) , Sir John, b. 
London, 1899; 'cellist and conductor; 
of Italian-French parentage; studied 
atR. Acad.of Music; de" but as 'cellist, 
Queen's Hall, 1911; member of In- 
tern. String Quartet, with which 
toured Europe; founded Barbirolli 
Chamber Orch., 1925; cond. Brit. 
Nat'l. Op. Co., 1926; later appeared 
with London Symph. and Royal 
Phil.; cond. Scottish Orch. and Leeds 
Symph.; guest appearances in Rus- 
sia; 1936-7, cond. N. Y. Phil, for 
5 season term; conductor, Halle* Orch . , 
Manchester, 2942; knighted, 1949. 

Barbot (b&r-bC), Jos. Th. D6sire", 
Toulouse, 1824 Paris, 1897, tenor; 
created "Faust, 9 * 1859; 1875, P^o* 
Paris Cons. 

Barcewicz (bar'-ts-v!ts), Stanislaus, 
Warsaw, April 26, 1858 Sept. a, 
1929; violinist; pupil ol Moscow 
ons.; opera cond. at Warsaw; from 

1885 violin prof, at the Cons*; a 
violm pieces. 

Bardi (bar '-de), Giov., conte del Ver- 
nio, Florentine nobleman and patron 
of the 1 6th cent,, under whose influ- 
ence the attempted revival of the 
Greek lyric drama led to modem 
opera. At his house "Dafne" was 
performed* (Vide PERI.) 

Barge (b&r'-g*), Jn, H. WJQOU, Wulfsahl, 
Hanover, Nov. 23, 1836 Hanover, 
July x6> 192,5; self-taught flutist; 
1867-95 first flute, Leipzig Gewand* 
haus Orch,, retired on pension; 
teacher Leipzig Cons.; wrote **Meth- 
od for Flute*'; composed 4 orchestral 
flute-studies, etc. 

Bargheer (bar'-khfir), (i) K. Louis, 
BUckeburg, Dec. 31, xSajt Ham- 
burg, May *9 2902; violinist; pupil 
of Spohr, David, and Joachim; 2863, 
court-conductor at Detmold; made 
concert-tours; 1879-89, leader Ham- 
burg Phil. Soc., teacher in the Cons.; 
later leader in Billow orch. (a) A,, 
BUckeburg, Oct. 21, 1840 Basel, 
March 10, 1901; brother of above, 
pupil of Spohr; court- violinist I/et* 
mold; 1866, Prof. Basel Sch. of 

Bargiel (bfir'-g*!), Woldemar, Berlin, 
Oct. 3, 1828 Feb. 23, 1897; com- 
poser; pupil, Leipzig Cons.; later 
Prof. In Cologne Cons,; 1865, dir. 
and cond. of the Ms. Sch., Am&ter- 



dam; 1874 Prof, R, Hochschule, 
Berlin; 1882, Pres. "Meisterschule 
fur musikalisrhe Komposition" ; com- 
posed 3 overtures "Zu einem Trauer- 
spiel (Romeo and Juliet)" "Prome- 
theus" "Medea"; a symphony; 2 
psalms for chorus and orchestra; pf.- 
pcs. etc. 

Bar'ker, Chas. Spackmann, b. Bath, 
1806 Maidstone, 1879; organ- 
builder; invented the pneumatic 

Barlow, Howard, b. Plain City, Ohio, 
May i, 1892; conductor; grad. Reed 
College, Portland, Ore.; studied 
music with Lucien Becker, also with 
Frank E. Ward and Cornelius Ryb- 
ner (at Columbia Univ., NT. Y.); 
cond. Reed Coll. choral soc.; after 
1915, Riverdale Choral Soc., N. Y.; 
then at Neighborhood Playhouse 
N* Y., and in recent years active as- a 
leading cond. of radio programmes. 
Bfirman (bar'-m^n), (i) H. Jos., Pots- 
dam,, 1784 Munich, 1847; clarinet- 
virtuoso and composer. His brother 
(2} K., 1782 1842, was a bassoonist; 
3) K. (Sr,), (1811-1885), son of 
L J. B., was a clarinettist; his son 
(4) K, (Jr.), Munich, Ju^jr 9, 1839 
Newton, Mass., Jan. 17, 1913; pupil 
of Liszt and Lachner; teacher at 
Munich Cons,; later lived in Boston, 
Mass., as pianist and teacher; com- 
posed piano pieces. 

dar'nard, Mrs. Chas. (n6e Alington), 
1830 Dover, 1869; composed popu- 
lar songs, etc., under name "Clari- 

Barnt>y, (i) Rob., York, England, 
1821 London, 1875: alto-singer, 
Chapel Royal. (2) Sir Jos,, York, 
EngL, Aug. 12, 1838 London, Jan. 
28, 1896; choirboy at 7; at 10 taught 
other boys; at 12 organist; at 15 
music-master; 1854 entered the R. A. 
M., London; then organist various 
churches and cond.; 1875, precentor 
and dir. at Eton; 1892 Principal of 
Guildhall Sch. of Mus.; knighted. 
July, 1892; composed, "Rebekah^- 
a sacred idyll; Psalm 97; Service in 
E 7 etc. 

Barnekov, Christian, St. Sauveur, 
France, July 28, 183^ Copenhagen, 
March 20, 19^3; musician; of Danish 
parentage; pianist and organist; pu- 
pil of Helfstedt, Copenhagen; c. 
women's choruses with orch.; cham- 
ber music ai>4 songs. 
Barnes, Robt*, (i) violin-maker, Lon- 

don, 1760 1800. (2) Edward Ship- 
pen, b. Seabright, N. J., Sept. 14, 
1887; organist, composer; studied 
Yale Univ,, with Parker and Jepson; 
ass't. org. there; later pupil of Paris 
Schola Cantorum with d'Indy, 
Vierne and Decaux; org. at various 
N. Y. churches; c. organ and choral 
works, songs. 

Barnett, (i) J., Bedford, England, July 
i, 1802 Cheltenham, April 17, 1890, 
"The father of English opera"; pupil 
of C. E. Horn, Price, and Ries; 
brought out his first opera "Before 
Breakfast," 1825; "The Mountain 
Sylph" (1834); the very succ. "Fair 
Rosamond" (1837), and "Farinelli" 
(London, 1838); 1841, singing teacher 
at Cheltenham; left 2 unfinished ora- 
torios, a symphony, etc. (2) Jos. 
Alfred, London, 1810 (?}, 1808; bro. 
of above; composer. (3) J. Francis, 
London, 1837 1916; nephew of 
above; studied with Dr. Wylde; and 
at R. A. M., and Leipzig Cons.; 
d6but as pianist, 1853; 1883, prof, 
at R. Coll. of Mus.; composed ora- 
torio "The Raising of Lazarus" 
symphony in A mm., "Ouverture 
symphonique," overture to " Winter's 
Tale," cantatas, etc. 

Barome'o, Chase, b. Augusta, Ga., 
Aug. 19, 1893; bass; grad. school of 
music, Univ. of Michigan; studied 
singing in Italy; sang at La Scala, in 
Buenos Aires; with Chicago Op., and 
after 1935 with Met. Op. Co., N. Y. 

Baron (b'-r$n), Ernst GL, Breslau> 
1696 Berlin, 1760; court-lutenist 
and theorist; writer and composer. 

Barre* (or Barra) (b&r-rfi or bar'-ra 1 ), 
(x) Leonard, b. Limoges; singer in 
Papal Chapel (1537) and special mu- 
sical envoy to the Council of Trent 
(1545); composed madrigals and 
motets. (2) A., printer, etc., Rome, 
1555-70, later Milan. 

Barrere (bfcr-ar'), Georges, b. Bor- 
deaux, France, Oct. 31, 1876; flutist, 
conductor; studied Paris Cons., ist 
prize, 1895; member orchestra, Paris 
Op., Colonne Orch.; teacher, Schola 
Cantorum, Paris; founder, Modern 
Society of Wind Instruments, Paris, 
1895; member N. Y. Symph. Orch., 
1905-1928; taught Inst. of Musical 
Art, New York, after 1910; founded 
Barrere Little Symphony Orchestra, 
1914; member trio with Carlos Sal- 
zedo and Horace Britt; c. cham 
wks., d. Kingston, N. Y., June, iq44 



Barret (b&r-ra), A. M. Rose, Paris, 1808 
London, 1879; oboist. 

Bar'rett, (i) J., 1674 London, 1735 
(8?); organist. (2) Thos,, violin- 
maker, London, 1710-30. (3) Wm. 
Alex., Hackney, Middlesex, 1836 
London, 1891; editor and writer; co- 
editor with Sir John Staiuer of a 
"Diet, of Music. Terms." 

Barrien'tos, Maria, b. Barcelona, 
1885 d. 1946; coloratura soprano; 
sang with success in Rome at jcx 
years; took two medals for violin- 
playing; later heard in Madrid and 
various Italian theatres as a singer; 
at Met. Op., N. Y., for several seasons 
after 1916; also in South America, 

Bar'rington, Daines, London, 1727 
1800; lawyer and musical essayist. 

Bar'ry, Chas. Ainslie, London, June xo. 
1830 March 21, 1915? P U P& * 
Cologne Cons, and Leipzig Cons.; 
editor and organist; composed a sym- 
phony, 2 overtures, etc. 

Barsanti (bar-s&n'-te), Rran., Lucca, 
ca. 1690 1760; flutist, oboist, and 
composer; 1750, viola-player at Lon- 

Barsot'ti, Tommaso G. F*, Florence, 
1786 Marseilles, 1868; teacher and 

Bartav (bfir'-ta-S), (x) Andreas, Sse*~ 
plat, Hungary, 1798 Mayence, 
1856; 1838 dir. Nat. Th,, Pesth; 
composed Hungarian operas, etc. 
(a) Ede* Oct. 6 T 1825 Sept., xoox, 
son of above; pupil Nat. Mus. Acad- 
emy, Pesth; founded pension-fund 
for musicians; composed overture, 
"Peridts," etc. 

Bartel <bar-ta'-), Girolamo, general of 
Augustinan monks at Rome; pub- 
lisher and composer (i 607-38)* 

Earth (bart), (i) Chr. Samuel, Giau- 
cheau, Saxony, 1735 Copenhagen, 
1800; oboist. (2) F. Phil* K* Ant*, 
b. Cassel, ca 1775; son of above; 
composer. (3) Jos* Jnu Aug., b* 
Grosslippcn, Bohemia, 178*; x8xo- 
30* tenor, Vienna. (4) Gustav, 
Vierma, 1800 Frankfort, 1897; son 
T J^L. P* an * st an< * conductor. 
(5) Kl jBt*, PHlau, Prussia, July 12, 
1:847 Berlin, Dec. 33* 1933; pianist, 
gupil of Von Billow, Bronsart, and 
Tausig; 187 x, teacher at R. Hoch- 
schtlle fur Musik, conductor of the 
Philh, concerts at Hamburg (vice 
von Bulow), (6) Richard, Gros- 
swanzleben, Saxony, Tune 5, 1850^ 
Hamburg, 1033: left-handed violin- 

virtuoso; Univ. Mus. Dir. Marbui& 
till 1894; then Dir. of Hamburg 
Philh. Concerts; 1908, dir. Cons, 
there; sonatas, string quartet, etc. 

Barthe, Grai-Norberi tgr&-n6r-be"r- 
brt), Bayonne, 1828 Asaires, Aug. 
1898; pupil Paris Cons,, 1854. woo. 
the Grand Pri* dc Rome; wrote can 
tata "Franttsca da Rimini" \ com- 
posed operas "Don Carlos" and "La 
Fiantte d'Abydes" (1865); oratorio, 
"Judith," etc. 

Barthel (bar'-tel), Jxu Cfer., Plauen. 
Saxony, 1776 Altenburg, 1831: 
cou rt-organist . 

Barthelemon (bar-ta-i3-m6n) (in Eng- 
lish Bar'tleman), Fran. Hip., Bor- 
deaux, 1741 London, i8o#: violin- 
ist and composer. 

Barthol'oxnew, Wm., London, 1793 
1867; translator. 

Bartlett, (x) J. X7th century 
composer, (a) Homer 1 
Olive, N. Y., Dec. aS, 1846 Hobo- 
ken. N. L, April 3, 1920; pupil of 
S. B. Mills, Max Braun, Tacooson f 
etc* From 14 organist New Yorlr 
churches, including Madison Av 
Bapt. Ch.; published a sextet, a can- 
songs, etc.: opera. "La VaUi&rc* 
oratorio, " Samuel } " etc. 

Bart'muss, Richard, Bitterfeld, Dec, 
a 3 S ?S9 Dessau y Dec. 35, 191^" 
organist; pupU of Grell, Haupt, 
Ldsdbhorti; 1896 royal music director ; 
xooa, professor; c. oratorio "Der 
Tag des Pfin^sUn" 4 organ sonatas 
and much sacred music. 

Bart6k 7 Bela (b&'-iA blr-tOk'), b. Nagy 
Sxent Miklos, Hungary* March 25 
xSSx d*N. V. f Sept. a6, 1045; no ted 
lor researches in folk -music and for 
compositions in originul modem 
idiom; studied with Kocft&ler and 
Erkel v and at Budapest Acad,; prof, 
at latter school alter 1906; his must*, 
employs various ancient scales and 
harmonies, abandoning traditional 
diatonic and chromatic system, and 
treating twelve tones of chromatic 
scale as separate entities; the influ 
ence of archaic folk music was noted 
in B's* turning* about 1007, to thl* 
new style, which then sounded ex* 
tremcly formidable to listeners and 
roused considerable opposition; for a 
time he retired from active composi- 
tion, visiting Biskra to collect 
Arabian folk music; his first major 
recognition came in 1917 when the 



dance-play "Der Holzgeschnitzte 
Prinz" was prod, at Budapest Op.; 
since that ime his works have 
aroused keen interest among modern- 
minded musicians, his greatest succ. 
probably coming with the perf. of 
his "Dance Suite" for orch., based 
on folk airs, at Prague in 1925; B. 
has visited the U. S. as lecturer on 
music and for concerts of his chamber 
music; c. (opera) "Ritter Blaubarts 
Burg' 9 (1918); (pantomime) "Der 
wunderbare Mandarin" (1924); or- 
chestral and chamber music works, 
among which several string quartets 
have had international hearings; two 
violin sonatas, and many piano 
works, incl. collection, "Mikro- 
kosmos"; 3 Piano Concertos; Con- 
certo for Orch.; Concerto for Vln. 
and Orch.; Viola Concerto (posth.). 

Bartoli (bar-t5'-ls), Padre Erasmo, 
Gaeta, 1606 Naples, 1656; church- 
composer under the name "Padre 

Barzin (bar-zan'), Lon, b. Brussels; 
conductor and violist; brox\ght to 
U. S. at age of two; had early lessons 
from his father, who was first violist 
in Met. Op. orchestra: later a pupil 
of Henrotte, Deru, Megsrlin and 
Ysaye; harmony and counterpoint 
with Lilienthal; was mem. of Nat'L 
Symph. Orch., N. Y. 7 1919; the next 
year, second violinist, N, Y, Phil. 
Orch.; first violist in same, and mem- 
ber of Phil. Quartet, 1925; after 1929 
cond. American Oxcfe. Soc., N. Y., 
which was reformed as the Nat'L 
Orch. Ass'n., 1930. 

Baselt (bS'z&t), J&Wtz; (Fr. Gv. O.), 
Oels, Silesia, May 26, 1863 Nov. 12, 
1931; pupil of K&hler and Bussler; 
music-dealer, teacher, and conductor 
Breslau, Essen and Nttrnberg; 1894, 
director of Philh, Verein, and "San- 
gervereinigung" (ca. 1,200 voices), 
Frankfort-ou-Main; composed 9 op- 
erettas, nearly 100 male choruses, 

Bftsevi (bti-fia'-ve"), Abraxno, Leghorn, 
18x8 Florence, 1885; journalist and 

Ba'sil (S*unt), The Great. Caesarea, 
339 Cappadocia, 379; bishop j re- 
puted introducer of congregational 
(antiphonal) singing into the Eastern 
Ch.. preceding St. Ambrose in the 

BaslH (ba-zMe), (i) Dom. Andrea. 
S7*o Loreto, 7773; conductor 

composer; his son (2) Fran., Loreto, 
1767 Rome, 1850; prod, n operas, 
and several dram, oratorios in Rome; 
1837, conductor at St. Peter's, Rome; 
composed also symphonies, etc. 

Basiron (ba'-sl-ron), Giovanni, devel- 
oped the motet, ca. 1430 1480. 

Bassani (bas-sa'-ne) , (i) Giov., ca. 
1600; conductor at St. Mark's, Ven- 
ice. (2) (or Bassiani), Giov. Bat., 
Padua, ca. 1657 Ferrara, 1716; vio- 
linist, conductor, and composer. (3) 
Geron., b. Padua, 1 7th cent.; singer, 
teacher, and composer. 

Bassevi (bas-sa/-ve"X Giacomo. Vide 


Bass'ford, Wm. Kipp, New York, 
April 23, 1839 Dec. 22, 1902; pupil 
of Samuel Jackson; toured the U. S. 
as pianist; later organist at East 
Orange, N. T.; also composer. 

Bassi (bas'-s5), Luigi, Pesaro, 1766 
Dresden, 1825; barytone and direc- 
tor; Mozart wrote the r61e of "Don 
Giovanni" for him. 

Bassiron (b3,s-sX-r6n), Ph., isth cent.; 
Netherland contrapuntist; composed 

Bastardella. Vide AGTIJARI. 

Bastiaans (bas'-t6-ans), (i) J. G., Wilp, 
1812 Haarlem, 1875; organist and 
teacher at Amsterdam and at St. 
Bavo's; his son and successor (2) Jn., 
1854 1885; teacher and composer. 

Baston (b&s-t6n), Josqtun, lived., 1556, 
Netherlands; contrapuntist. 

Bates, (i) Joah, Halifax, 1741 Lon- 
don, 1799; conductor; promoter and 
conductor of the famous "HSndel 
Commemoration" festivals in Lon- 
don (1784-91). (2) His wife was a 
singer. (3) Win., 1720 1790 (?); 
English opera composer. 

Ba'teson, T., England, ca. 1575 after 
1611; organist and composer of 

Bath, Hubert, Barnstaple, Kng., Nov. 
6 > 1883 1945; *Qoi , pupil of Beringer 
and Corder at R. A. M., London; 
1904, won Goring Thomas scholar- 
ship; c. i-act opera, "The Spanish 
Student"; symph. poems; cantata 
"The Wedding oJShon Maclean"; also 
"Cornish Rhapsody" from film score. 

Bathe (bath), Wm., Dublin, 1564 
Madrid, 1614; writer. 

Batiste (bfil-tSst), A. d., Paris, 1820- 
1876; organist, teacher, and com- 



Bat'ka, Richard, Prague, Dec. 14, 1868 
Vienna, April 24, 1922; critic, his- 
torian, and librettist. 

Batta (bat'-ta*), (i) Pierre, Maastricht, 
Holland, 1795 Brussels, 1876; 
'cellist and teacher. His sons were 
(2) Alex., Maastricht, July p, 1816 
Versailles, Oct. 8, 1902; 'cellist and 
composer. (3) J Laurent, Maas- 
tricht, 1817 Nancy, 1880; pianist 
and teacher. 

Battaille (bat-tl'-yii), Chas. Aimable, 
Nantes, 1822 Paris, 1872; dram, 

Battanchon (bat-tfifc-shon), F., Paris, 
1814 1893; 'cellist; inv. (1846) a 
small 'cello, the "barytone." 

Bat 'ten, Adrian, ca. 1585 ca. 1637; 
English organist. 

Bat'tishill, Jonathan, London, 1738 
Islington, 1801; conductor and dram, 

BatUsta (bat-teV-ta), V., Naples, 1823 
1873; dram, compose*. 

Battistini (bat-t5s-t'-n), Mattia, 
Rome, Feb. 27, 1857 Rieti, Nov. 7, 
1928; dram, barytone; d6but, Rome. 
1878; sang at Buenos Aires ana 
principal theatres in Europe; one of 
most accomplished "bel canto" sing- 
ers of his period; was often reported 
to be contemplating tour of u. S., 
for which he rece ? ved tempting offers, 
but his terror of seasickness is said 
to have caused him to refuse them; 
he knew about eighty r61es, princi- 
pally Italian; a notable "Don Gio- 
vanni," etc. 

Batton (b&t~t6ft\ Desire* Alex Paris, 
3797 Versailles, 1855; teacher and 
dram, composer* 

Battu (b&t-ttt), Pantaleon, Paris, 1799 
1870; violinist and composer. 

Baudiot (bSd-yS), Chas. $"., Nancy, 
1773 Paris, 1849; 'cellist. 

Baudoin (or Baudouyn) (ba-dwa&). 


Bauer (bow'-e'r), (i) Harold, b, London, 

April 8, 1873, of English mother and 
German father; eminent pianist: 
played violin in public at 9; studied 
with Gorski, Paris; then the piano, 
in 1892, under Paderewski; deout as 
pianist, Paris, 1893; has toured Eu- 
rope and, since 190*0, America, with 
great success; res. in New York for 
many years; he has long been ranked 
as one of leading solo and ensemble 
players; pres., Beethoven Ass'n* of 
New York; also active as master 
teacher; d. Miami, Fla., Mar. 1 2, 1051 . 

(2) Marion, b. Walla Walla, Was*.. 
Aug. 15, 1887; composer ;incid. music 
for "Prometheus Bound, " string quar- 
tet, songs, etc.; asst. prof, of music, 
N, Y. Univ., 1926; mem. bd. of dirs., 
League of Comps. 

Batildewijn <b5d-w&n) (or Baulduin, 
Baldewin, Baldwin, Baudoin, Ban- 
douyn), Noel (Natalis), Antwerp, 
1513 (or 1518?) 1529; conductor at 
N6tre Dame; and composer. 

Baumf elder (bowm'-ffclt-e'r), Fr., Dres- 
den, May 28, 1836 Aug. 8, 1916; 
pianist; pupil of J. Otto, and Leipzig 

Baumgarten (bowm / -gHrt-n} t K. Wr^ 
Germany, 1740 (?) London, 1824; 
violinist and dram, composer. 

Baumgixtner (bowm'-g$rt-ne'r) > (i) 
Aug., Munich, 18x4 1862; writer OR 
4 'musical shorthand,** etc, (2) WJQOL 
(Guillaume), tSao Zurich, 1867; 
composer and mus. dir. at St. Galien. 

Banmker (blm'-kr), Wm., Elberfdd* 
Get* 25, ^842^ Rurich, 1905; chap- 
lain and school-inspector, Nieder- 
fcrfichten; wrote biogs, of Palestrina, 
Lassus, etc. 

Bausch (bowsh), (i) L* Cixr. Ao^^ 
Naumburg, 1805 Leipzig, 1871; 
maker of violins and bows. His a 
sons were also v In. -makers: (2) 
Lndwig (1820 Leipzig, 1871), lived 
New York, then la Leipzig; and (3) 
Otto, 1841-1874. 

Bausznera (bows'-nrn), Wtldettiar 
vo, Berlin, Nov. 09, x866 Pots* 
dam, Aug. 20, 1931; studied at 
Ba-onstadt, Bu<iapest, Vienna, and 
with Bargiel and Fr. Kiel at the 
Berlin Hochscbuie; 1894 In Dresden,, 
as dir* Singakademle and Liederta- 
fel; 1003, decent at Cologne Cons. 
and dir. of Soc. of Musicians there; 
xoo& din of Weimar School of 
Music; 1916,. din of Hoch Cons., 
Frankfort; c. 4 symphonies; operas. 
**^rffr in Vtncdit* ** Herbert und 
BUda," "Ddf Bundsckuk." **5ul^ 
ros": choral works, chamber music, 
song cycles, etc. 

Bajc (b&ks), Sir Arnold, b. London. 
Nov. 8, i8j-~ Cork, Oct. 3, 19531 pup" 
R.A.M., studying piano with Matt hay 
and comp. with Frederick Corder; 
one of leading contemporary British 
creative figures, with Celtic, neo 
Romantic spirit and clarity of form 
among h^s salient characteristics. 
individual type of chromaticism and 
reticence of expression; c. (orch,) five 


symphonies; Festival Overture; Four 
Pieces; Symphonic Variations for 
piano and orch.; "Tintagel," "Sum- 
mer Music," "Mediterranean," "The 
Happy Forest," "The Garden of 
Fand," "Overture to a Picaresque 
Comedy," "The Tale the Pine Trees 
Knew," "In the Faery Hills"', "En- 
chanted Stimmer" for two sopranos, 
chorus and orch.; "Christmas Eve in 
the Mountains," "Spring Fire," "In 
Memoriam" "November Woods,"' 
"Moy Mell" (chamber music) trio; 
sonata for violin and piano; quintet; 
string quartet; quintet for strings 
and harp; quartet for piano and 
strings; quintet for oboe and strings; 
sonata for violin and piano; 'cello 
sonata; sonata for two pianos; sonata 
for viola and harp; (ballet scores) 
"Between Dusk and Dawn," "The 
Frog-skin," "The Truth about the 
Russian Dancers " also piano music 
and songs. Knighted, 1937. 

Bayer (bl'-Sr), Josef, Vienna, Mar. 6, 
1852 March 12, 1913; composer of 
ballets and operettas; studied at 
Vienna Cons.; cond. at Court Opera. 

Bazin (ba-z&n), Fran. Em* Jos., Mar- 
seilles, 1816 Paris, 1878; dram, 

Bazzixu (bad-zS'-ne 1 ), A., Brescia, 
March n, 1818 Milan, Feb. 10, 
1897; violinist; pupil of Camisani; 
at 17 conductor Church of S. Filippo, 
where he prod, masses and vespers, 
and 6 oratorios with full orch., and 
gave successful concert-tours through 
Europe. 1873, prof, of comp., 1882, 
dir. of Milan Cons. In his compo- 
sitions his native melodiousness 
gained unusual value from a German 
solidity of harmony. 

B6, Le. Vide LE B. 

Beach, Mrs* H. H. A. (ne'e Amy Marcy 
Cheney), Henniker, N. H., Sept. 5, 
1867 N. Y., Dec., 1944; pupil of 
E. Perabo and K. Baermann (pf.), 
and Tunius W. Hill (harmony); self- 
taugnt in cpt,, comp. and orchestra- 
tion, having transl. Berlioz and Ge- 
vaert for her own use; Pres. Board 
of Councillors, N. E. Cons., Boston; 
composed "Godic"> symphony, Mass 
with orch., piano Quintet, piano con- 
certo, choral works, a number of 
attractive aon*s, ate. 

Beale, (i; Wnx., Landrake, Cornwall, 
178*; London, 1854; famous glee- 
composer. (2) J., London, ca. 1796; 

Beard, J., England, ca. 1717 Hamp- 
ton, 1791; eminent tenor for whom 
Handel wrote the tenor r61es in his 
chief oratorios. 

Beauchamps (bo-shan), P. Fran. God- 
ard de, Paris, ca. 1689 1761; writer. 

Beaulieu (rightly Martin) (b5l-yu', or 
mr-tn), M. Dsire, Paris, 1791 
Niort, 1 863 ; patron, writer, and com- 

Beauquier (b5k-ya), Chas., 1833 ?; 
writer of "Philosophic de musique^ 
(1865), and librettist. 

Beauvarlet - Charpentier (bo-vr-la- 
sh&r-pafit-ya), (i) Jean Jacques, 
Abbeyville, 1730 Paris, 1794; organ- 
ist and comp. (2) Jacques Marie, 
Lyons, July 3, 1776 Paris, Nov., 
1834; organist and comp., son of (i). 

Becher (bSkh'-er), (i) Alfred Julius, 
Manchester, 1803 Vienna, 2848; 
editor. (2) Jos., Neukirchen, Ba- 
varia, Aug. i, 1821 Sept. 23, 1888; 
composed over 60 masses, etc. 

Bechstein (bSkh'-shtln), Fr. Wm. K.$ 
Gotha, June i, 1826 Berlin, March 
6, 1900; 1856, worked in German fac- 
tories, later established the well- 
known piano factory in Berlin. 

Beck, (i) David, Germany, ca. 1590: 
organ-builder. (2) Reichardt K-i 
lived in Strassburg, ca. 1650; com- 
poser. (3) Jn. Philip, 1677; editor. 

(4) Michael, b. Ulm, 1653; writer. 

(5) Gf. Jos., Podiebrad, Bohemia, 
*7 2 3 Prague, 1787, Dominican (la- 
ter Provincial) friar, organist; (6) 
Chr. Fr., b. Kirchheim, ca. 1755; 
composer. (7) Fz., Mannheim, 1730 
B ordeaux, 1 809 ; court- violinist. 
(8) Fr. Ad., pub. at Berlin, "Dr. M. 
Luther's Gedanken ilber die Musib, 9 *' 
1825. (9) K, ? 1814 Vienna. 1879; 
tenor; created "Lohengrin" (10) Jn. 
Nepomuk, Pesth, 1827 Pressburg, 
1904; dram, barytone, (n) Jos., 
Mainz, June n, 1850 Pressburg, 
Feb. 15, 1903; son of above, bary- 
tone, sang in Austria, Berlin (1876), 
and Frankfort (1880). (12) Johann 
Heinrich, Cleveland, Sept. 12, 1856 
May 26, 1924; violinist; pupil 
Leipzig Cons.; founded the Cleveland 
"Schubert Quartet"; composed over- 
tures to Byron's "Lara," to "Romeo 
and Juliet" '; cantata "DeukMon" 
(Bayard Taylor), etc. (13) Conrad, 
b. Schaffhausen, Switzerland* June 
x6, 1901; composer; studied with 
Andreae and at Zurich Cons.; res. in 
Berlin, later Paris, where studied 



with Honegger; c. in neo-classic 
manner, but modern harmonisation, 
cantata "Death of ^Oedipus"; four 
symphonies, concertino for piano and 
orch., concerto for string quartet and 
orch.; three string quartets, choral 
works, etc. 

Beck'er, (i) Dietrich (1668), composer 
at Hamburg, 1668. (2) Jn., Helsa, 
near Cassel, 1726 1803; court- 
organist. (3) K, Fd., Leipzig, 1804 
1877; organist and writer. (4) 
Konstantin Julius, Freiberg, Saxony, 
1811 Oberiassnitz, 1859; editor. 

(5) Val. Ed,, WUrzburg, 1814 
Vienna, 1800; dram, composer. 

(6) Georg, Frankenthal, Palatinate, 
June 24, 1834 Geneva, July x8, 
1928; pianist and writer; lived in 
Geneva; pub. "La Musique * 
Suisse," etc. (7) Albert Ernst Ant., 
Quedlinburg, June 13, 1834 Berlin, 
fan. 10, 1899, puptt f Bonicke and 
Dehn; 1881, teacher of comp, at 
Scharwenka's Cons.; also conductor 
Berlin cathedral choir; composed a 
noteworthy symphony, a Grand 
Mass in Bj? min. (1878), and oratorio 
"Selig aus Gnade," etc. (8) Jean, 
Mannheim t May xi, 1833 Oct. 10, 
1884; violinist, leader Mannheim 
orch.; after concert-tours, lived in 
Florence and founded the famous 
"Florentine Quartet"; toured with 
His children, (p) His daughter 
Jeanne, Mannheim. June 9, 2850 
April 6, 1893; pianist, pupil of Rei- 
necke and BargieL (10) Hans., 
Strassburg, May 12, 1860 May x, 
19x7; viola-player, pupil of Singer, 
(xx) Hugo, b. Strassburg, Feb. 13, 
1864: 'cellist; son of Jean B.; pupil 
of ms father, Grtttzmacher, Piatti, 
etc.; 'cellist at the Opera Frankfort, 
1884-86 and 1890-1906; 1806, Royal 
Prof.; succeeded Piatti as ^cellist at 
London Monday concerts; 1909-29, 
taujf ht Berlin Hochschule; later livea 
in Switzerland; made many concert 
tours, including XJ. S. 1900. (12) 
Rheinhold, Adorf, Saxony, 1843 
Dresden, Dec. 4, 1924; violinist; 
lived in Dresden; composed succ. 
operas "Fraucnfob" (Dresden, 1892), 
and "Ra&oW* (Mayeace, 1896), 
x-act: symph. poem "Z>er Print von 
gomburg* etc. (13) K. Kirrweiler, 
near Trier, June 5, X5$3 Berlin, 
Aug, 3X, 1928; teacxxer at Neuwied; 
pub. songbcHDks. (14) Jafeob, founder 
(1841) of large Russian pf.-factory. 

Beck'mann, Jn- FT. GL, 1737 CeOe, 
1792; organist, harpsichord- virtuoso, 
and dram, composer. 

Beck 'with, J, Christmas, Norwich, 
England, 1750-1809; organist and 

Becquie* (bfck-yft), (z) A. (?), Toulouse, 
ca. 1800 Paris, 1825; flutist. His 
brother (2) ("De Peyre Ville"), 
Jean Marie, Toulouse, 1797 Paris f 
1876; violinist. 

Be6raf ovsky (bech '- var-shdf '-shkl), 
Ant. F. Jungbunzlau. Bohemia, 
1754 Berlin, 1823; organist and 

Bed 'ford, Herbert, b. London, Jan, 23, 
1867; composer; lectured on un- 
accompanied vocal music and pub- 
lished an essay on this subject; c. 
(opera) " KU Marlow," syraph. 
chain,, vocal mus., m. Liza Lehrnann 
d. London. March 16, 10,45. 

Bedos de Celie* <bfc-d6 du -sel), Caua> 
near B&dfcres, 1706 St. Maur, 1779; 
Benedictine monk and writer. 

Beech 'am, (*) Sir Thomas, b. near 
Liverpool, EngL, April 29, 1879; 
eminent conductor; son of Sir Joseph 
Beecham; educated at Rossafl Sen.; 
studied comp. with Dr. Sweeting, 
later with Varley Roberts at Oxford 
Univ.; from 1899 founder and leader 
of amateur orch. soc. at Huyton; also 
substituted for Rtchter ID a concert 

t'vea by his father; 2902, cond. of 
elsoa 'iruman's touring op, co.; 
studied comp* for a year and prod* 
three operas; 1905, led his first orch. 
concert in London; 1906-8 founded 
New Syraph. Orch. there and in 
latter year formed Beecham Symph. 
Orch.; 1910 organised season of opera 
at Covent Garden, following this 
with others until 191 $ in which a 
number of first perfs. in England 
were given, esp. Strauss operas, 
Wagner and works in English; later 
cond. of Royal Op. Syndicate and 
after 29x5 of London Phil. Soc.; 
knighted 1916; in recent years artis- 
tic dir. of Covent Garden Op.; has 
appeared widely as guest cond* in 
other countries, incl. N* Y. Phil. 
Orch. and Philadelphia Orch. in 
U. S. (2) Adrian, b. London v Sept. 
4, 1904; son of (x); composer of 
music to "Tfa Merchant of Vtnitt" 
songs, etc. 

Beecke (ba'-k) 1&&& von, 1733 
Wallerstein, 1803: captain of dim* 
goons, then "Muslkiiitendan!" to 



Prince of Ottingen-WaUerstein; harp- 
sichordist; composer of 7 operas, 
Beellaerts (bal-larts), Jean. Vide 


Beer (bar), (i) Jacob Liebmann. Vide 
MEYERBEER. (2) Josef, Grunwald, 
Bohemia, 1744 Potsdam, 1811; 
player of the clarinet, for which he 
invented the fifth key. (3) Max 
Josef, Vienna, Aug. 25, 1851 Nov. 
25, 1908; pianist; pupil of Dessoff; 
lived in Vienna; composed 4 operas, 
incl. the succ. "Der Striek der 
Schmiede" (Augsburg, 1897)', etc. 

Beer-Walbrunn, Anton, Kohlberg, 
June 29, 1864 Munich, March 22, 
1929; studied with Rheinberger, 
leader in Regensburg orch., later 
lived in Munich; taught piano and 
theory at Akad. there after 1901; 
prof., 1908^ c. operas, many orch., 
chamber, piano works, etc. 

Beethoven (bat'-h5-fSn, not bs-tQ'- 
vn), Ludwig van, b. Bonn-on-Rhine, 
Dec. 16 (baptised, Dec. 17, 1770) 
(Beethoven said Dec. 16, 1772), d. 
Vienna, March 26, 1827; grandson of 
Ludwig van B. (a native of Maes- 
tricht, bass singer, opera composer, 
and conductor to the Elector Clem- 
ens August, at Bonn), 2d child of 
Jn. van B. (a tenor singer in the 
Electoral choir), who had m. a 
widow, Magdelena Laym (ne'e Kev- 
erich), a daughter of the chief cook 
at Ehrenbreitstein. B. studied at 
the public schools at Bonn till 14. 
From his fourth year, his father 
taught him music with great severity 
till 1^79. He played the vln. weft 
at 8; at i% he knew Bach's "Wohltem- 
perirte Clavier" Became pupil of 
Pfeiffer, a music-dir. and oboist; and 
Van der Eeden, court-organist, who 
predicted that he would be "a second 
Mozart"; 1785, studied vln. with 
Franz Ries; 1787, took a few lessons 
of Mozart; 1792, Haydn, passing 
through Bonn, praised a cantata of 
his (now lost). The Elector sent B, 
to Vienna, where he studied cpt. 
with Haydn, who seemed to neglect 
him, s^ that he secretly studied with 
Schenck; later he went to Albrechts- 
berger, who said "he has learnt noth- 
ing, and will never do anything in 
decent style"; he studied the vln. 
with Schuppanzigh and consulted 
Salieri and Aloys FSrster; 1781, he is 
believed to have written a Funeral 

Cantata in memory of the English 
charg^ d'affaires at Bonn, who had 
advanced money to the family; 1781 
(1782 ?), his first publication, 3 pf.- 
sonatas, 1782; deputy organist, 1783; 
cembalist for rehearsals of the opera- 
orch., without compensation 1784 
92; asst. organist at an annual salary 
of 150 florins (about $63); from 1788 
also ad viola of the theatre orch. 
Visited Vienna, 1787, and made a 
sensation by extemporising, Mozart 
exclaiming "He will make a noise in 
the world some day." In July his 
tender-hearted mother died of con- 
sumption; his father lost his voice 
and became a sot. B.'s only home 
was in the family of the widow von 
Breuning, to whose daughter and 
son he gave lessons. Here he ac- 
quired his passion for English litera- 
ture. He now made acquaintance of 
young Count Waldstein, who became 
his life-long patron, and in 1792 sent 
him to Vienna, where he hencefor- 
ward lived. The decade 1782-92 
does not show much fertility in com- 
position, half a dozen songs, a rondo, 
a minuet, and 3 preludes for pjE., 
3 pf .-quartets, a pf .-trio, a string-trio, 
P- 3? 4 se ts of pf. variations; a ron- 
dlno for wind; the "Ritter Ballet"* 
with orch. (pub. 1872); "The Baga- 
telles," op, 33; 2 vln.-rondos, op. 51; 
the "Serenade Trio" op. 8; the lost 
cantata, a lost trio for pf ., flute, and 
bassoon, and an Allegro and Minuet 
for 2 flutes. 1792, ne was sent to 
Vienna by the Elector, who paid him 
his salary for 2 years; he had growing 
royalties from his comps., also 
600 florins annually from Prince 
Lichnowsky, his warmest admirer. 
March 20, 1795, he played his C 
major pf.-concerto in the Burg- 
theater, his first public appearance; 
1796, he played before King Fr, Wm. 
II. ; 1708, at Prague, he gave 2 sen- 
sational concerts and met two piano 
virtuosi: Steibelt who challenged B. 
to extemporise and was sadly worsted, 
and Wmffl, who became his friend. 
1800 ends what is called (after von 
Lenz's book "B. et ses trois styles") 
his "first period" of composition; 
the "second period," extending to 
1815; the "third" to 1827, This 
first period includes op. 1-18, pf . and 
string-trios, string-quartets, o pf.- 
sonatas, 7 variations on "God Save 
the Queen" and 5 on "Ride Britan- 


na," the aria "Ah perjido," etc. 
Now a severe and early venereal 
trouble affected his liver, and began 
to ruin his hearing, which by 1822 
was entirely gone. Though he had 
always been brusque (especially with 
the aristocracy, among whom he had 
an extraordinarily long list of friend- 
ships and love-affairs), his former 
generosity and geniality speedily de- 
veloped into atrocious suspiciousness 
and violence toward his best friends. 
The wild life of a nephew whom he 
supported brought him great bitter- 
ness* Until the beginning of the 
"third periodj" however, heTbad large 
stores of joy in life, open-air Nature, 
and the details of his compositions 
which were worked up with utmost 
c&,re from "sketch-books,"- always 
carried with him, and still extant as 
a unique example of genius at work. 
In the arbitrary but somewhat con- 
venient von Lenz classification the 
sd period includes the symphonies 
III VIII; the opera "Fidelia"*, the 
music to "Egmont"*, the ballet 
"Prometheus"; the Mass in C, op. 86. 
the oratorio "Christus am Oefberg- 
(1803); the "Coriolanus" overture; 
a pf.-concertos, i vim-concerto; 3 
quartets; 4 pf. -trios and 14 pf> 
sonatas (among them op* 27, op* 38, 
31, No. 2, 53, 57, and 81); the 
"Lledcrkrcis," etc. The "third pe- 
riod" incl. the five pf .-sonatas, op. xoi , 
nt, the "Missa solennis," the Ninth 
Symphony, the overture "Ruins of 
Athens," the overtures op* 115, 124; 
the grand fugue for string-quartet, 
and the string-quartets op, 127, 130, 
131* *3*> *35 (F). 

"Fidelio" first named "Ltonore" 
w*s prod. Nov. 20, 1805, just a week 
after the French army entered Vien- 
na, It was withdrawn after three 
consecutive performances; revised 
and prod. March 29, 1806, but with- 
drawn by B. after two performances. 
Once more revised, it was revived in 
1814, very successfully; the present 
overture is the result of various ver- 
sions known as the Leonore overtures 
i, 2, and 3* The "Eroica"- sym- 
phonv (No- 3) was called "Sinfonia 
grande Napoleon Bonaparte" in hon- 
our of his advocacy of "liberty, 
equality, and fraternity." When 
Napoleon proclaimed himself em- 
peror, B tore up the title-page in 
wrath and changed the name to 

"Sinfonia eroica composta per 
teggiare il sowenire d*un gron 
(Heroic symphony, composed to 
celebrate the memory of a great 
man.) In the Ninth Symphony, a 
choral Finale is used as the final 
addition to the orchestra! climax of 
ecstasy (the words from Schiller's 
"Hymn to Joy"). In 1809 Jerome 
Bonaparte invited B. to become con- 
ductor at Cassel with a salary of 600 
ducats (about $1,500); but his Vien- 
nese patrons Archduke Rudolf and 
the Princes Lobkowitz and Kinsfcy, 
settled on him an annuity of 4,000 
florins ($2,000), Etec-i- 1826, a vio- 
lent cold resulted in pneumonia; 
dropsy followed, B. saying to the 
doctors who tapped him three times 
and drew out the wuter, "Better from 
my belly than from my pen." After 
an illness of 3 months he took the 
Roman Catholic sacraments, a two- 
days' agony of semi-consciousness 
followed and he died, just after shak- 
ing his clenched fist in the air., during 
a terrific thunderstorm, the evening 
of March 26, 1827. 20,000 persons 
attended his funeral. 
His complete works comprise 138 
opus-numbers and about 70 annum* 
bered corop. The following are 
those published. INSTRUMENTAL. 
9 Symphonies No. i, op. ax, in C; 
a, op, 36, in D; 3, op. 55, in fr (the 
"Erotea.")\ 4, op. 60, In Bb; s, op. 
67, in C min.; 6, op. 68, in F ("Pa?~ 
toral"), 7, op. 02, in A; 8, op. 93, in 
F; o, op, 125, in D mm. ("CtoroJ"), 
"The Battle of Wfctoria" (op. 91): 
music to the ballet " Promttkeusi'* 
(op. 43), and to Goethe's "Bgmon?* 
(op. 84), both with overtures, be- 
sides, nine overtures "Ceriofafutt"; 
"Leon**?* (Nos, i f a, and 3); *W- 
cfeto"; "King Stephen" \ "Ruins of 
Athens" > " Namensteicrf* op* 115; 
" Wtikc dt$ Hauses** (op. 1 24). Also 
for orch.; Allegretto in E^; March 
from "Tarpeiaf* in C; "Military 
March" in D; "Jtf4ferBalfJ"; x*, 
Minuets; ia, "deutsche Tftnjje"; **, 
Contretfinze; vioiin-concerto, op, 6x. 
Five pf .-concertos, the last op. 73, in 
("&mperor n )\ also a pf, -concerto 
arranged from the violin-concerto. 
A triple-concerto, op. $6, for pf. 
vln., 'cello and orch.; a "Ck&nxi 
Fantasia" for pf., chorus and orch.; 
a Hondo in , for pf, and orch.; 
cadences to the pf .-concertos. 



Two Octets for wind, both in Eb. 
Septet for strings and wind. Sextet 
ior strings and 2 horns. One sextet 
for wind, Eb. Two quintets for 
strings; fugue for string-quintet; also 

fuintet arr. from pf .-trio in C min. 
ixteen string-quartets; Op. 18, 
Is os. 1-6 in F, G, D, C min., A and 
Bb (first period); op. 59, Nos. 1-3; 
op. 74, in Eb (the " Harfenquartett"); 
op. 95 (second period); op. 127; op. 
130; op. 131; op. 132; op. 135. A 
grand fugue for string-quartet, op. 
133, in Bb (third period). One pf.- 
quartet (arr. from the pf .-quintet) ; 
3 juvenile pf. -quartets; five string- 
trios; eight pf .-trios, that in Eb being 
juvenile; an arr. of the "Eroica" 
symphony. Grand trios for pf., 
clar. and 'cello op, n; in Bb and in 
Eb (arr. from septet, op. 20) ; trio for 

2 oboes and cor anglais, in C op. 87. 
Ten sonatas for pf . and violin, incl. 
op. 47 (" Rreutzer"); rondo for pf. 
and vln.; 12 variations for do. Five 
sonatas and 31 variations for pf. and 
'cello. Sonata for pf. and horn. 
Sonata for pf., 4 hands. 

38 Sonatas for piano, incl. op. 27. 
Nos. i and 2 (* 'Quasi Fantasia"), 
op. 28 ("Pastorale") in D; op. 53 
("Wcldstein") in C; op. 57 ("Appas- 
sionato") in F min.; op. 81 ("Carac- 
teristique" "Les adieux, I' absence, le 
retour") in Eb. Also 6 easy sonatas, 

3 of them composed at age of 10; 
21 sets of variations for pf.; 3 sets of 
bagatelles; 4 rondos; fantasia in G 
min.; 3 preludes: polonaise; andante 
in F Q'Favori **); 7 minuets; 13 
L&ndler, for 4 hands; 3 marches; 14 

VOCAL. Opera "Ftdelio," in 2 acts, 
op. 72. 2 Masses, in C and D 
(f*Solennis"). Oratorio "Christus am 
Oelberg," op. 85. Cantata "Der 
glorreicke Augenblick," op. 136 
(1814); also arr. as Preis der Ton- 
kunst. Meeresstitte und Gliickliche 
Fahrt, op. 112 (poem by Goethe). 
Scena and aria for soprano, "Ah 
Perfido" with orch,, op. 65. Trio 
for soprano, tenor, and bass, "Tre- 
male, Em ft, Tremate," op. 116. 
"Opferlied" for soprano solo, chorus, 
and orch. "Bundeslied" for 2 solo 
voices. 3-part chorus and wind. 
"Eltgischtr Gesang" for 4 voice-parts 
and strings; 66 songs with pf-- 
accomp.; one duet, "Gesang der 
"; 3 voice-parts a capp. 18 

vocal canons. 7 books of English, 
Scotch, Irish, Welsh, and Italian 
songs, with pf., vln, and 'cello. A 
symphony supposed to be a youthful 
work of his was discovered 1911 in 
the library of the University of Jena, 
by Prof. Fritz Stein, was performed 
there Jan. 17, 1910, and published 
1911; performed in Leipzig, Nov., 
1911, and by Boston Symph., 1912. 
It is not generally accepted as 
Beethoven's but is found weak and 
uninteresting, of Haydnlike simplic- 
ity, with echoes of Mozart. The 
best biography is Alex. W. Thayer's. 
Partial collections of Beethoven's 
letters are pub. and his sketch-books 
are discussed in Ignaz von SeyfriecTs 
tt Ludivig van Beethoven 9 s Studien 
im GeneralbasSy Kontrapunkt und in 
der Kompositionslehre." Selections 
from these have been published; a 
complete edition projected (1935) in 
Germany. Biogs. also by Schindler, 
Nohl, Crowest, etc. Wagner wrote 
an estimate. The vast Beethoven 
literature includes studies of the 
composer by Bekker, Grace, Grove, 
Kalischer, Kerst, Herriot, Kullak, 
Mason, d'Indy, Mies, Newman, Rol- 
land, Marion Scott. Sonneck, Specht, 
J. W. N. Sullivan, Ernest Walker, 
etc: Studies of his sonatas by 
Behrend, Elterlein, Harding, Marx, 
McEwen, Milne, Shedlock and To- 
vey; of the symphonies, by Berlioz, 
Edwin Evans, Sr., Grove, Tovey, and 
Weingartner; the string quartets by 
J. de Marliave (1928). A thematic 
index of his works was made by 
Nottebohm. (See article, page 485.) 

Beffara (bef-fa-ra), Louis Fran$ois> 
Nonancourt, Eure, 1751 Paris, 1838; 
1792-1816, commissaire de police, at 
Paris; musical historian. 

Begnis (ban '-yes), (i) Gius or Win. 
ae, Lugo, Papal States, 1793 
Bath(?), England, 1849; buffo singer; 
in 1816, he m. (2) Signora Ronzi, 
Paris, 1800 (?) Italy, 1853; comic 

Behaim (bS-hlm'), Michel, Sulzbach, 
1416 murdered there, 1474; soldier 
and minnesinger. 

Behm (bam), Eduard, b. Stettin, April 
8, 1862; studied with Paul, Weiden- 
bach, Reinecke, Hfirtel, Raif and 
Kiel; pianist and teacher in various 
cities, then at Berlin as dir. (until 
1901) Schwantzer Cons.; composed 
an opera, "Schelm von Bergen" (Dres- 



den, 1899), a symphony, pf .-concerto, 

Behnke (ban'-ks), Emil, Stettin, 1836 
Ostend, 1892; teacher and writer. 

Behr (bar), (i) Fz., Lubtheen, Meck- 
lenburg, July 22, 1837 Dresden, 
Feb. 15, 1898; composed pf. -pieces, 
under pseud., of "William Cooper," 
"Charles Morley," or "Francesco 
d'Orso." (a) Therese, b. Stuttgart, 
Sept. 14, 1876; alto; pupil of J. Stak- 
hausen, of Scnulz-Dornberg and of 
Etelka Gerster; m. Artur Schnabel, 

*3eier (bl'-er), Fz,, Berlin, April 18, 
1857 Cassel, June 25, 1914; son of 
a military band-masterj pupil Stern 
and Kullak Cons.; cond. at the Royal 
Theatre; composed succ. opera "Dcr 
Posaunist von Sckerkingen" (Cassel, 
1889), a parody on Nessler's well- 
known "Der Trompeter von $&kkin- 
gen"; succ. comic operetta "der 
GauncrkVnig" (Cassel, 1890), etc, 

BekTcer, Paul, Berlin, Sept. u, 1882 
New York, Feb., *937; writer; 
originally a violinist; pupil of Reh- 
feld, Sormann, and Horwits; became 
critic of Berlin Neueste Nachrichten, 
1906; Allgemeine Zeitung, 1909; 
Frankfurter Zeitung, 1911-23; inten- 
dant of Cassel Stadttheat., 1925-7; 
and of Wiesbaden Op., 1927-32; 
after 1934 critic of Staats-Zeitung, 
New York; author of many books on 
music, incl. "Beethoven " (19* x); 
"Das Deutsche Musikleben" (19x6): 
"Die Symphonien Gustav Maklers** 
(1921); "Richard Wagner" (1925); 
"Die Oper," etc. 

Belaiev, (x) Mitrofan, St. Petersburg, 
Feb. 10, 1836 Jan. 10, 1904; noted 
music patron and eccentric million- 
aire, who sponsored the work of the 
Russian Nationalist group of com- 
posers, also establishing in 1885 the 
important pub. house in Leipzig for 
works by his countrymen* ( 2} vic- 
tor Michailovitch, b. Uralsk, Russia, 
Feb. $, 1888; eminent musicologist 
and writer on music. 

Belce* Vide REUSS-BELCE, 

Belcke (beT-kS)> (i) iffr* Atig., Lucka, 
Altenburg, 1795 1874: the first 
trombone virtuoso. (2) Chr. Gl 
Lucka, 1796 1875; bro. of above; 

Beldomaa'dis (or Beldeman'dis, Bel* 
deman'do), Prosdo'cimus de, b. 
Padua, i$th cent,; prof, of philoso- 
phy, ca. 1422: theorist. 

Beliczay (ba'-ll-cha-fi), Julius von, 
Komorn, Hungary, 1835 Pesth. 
1893; violinist. 

Belin (or Bellin) (bu-!an), (i) Guil., 
ca. 1547; tenor Chapelle Royaie, 
Paris. (2) Julien, b. Le Mans, ca. 
1530; lutenist. 

Bell, William Henry, b. St. Albans, 
Aug. 20, 1873; pupil at the R. A. M.; 
won Goss scholarship, 1889; 1903, 
prof, of harmony there; c. sympho- 
nies "Walt Whitman" and " The Open 
Road" 3 symph. poems to the 
"Canterbury Ttiles"; symph . poems, 
"Love Among the Ruins" \ "The 
Shepherd" etc. 19 12, dir. of Cape 
Town Cons. 

Bellaigue (bel-leg), Camilla, Paris, 
May 24, 1858 Oct. 4* *Q3?; critic 
and essayist; pupil of Paladilhe and 

Bellasio (bel-la'-sl-o), Paolo, J579-95. 
pub. madrigals, etc., at Venice. 

Bel lasts, Bdw., b. Jan. 28* 1852; Eng- 
lish writer and composer; wrote biog, 
of Cherubini (29x2). 

BelPavexe (or Beiltiaver) (bel-ft-va'- 
r), V., Venice, 1530 (?) 1588 (?), 
organist and composer, 

BeUazad (b*Mad '-*), Jtrwai. C., at 
Venice, 1618-28. 

Bellere (bfil-Ifir') (or Belle *rus rightly 
Beellaerts) (bftl-Urts*), (i) Jean, d. 
Antwerp, ca. 1595; publisher. His 
son ana successor was (2) Balthasar. 

Bellermann, (i) Konstantii^ Erfurt. 
1696 MUnden, 1758; rector and 
composer. (2) Jau Jftr^ Erfurt* 1705 
Berlin, 1874; writer on Greek 
music. His son (3), Jn. GI. fl, 
Berlin, March 10, i832Potsdara f 
April 10, 1903; pupil R. Inst. for ch.- 
muslc, 1866: prof, of mus. Berlin U. 
(vice Marx.); theorist and composer* 

Bellet'ti, Giov. Bat., Sarzana. Feu. 17, 
i8r,j Der, 27, 1890; barytone; 
pupil of Pilotti at Bologna; dbut, 
1838, Stockholm; sang with Jenny 
Lind on tour; retired, 1862. 

Bellezza. Vincenxo (vln-ch*n'-ts6 
lts'-ft) b, Bitonto, Italy, Feb. 7> 
1888; operatic conductor; studied 
Naples Cons.; has conducted at 
Met. Op. House, N. Y,; Covent 
Garden Op,, London; Teatro C'olon^ 
Buenos Aires; also in various opera 
houses of Italy, Spain, Portugal, and 
South America* 

Believer, V* Vide BELt'Avm 
Belli (bcT-l*), (i) Gir*, pub. t 



madrigals, etc. (2) Giiilio, b. Lon- 
giano, ca. 1560; ch.-composer and 
cpnd. ($\ Dom., 1616; court-musi- 
cian at Parma. 

Bellin, G. Vide BELIN. 

Bellincioni (bel-lin-chS'-ne), Gemma, 
Monza, 1864 Naples, Apr. 23, 1950; 
Italian soprano; toured U. S. in 
opera, 1899; after 1911 taught in 
Berlin; and later at Academy of 
Sta. Cecilia, Rome; pub. a vocal 
method; she created Santuzza in 
"Cavalleria Rusticana" 

Bellini (bel-lg'-nS), (i) Vincenzo, Cata- 
nia, Sicily, Nov. 3, 1 80 1 Puteaux, 
near Paris, Sept. 23, 1835; opera 
composer; son and pupil of an organ- 
ist; a nobleman sent him (1819) to 
the Cons, at Naples; studied under 
Furno, Tritto, and Zingarelli, until 
1827; privately studied with Haydn 
and Mozart, and chiefly Pergolesi; 
as a student composed a symphony, 
2 masses, several psalms, a cantata, 
etc.; his first opera, "Adelson e Sal- 
mni" was performed by Cons, pupils, 
1825, whereupon the manager of La 
Scala, Milan, commissioned him to 
write an opera; 1826, "Bianca e 
Fernando" was prod, with succ.; 
1827, "// Pirate*; 1829, "La Stra- 
niera." The librettist of the latter 
2 was Felice Romani, who wrote the 

written in forty days (1830), was a 
great succ.: "La Sonnambida," and 
ft Norma" (1831), with Malibran in 
the title-rdle, established his fame; 
"Beatrice di Tenda" (Venice, 1833) 
failed; "/ Puritan?* (libretto by 
Count Pepoli), written to order 1834, 
for the Theatre Italien, Paris, was a 
great success, and his last finished 
work. B.'s work abounds in delight- 
ful, spontaneous melodies, though 
the lack of variety in his rhythmic 
scheme and orchestral accompani- 
ments makes his scores today sound 
rather pale; Norraa remains a great 
role for sopranos of a heroic vocal 
equipment. He died youngest of aU 
prominent composers at the age of 
33, from dysentery due to overwork. 
Biog. by Scheriflo (Milan, 1885), 
Pougin (Paris, 1868), etc. Other 
studies by Cicconetti, Amore, Voss, 
Lloyd ana Parodi; collections of B/s 
letters ed. by Scherillo and Salvioli. 
(2) Carmelo, Catania. 1802 1884; 

brother of above; composed church- 

Belloc (bSl-]6k'), Teresa (G. Trom- 
bet'ta-Belloc), San Begnino, Cana- 
vese, 1784 S. Giorgio, 1855; mezzo- 
soprano; repertoire of 80 operas. 

Belloli (bel-l6'-le), (i) Luigi, Castel- 
franco, Bologna, 1770 Milan, 1817; 
horn-player and composer. (2) Ag,, 
b. Bologna; first horn (181929) at 
La Scala, Milan, and dram, composer. 

Bemberg (ban-bSrg), Henri, b. Paris, 
March 29, 1861; pupil of Dubois, 
Franck and Massenet, Paris Cons.; 
1887 took Rossini prize; composed 
i -act opera "Le Baiser de Suzon" 
(Paris, Op.-com., 1888), mod. succ.; 
opera "Elaine" (London, 1892: New 
York, 1894), cantata, "Mort de 
Jeanne d* Arc" and songs. 

Bemetzrieder (ba'-me'ts-re'-de'r), A., b. 
Alsatia, 1743; Benedictine monk; 
composer and writer. 

Ben'da, (i) Franz, Alt-Benatek, Bo- 
hemia, Nov. 25, 1709 Potsdam, 
March 7, 1786; court-violinist to 
Frederick II. 2 whom he accompanied 
for 40 years in flute-concertos; com- 
posed symphonies, etc. His 3 broth- 

ers (2) Jn., Alt-Benatek, 1713 
Potsdam, 1752; violinist. (3) G., 
Jungbunzlau, Bohemia, 1722 Koes- 
tritz, Nov. 6, 1795; court-cond., 1748 
(Gotha); 1764-66, Italy; prod, at 
Gotha 10 operas in which he origi- 
nated the idea of spoken words with 
orchestral accompaniment, literal 
''melodrama." (4) Jos., 1724 Ber- 
lin, 1804; violinist. His sister, 
(5) Anna Frangiska, 1726 Gotha, 
1780; singer. (6) FT. Wm. H 
Potsdam, 1745 1814; son and pupil 
of (i); composed operas^ etc. (7) 
Fr. L., Gotha, 1 746 Kdnigsberg, 
1 7931 son of (3); cond. and composer. 
(8) K. Hermann H., Potsdam, 1748 
-71836; son of rich father; court- 
violinist and composer. 

Ben'del, Fz,, SchQnlinde, northern 
Bohemia, March 23, 1832 Berlin, 
July 3, 1874; pianist; composed 
symphonies, 4 masses, songs, and 
piano pieces. 

Ben'deler, Jn. Ph., Riethnordhausen, 
near Enurt, ca. 1660 Quedlinburg, 
ca. 1712; clavecinist, organist, ana 

Ben'der, Paul, b. Driedorf, Germany, 
July 28, 1875; op? 1 " 8 -^ bass; first 
studied medicine; singing with Luise 



Ress and Baptist Hoffmann; member 
Breslau Op,, after 1900; Munich Op. 
after 1903; sang at Bayreuth Festi- 
vals, beginning 1902; was member of 
Metropolitan Op., N, Y., in 1922-6. 

Ben'dix, (i) Victor E., Copenhagen, 
May 7, 1851 Jan. 5, 1926; pianist, 
pupil and protlgS of Gade; lived in 
Copenh. as pf. -teacher and cond.; 
composed 4 symphonies, incl. "Zur 
Htihe," in C (also named "Felsen- 
steigung"); and "Sommerkl&nge aus 
Sildrussland" in D. (2) Max, b. 
Detroit, Mich., March 28, 1866; 
violinist; early played in orchestras; 
studied with Jacobsohn; 1886, con- 
certm. at Met. Op. House; also of 
Thomas Orch., of which ass't. cond.; 
founded Bendiac Quartet; cond. at 
Manhattan Op. House, 1906; at 
Met. Op., 1909-10; 19x5* San Fran- 
cisco Exp.; later teacher in New 

Ben'dl (bnt'-'l), K., Prague, April 16, 
1838 Sept. 20, 1807; important 
Czech composer; pupil of Blalok and 
Pitsch, at Prague; chorus-master, 
Amsterdam (1864;; 1866, cond. 
Prague choral society, "Hlahol"; 
composed Czech operas incl. "Dito 
Tdb&ra" (Child of the Camp), 1892 
(3 ots); given at Prague; 3 masses, 
cantktas, an overture, a "Dithyramb, 
"Slavonic Rhapsody," for orch., etc. 

Bto'edict, Sir Julius, Stuttgart, Nov. 
27, 1804 London, June s, 1885; son 
of a Jewish banker; pupil of Abeille, 
Hummel, and Weber, 1825 at Naples, 
where his first opera was prod, 1829, 
without success; his next (Stuttgart, 
1830) was not a success; settled in 
London as pf.-teacher and concert- 
giver; 1836, cond. opera buff a; 1837 
at Drury Lane, there his first English 
opera, "The Gypsy's Warning," was 
prod, (1838); he accompanied Jenny 
kind to America, then cond* at Her 
Majesty's Th., and Drury Lane; 1859 
at Co vent Garden, and ''Monday 
Popular Concerts"; cond. also Nor- 
wich festivals* and (1876^80) the 
Liverpool Phimarmonic; knighted in 
1871; composed n operas; a orato- 
rios, "S*. Cecilia" (1866), and "S*. 
JPeitr" (1870); a symphonies, 2 pf.- 
concertos, etc.; wrote a biog. of 

Benedic'tus Appenzelders (ap'-pSn- 
ts&t-fcrs) (B* of AppexxzeU), b. Ap- 
penzelh Switzerland; choir-master in 
Brussels (1539-55) ai *d composer; 

often confused with Benedictoj 

Benelli, (i) Alemanno. Vide HOT- 
TRIG A RJ. (2) A. Peregriuo, Forli, 
Romagna, 1 771 Bornichau* Saxony, 
1830; tenor. 

Benevoli (bfi-n&'-vd-Ie), Orazxo, Rome, 
1602 1672; natural son of Duke 
Albert of Lorraine, but lived in pov- 
erty; cond, at the Vatican (1646); 
remarkable contrapuntist; in writ- 
ing chorals with instrs. he was a 
pioneer; his Salzburg mass being 
written on 54 staves. 

Ben 'jamin, Arthur, b. Sydney, pup. Stan- 
ford; res* Can.; comp* 

Ben'net* (i) J English composer 
(*590v* (2) Saundexs, d. 1809; 
English organist and composer* (3) 
Theodore. Vide TH. BITTEE. 

Ben'nett, (x) Wm^ b. Teignmoutk, 
ca. 1767; organist, (2) Tfaos., ca. 
1774-1848; organist. (3) 
18051830; English organist. 
Sir wra* Sterndale, Sheffield, i 
13, 1816 London, Feb. x. i875> 
son of an organist (who died x8xo); 
at 8 entered the choir of King's Col- 
lege Chapel; at 10 pupil of R. A. M.; 
at 17 played there an original pf.- 
concerto, later pub. by the Academy, 
sent 1837 by the Broad woods to Leip- 
zig for one year; friend of Schumann 
and Mendelssohn; 1844 m. Mary 
Anne Wood, founded the Bach So- 
ciety, 1840; cond. Philh. Society, 
1856-66; 1856, Mas. Doc, Cambridge 
and prof, of mus. there; 1866, Princi- 
pal there; 1871, knighted; buried in 
Westminster Abbey; composed * 
symphony) an oratorio ll Tkc Woman 
of Samana^* music to Sophokles' 
**4/<wp**: 5 overtures* "Pwrisina," 

jn,j\++* > w.i i,v**v>iB) M *ra*iv#f 

The Naiads," "Tk* Wood-npmpk* 
Parodist and ike Peri," f *M*ny 


of Windsor," sonatas, etc. 
Berkeley, Gloucestershire, 

ov. 29, 131 une xa 1911; or- 
ganist of Westminster Chapel; then 
music critic for various London news- 
papers; finally The Telegraph; wrote 
various libretti; pub. "letters from 
Bayrcuih" (1877); "The Musical 
Year" (X883), etc. (6) Eobert 
Russell, b, Kansas City, Mo,, 1894; 
composer; early pupil of Carl Kusch; 
res. in New York after zox6* where 
active as orchestratar ana arranger: 
won Guggenheim Fellowship; studied 
with Nadia Bouianger, 1'aris; c* 
(opera) "Maria Malibra*?* text by 



Robert A. Simon, prod, by Juilliard 
School, N. Y., 1935; (ballet) "Endy- 
mion" (orch.) symphony; "Charles- 
ton Rhapsody,"- "Sights and Sounds" 
(won RCA- Victor Co. prize); "Abra- 
ham Lincoln"; concerto grosso; 
March for two pianos and orch.; 
Six Variations on a Theme of Jerome 
Kern; chamber music, incl. "Toy"- 
Symphony and string quartet. 

Bennewitz (bgn'-nS-vets), (i) Win., 
Berlin, 1832 1871; dram, composer. 
(2) Anton, Privat, Bohemia, March 
26, ^833 Hirschberg near Leipzig, 
May 30, 1926; violinist; 1882-190:1:, 
dir. of Prague Cons. 

Benoist (bttn-wa), Francois, Nantes, 
1794 Paris, 1878; organ-prof. Paris 
Cons.; composed operas, etc. 

Benoit (bttn-wS), (i) Pierre Leonard 
Ld.> Harlebecke, Belgium, Aug. 17, 
1834 Antwerp, Mar. 4, 1901; Flem- 
ish composer and writer; pupil 
Brussels Cons., 1851-55; at same 
time prod, a small opera and wrote 
music for Flemish melodramas; 1856, 
cond. Park Th.; 1857, won the Prix 
de Rome, with the cantata "Le 
Meurtre d'Abel"; studied at Leipzig, 
Dresden, Munich, and Berlin, and 
wrote a thesis for the Brussels 
Academy "Vecole de musique fla- 
ntande et son avenir." In 1861 his 
opera "Le Roi des Aulnes" was 
accepted by Tn&tre Lyrique, Paris, 
but not given; cond. at the Bouffes- 
Parisiennes; from 1867, dir. Antwerp 
Cons.; 1882, member of the R. A., 
Berlin; composed "Messe solennelle" 
(*B62}' 9 "TeDeum" (1863)'," Requiem"' 
11863): a oratorios, "Lucifer" and 
"Zte Scheldt"; 2 operas, " Het Dorp 
int Gebergte" and "Isa"-, "Drama 
Christi," a sacred drama in Flemish; 
a ca*tata "De Oorlog War"; "Chil- 
dren** Oratorio" ; a choral symphony, 
"De Maaiers" (The Reapers); music 
to "Charlotte Corday," and to "Wil- 
lem de Zwijger" (1876); the "Rubens 
cantata" "Plunder ens kunstroem"; 
"Antwerpen" for triple male chorus 
(1877); vocal works with orch. 'incl. 
"Joncfrou Kathelijne" scena for 
alto (1879); *'Muse der Geschiednis" 
(1880); and "Hucbald,"* "Triomf- 
marsch*' (1880); grand cantata "De 
Rhyn" (1889); a mass, etc. Wrote 
*^De vtaamsche Mustek-school van 
Antwerpen" (1873), "Verhandelung 
voer de nationale Toonkunde" (2 vols., 
) etc. (2) Camille, Roanne, 

Nov. 7, 1851 Paris, July i, 1923; 
pupil of C6sar Franck; 1888-1895, 
assistant conservator at the Louvre; 
1895, conservator; c. overture, 1880; 
text and music of opera "Clopatre," 
etc.; author of "Souvenirs," 1884, and 
"Mitsiciens, poetes et philosophes,"* 
1887; also translator. 

Bentonerii, Joseph (rightly Bentort), 
b. Oklahoma; tenor; grad. Okla. 
State Univ.; studied with Jean de 
Reszke in France, coached operatic 
rdles in Italy for three years, and 
made d6but at Bologna as Alfredo; 
sang in Italian theatres, also in 
Austria, France, Belgium, and Hol- 
land; mem. Chicago Op. Co., 1934-5, 
singing with this company 'in latter 
year leading tenor r61e in Am. prem. 
of Respighi's "La Fiamma" also 
with Philadelphia Orch. in its stage 
prod, of Gluck's "Iphig6nie &n 
Aulide"; concert tour in U. S.; audi- 
tion with Met. Op. Co. was followed 
by sudden call two days later to take 
place of indisposed tenor as Des 
Grieux in "Manon" 1936, which he 
sang with succ. and was engaged as 
regular mem. of company. 

Benvenuti (bSn-va-noo -tfi), Tommaso, 
Venice, 1838 Rome, 1906; dram, 

Berardi (ba-rar'-d5), Ang., b. Bologna, 
1681; conductor and theorist. 

Ber'ber, Felix, Jena, March n, 1871 
Nov. 2, 1930; violinist; pupil of 
Dresden Cons, and Leipzig Cons.; 
concertmaster in various cities; 1904- 
1907 prof. Royal Acad., London; 
1907 at Frankfort-on-Main; .1908 at 
Geneva Cons.; toured widely,; 1910, 
America; after 1912 in Munict; 1920, 
teaching at Cons, there. 

Berbiguier (bSr-blg-ya), Benoit 'Tran- 
quille, Caderousse, Vaucluse, I^T&B 
near Blois, 1838; flute- virtuoso -amd 

Berchem (or Berghem) (bSrkh'-fini), 
Jachet de (also Jaquet, Jacquet, ami 
Giachetto di Mantova), Berchem {??) 
near Antwerp, ca. 1500 1580; con- 
trapuntist and conductor. 

Berens (b/-rns) , (i) Hermann, Ham- 
burg, 1826 Stockholm, iB&c^; son 
and pupil of (2) K. B. (180^-03857); 
court-conductor and composer. 

Beret'ta, Giov. Batt, Verona, 1819 
Milan, 1876; theorist, editox, and 

Berezowsky (b6r-5-s6f'-skg), Nicolai, 
b. St. Petersburg, May 17, 1900; 



d. N. Y. s Aug, 26, 1953; entered Imp. 
Capellaand grad. witn honours; 1918, 
concertm. Saratov Nat'l. Op.; 1921, 
dir. Sch. of Mod. Art, Moscow; after 
1922 in U. S.; studied with Josef 
Borisoff, then at Juilliard Sch. of 
Mus. with R. Goldmark and Ko- 
chanski; played in N. Y. Phil.; c. 
sextet for strings, piano, and clarinet 
(heard Washington Chamber Mus. 
Fest., 1926); four string quartets; 
quartet for soprano and strings; 
piano trio; quintet for wind instru- 
ments; (orch.) two symphonies (the 
first played by Boston Symph^ as 
well as his 'cello concerto); " Hebrew?* 
Suite (N. Y. Phil.); Siafonietta; 
violin concerto (played by Flesch 
with Dresden PhiL under composer's 
baton); (opera) "Prince Batrak."- 
Berg (brkh), (x) Adam, 1^40 1599; 
music-printer, Munich. (2) Jnu von, 
1550; music-printer, Ghent, Nftrn- 
berg. (3) O., German composer iaa 
England, 1763-71. (4) Konu Mat, 
Colmar, Alsatia, 1785 Strassburg, 
1852; violinist, pianist, and writer, 
(5) Alban, Vienna, Feb. 9, 1885 
Dec. 24, X93$; eminent composer; 
studied with Schtfnber^, 1904-08, 
whose radical doctrines in harmony 
and tonality he combined in his work 
with an original capacity of expres- 
sion that makes him the outstanding 
member of that composer's school; 
served as director of concerts given 
by Private Performing Society organ- 
ized by SchSr.berg in Vienna; c. 
S no sonata (xpoS); string quartet 
10); songs with piano and orches- 
tra (1908-09); four pieces for clarinet 
and orchestra {1913}; three orches- 
tral pieces (1914); cnamber concerto 
for piano, violin, and 13 wind instru- 
ments (1924); the expressionistic 
music-drama "Woxxeek** (based on 
play by Georg Buchner, nineteenth- 
century German poet), which is writ- 
ten in novel style, partly atonal, and 
utilizing antique forms such as suite, 
passacaglia, etc., in its operatic tex- 
ture (premiere after many rehearsals 
evoked sensational impression at 
Berlin State Op.j Dec. 14, 1935); 
Lyric Suite for stnng quartet (1926); 
concert aria, "Le Vin>" for soprano 
and orchestra (1929); partially com- 
pleted music drama, "Lulu" (based 
on Wedekind dramas, "Erdgeist" and 
"Pandoras Box"), which after his 
aroused wide interest when 

premiered, Zurich, 1937; also posth* 
violin concerto (Barcelona, 1936, 
Intern. Society for Contemp. Music 
Festival). One of the most original 
figures in early twentieth-century 
music, B. in his "IVoztttk" relates 
the heart-rending tragedy of an ig- 
norant soldie* who, oppressed by his 
superiors, murders his sweetheart 
and drowns himself; this work made 
a definite contribution to post- 
Wagnerian music drama. The opera 
was given its American premiere by 
the Philadelphia Orch. and Grand 
Opera Co., under Stokowski, both 
in Phila. and N. Y., with impressive 
effect in 1931- B. also served as 
editor of the Vienna publication 
"MusikUWtr de$ A*brtk for a 
period after 1020. 

Bexger (ber'-ger), (i) L. Berlin, 1777 
1839; from ^8x5 pf .-teacher and com- 
poser, (a) Francesco, London, June 
10, 1834 April, 25* 1933; pupu ol 
Ricci and Lickl (pf,), Hauptmarm 
and Piaidy; from 1855 pf-prof, JR. 
A. M., and Guildhall Sch. of Mus.; 
for years din, and 1884-1911, see., 
Philk; composed an opera, a mas* 
(prod, in Italy), etc.; wrote "FiVtf 
Step* at tkt PiaHofortoK {3) Wmu, 
Boston, Maaa., Aug. 8, 1861 Jena, 
Germany, Jan. *6, 1911; taken by 
parents to Bremen; pupil of Kiel, 
etc.; lived Berlin as teacher and com- 
poser; 1898 won a prize of 2,000 
marks, with a setting of Goethe's 
"Jfa*,w Gattin" (op, 72); composed 
"Octane dtr Geisttr ixr den Was- 
$*ri* f " for mixed choir and orch. (4) 
Erna, b. Dresden, 1901; coloratura 
soprano; Dresden State Op. and after 
103^ at Berlin; London, 1047; Met. 
Op. de*but, 1949, as Sophie (Strauss). 
Berggreea (betrkh'-granj, Andrea* P., 

Copenhagen, 18011880; teacher. 
Bergfcem. Vide BEKCHEM. 
Bergmaim (b^rkh'-nitn), 3K. f Ebers- 
bach, Saacony. 1821 New York, 
Aug. x6 1876; m America, 1850, with 
"Germania*' Orch., later its cond., 
tiU 3854; cond. **Htndel and Haydn'* 
Soc. t Boston, i8sa~$4; in 1855 alter- 
nate cond. Phith. Soc. f New York, 
1863-76, sole cond,; also coad. 
"Anon" Society; active in introduc- 
ing Wagner. List etc., to America. 
Bexgnear (barkh'-niJr), Wm.,, Riga, Nov. 
4> if 37 June o, 1907; organist; 
founded a Bach Society and a cathe- 
dral choir. 



Bergonzi (b&r-gdn'-tsg), (i) Carlo, 
d. 1747; vln.-maker at Cremona; 
best pupil of Stradivari. His son (2) 
Michelangelo, and his 2 nephews, 
(3) Niccolo and (4) Carlo, were less 
important. (5) Benedetto, Cremonu, 
1790 1840; horn-player and in- 

Bergson (bSrkh'-zSn), Michael, War- 
saw, May 20, 1820 London, March 
9, 1898; pianist and composer; pupil 
of Schneider, Rungenhagen, and 
Taubert, Paris (1840); Italy, 1846, 
where his opera "Louisa di Montfort"- 
was succ. (Florence, 1847); Paris, 
1859, prod, a i-act operetta; 1863, 
ist pf.-teacher and for a time dir. 
Geneva Cons.; later in London as 

Bergt (bSrkht), Chr. GL Aug., b. 
Oderan, Saxony, 1772 Bautzen, 
1837; organist, violinist, and con- 

Beringer (ba'-rfoag-e'r), Oscar, Furt- 
wangen, July 14, 1844 London, 
Feb. 21, 1922; pupil of Plaidy, 
Moscheles, Leipzig Cons., 1864-66; 
later of Tausig, Ehrlich, and Weitz- 
tnann, Berlin; teacher there, 1860; 
London, 1873-97; after 1885, P*- 
prof, in R* A. M.; composed Techni- 
cal Exercises, etc* 

S&iot (da b&r-ya), (i) Chas. Auguste 
de, Louvain, Feb. 20, 1802 Brus- 
sels, April 8, 1870; vln.-virtuoso; 
pupil of Viotti and Baillot, but 
chiefly of his guardian, Tiby; at 9 
he played a concerto; 1821, made a 
brilliant dbut, Paris; chamber- 
violinist to the King of France, solo- 
violinist to the King of the Nether- 
lands (1826-30); 1830-35 toured 
Europe with Mme. Garcia-Malibran, 
whom he m. in 1836; from 1843-52, 
prof* at Brussels Cons.; became blind 
and paralysed in left arm; pub. 
method and 7 concertos, etc., for 
vln. (a) Chas, Vilfride de, Paris, 
Feb. 12, 1833 near Paris, 1914; son 
;>f above; pupil of Thalberg: prof. 
;>f pf., Pans Cons.; composed sym- 
phonies, etc.; wrote with his father 
a "M tthode d'accompagnement" 

Berlijn (or Berlyn) (baV-len), Anton 
(or Aron Wow ?), Amsterdam, 1817 
1870; conductor. 

Berlin', Irving (rightly Baline), b. 
Russia, May xi, 1888; composer of 
popular music; was largely responsi- 
ble for start of "ragtime" craze with 
his "Alexander's Ragtime Band" 

several years before the war; has 
since c. more elaborate scores for 
musical comedies and the radio; 
pres. of his own publishing firm, 
Irving Berlin Inc., New York; m. 
Ellin Mackay, daughter of Clarence 
H. Mackay. 

Berlioz (bSr-li-5s not b&r-H-o), Hec- 
tor (Louis), C6te~Saint- Andre", near 
Grenoble, France, Dec. n, 1803 
Paris, March 8, 1869: "Father of 
modern orchestration <; conductor, 
critic, writer of verse and electric 
prose; sent to Paris to study medi- 
cine, he accepted disinheritance and 
took up music, though he could never 
play any instr. save the guitar and 
flageolet; while pupil at the Cons., he 
earned a bare living; joined the 
chorus of the Gyrnnase Dramatique; 
left the Cons, in disgust with Reicha's 
formalism, and plunged with charac- 
teristic energy or rather fury into 
the cause of romanticism; 1825, an 
orchestral mass given at St. Roch 
brought the ridicule he usually had 
in France where he was little thought 
of as a composer though admired as 
a writer; 1828 saw the production of 
two overtures, "Waverley" and "Les 
Frances- Juges"> and a Symphonic 
fantastique, "Episode de la vie d'un 
artiste"', 1829, his "Concerts des 
Sylphes"* publicly produced at 26, 
show him an ardent believer in 
programme-music (vide B. r>.) and a 
marvellous virtuoso in instrumenta- 
tion. He reSntered the Cons, under 
Lesueur, in spite of Cherubim, who 
fought his admission; 1830, he took 
the Prix de Rome with a cantata, 
"Sardanafale"y after 18 months in 
Italy he returned to Paris and took 
up journalism with marked success. 
His symphony "Harold en Italic 9 * 
(1834), tne "Messe des Morts" (1837), 
the dram, symphony "Rom6o et Juli- 
ette" with vocal soli and chorus 
(1839), and the overture "Carneval 
romain" were well received, but the 
2-act opera semi-seria "Benvenuto 
Cellini" failed both in Paris and in 
London, 1838. In 1839 Ae was made 
Conservator of the Cons.; librarian, 
1852, but was never made professor 
as he desired. Concert tours through 
Germany and Russia, 1843-47, were 
very successful and are described in 
his book " Voyage musical"- London 
(1852) he cond. the "New Phillu 
Concerts"; prod, comic opera " 


rice et Benedict (1862, Baden-Baden); 
1865, member of the Academic, and 
decorated with cross of Legion of 
Honour. He m. Henrietta Smith- 
son, an Irish actress who made a sen- 
sation in Paris in Shakespearian 
roles, but later was hissed off, and 
became a peevish invalid. His 
opera. "Les Troy ens d Carthage" 
(1863) was a failure. His son Louis 
died 1867. "Les Troyens, 9 ' in two 
parts; "La Prise de Troie," 3 acts, and 
'Les Troyens d Carthage," in 5 acts 
was given complete for the first time, 
at Carlsruhe, 1897. His most succ. 
work was his "oratorio," "La 
Damnation de Faust" (1846)* His 
"Trait* d* instrumentation" is a clas- 
sic in orchestration, though its then 
sensational modernity is lost. B. 
strangely despised Wagner, who, 
however, confessed his large indebt- 
edness to B. Other books are 
"Soirees d'orckestre" (1853), "Gro- 
tesques de la musique" (1859), "A 
travers chants" (1862), and an auto- 
biography, "Mtmoircs," from 1803- 
65. In original verse are the text 
to the sacred trilogy "L'Enfance du 
Christ" (Part /., Le songe & Her ode; 
//., Lafuite en gypte; ///., UAr- 
rfaie d Sais); and his operas "Lfs 
Troyens" and "Beatrice et Benedict." 
He composed also a "Te &eum** for 
3 choirs^ orch, and org.; a "Grand 
symphonie Junebre et triompkale*' for 
full military band, with strings and 
chorus ad lib.; overture to "Le 
Corsaire": "Le Cinq Mai," for chorus 
and orcn. (on the anniversary 
of Napoleon's death), etc. Recent 
studies of B. have been published 
in English by W. J. Turner (1934) 
and Tom S. Wotton (1935); co- 
inciding with a resurgence of interest 
in this composer on the part of a 
modern-minded coterie of musicians 
in Britain. Revivals of Beriioz 
operas have also taken place, notably 
of "Le$ Troyens" and "Beatrice and 
Benedict," at Glasgow. (See article, 
page 488.) 

Berlya, Anton, Vide BERLIJN. 

Bermudo (bSr-moo'-dhS), Juan, As- 
torga, ca. 15x0; writer, 

Bemabel (b*r-na"-ba'-), (i) Gitis, Er- 
oole, Caprarola, ca* 1620 Munich, 
xtf&H 1672 cond. at the Vatican: 
1674 cond. at Munich; composed 
three- operas (prod* in Munich), etc. 
(3) Gius. A n Rome, 1649 Munich, 


1732; son of above and his successor 
at Munich. 

BernaccH (ber-na*k'-kS), A,, Bologna, 
1685 1756; soprano-musico, en- 
gaged by Handel for London, 1729, 
as the greatest living dram, singer; 
1736 founded a singing-school at Bo- 

Bernard (br-nar, in JP.}, BraHe, 
Marseilles, Nov. 28, 1843 Paris, 
Sept. ii, 1902; until 1895 organist 
of Notre-Dame-des-Champs, Paris; 
composer of vln.-concerto; concert- 
stack for pf. with orch.; overture 
"Beatrice"; cantatas; much chauvber- 
music, etc. 

Bernardel. Vide I.VPOT. 

Bernar'di, (i) Ste&ano, ca. 1634; canon 
at Salzburg; theorist and composer. 
(a) Francesco. Vide SENESIKO. (3) 
Enrico, Milan, 1838 1900; con- 
ductor and dram, composer. 

Bernardini (be>-nar-d*'~n*), MarceUo 
("Marcello di Capua**), b. Capua, 
ca. 2762; dram, composer. 

Bernasco'ni, (i) Andrea, Marseilles, 
1706 Munich, 1784; court-conduc- 
tor, (a) P., d. Varese, May 27, 1895: 

Bexn'eker, Constanz, Dark eh men, L. 
Prussia, Oct. 31* 1844 K5ntgsberg & 
June 9, 2906: conductor and comp, 

Ber'ner, #r w Wm*, Breslau, 1780--*. 
1827; organist. 

Bcr'ners, Lord (Gerald Tyrwhitt), b. 
Bridgnorth, EngI. T Sept. 18, 1883*, 
d. London, Apr, 19, 1950; studied i* 
Dresden. London; self-taught in music, 
but orchestration with Stravinsky, 
some of whose modern musical de- 
vices are reflected in his work; en- 
tered diplomatic service. 1900; after 
1913 connected with British Em- 
bassy in Rome; succeeded to British 
peerage, 1918; c. (opera in one act) 
*'Le C&rrosse de $ain*-Safrfttnt"} 
(orchestra) "Fantaisie Espagnolt** 
(1919); "Funeral JfanArcs for a 
Statesman, a Canary, and a Rick 
Aunt" (for two pianos); "Vatsc 
Bourgeoise" (Sabburg Festival, 1933); 
Fugue for Orchestra (danced by 
Diaghileff Ballet, London, 1925); also 
an amusing nautical ballet, "Tfo 
Triumph of Nrptune," suggested by 
Rowland son prints, from which a 
succ. orch. suite has been drawn. 
Bernliard (b^rn'-httrt), (i) der Deutsche 
(dr doit'-sh*); orgaoist, Venice. 
1445-50; known as "Bernardo di 
Ste&a&iao Mumr**; perhaps inv., 



certainly introduced, into Italy, the 
organ-pedal. (2) Chr., Danzig, 1627 
D resden, 1692; court-conductor 
and notable contrapuntist. 

Ber'no, Augien'sis, d, Riechenau, 1048; 
abbot and theorist. 

Bernoulli (bar-noo'-ye"), (i) Jn., Basel, 
1667 1747- His son (2) Daniel, 
Groningen, 1700 Basel, 1781, also 
was prof, and writer on acoustics. 

Bern'stein, Leonard, b .Lawrence , Mass . , 
1918; studied Harvard, Curtis Inst.; 
ass't. to Koussevitzky, Berkshire 
Fest.; cond. as guest in Europe; c. 
symphs., "Jeremiah," "Age of Anx- 

Bernuth (b3,r'-noot) , Julius von, Rees, 
Rhine Province, Aug. 8, 1830 
Hamburg, Dec. 24, 1902; studied law 
and music at Berlin, 1854; studied 
at Leipzig Cons, till 1857; founded 
the "Aufschwung Society," and 1859 
"Dilettante's Orchestral Society"; 
also cond. 3 other societies; later 
cond. at Hamburg; 1873, dir. of a 
cons, there; 1878, "Royal Prussian 

Berr (br), FT., Mannheim, 1794 
Paris, 1838; bandmaster; 1831, prof, 
of clar., Paris Cons.; 1836, dir. School 
of Military Music; composer. 

Bertali (br-tSM), Ant., Verona, 1605 
Vienna, 1669; court-conductor and 
dram, composer. 

Bertelsmann, K. Aug., Gtitersloh, 
Westphalia, 1811 Amsterdam, 1861 ; 
director and composer. 

Berthaume (b6r-t5m), Isidore, Paris, 
1752 St. Petersburg, 1802; violinist 
and conductor. 

Berthold (b$r'-t61t), K. Fr. Theodor, 
Dresden, 1815 1882; court-organist. 

Bertin (b&r'-t&n), Louise AngSIique, 
Roches, near Paris, 1805 Paris, 
187 7; singer, pianist, and dram, com* 

Bertini (bSr-te'-n5), (i) Abbate Gius., 
Palermo, 1756 1849 (?)> court- 
cond. and lexicographer. (2) Benoit 
Auguste, b. Lyons, 1780; writer. 
(3) H* Jerome, London, 1798 
Meylau, near Grenoble, 1876; bro. 
and pupil of above; pianist and com- 
poser; at 12, toured the Netherlands 
and Germany; retired, 1859; wrote 
technical studies. (4) Dom., Lucca, 
1829 Florence, 1890; teacher, critic, 
theorist, and director. 

Bertittot'ti, Teresa, Piedmont, 1776 
Bolojzna, 1854; operatic soprano; m. 

Felix Radicati, a violinist and com- 

BertolU (t61'4X), Fran., Italian con- 
tralto in Handel's operas, London, 

Berton (br-t6n), (i) P. Montan, Paris, 
1727 1780; conductor grand opera 
and dram, composer. (2) H. Mon- 
tan, Paris, 1767 1*844;, son of above; 
composer. (3) Francois, Paris,, 1784 
1832; natural son of '(2:); pupil, 
later prof, of singing, at Cons.; 
composed operas and songs. 

Berto'ni, Fdo Giu., Venice, 1725 
Desenzano, 1813; organist and dram, 

Bertrand (ber-tran), J. Gv., Vaugirard, 
near Paris, 1834 Paris, 1880; writer 
and critic. 

Berwald (bSr'-vSlt), (i) Jn. Fr., Stock- 
holm, 1787 1861; precocious violin- 
ist, etc.; pupil of Abb 6 Vogler; com- 
posed a symphony at 9. (2) ,Fz,, 
Stockholm, 1796 1868; nephew of 
above; dram, composer. 

BeseMrsby (bs-z-k5r'-shk*), (i) 
Vasilly vasilevitch, Moscow, 1835 
St. Petersburg, 1910: concert violinist 
and composer. (2) Vasilly, b. 
Moscow, 1879; son f C 1 )* violinist; 
pupil of his father; 1910-13, prof. 
Odessa Cons.; after 1914 toured, and 
taught in U. S. 

Besler (bas'-l&r), (i) Samuel, Brieg, 
Silesia, 1574 Breslau, 1625; rector 
and composer. (2) Simon, cantor 
at Breslau, and composer, 1615-28. 

Besozzi (bS-sdd'-z5), the name of 4 
brothers, all oboists except (3). (i) 
Ales., Parma, 1700 Turin, 1775- 
(2) Antonio, Parma, 1707 Turin, 
1781; (3) Girolamo, Parma, 1713 
1786, bassoonist. (4) Gaetano, 
b. Parma, 1727. (5) Carlo, b. 
Dresden, 1745; oboist, son of 
(6) Hieronixao, d. 1785; S01 ? of 
oboist. His son (7) Henri was a 
flutist, and father of (8) Louis D6- 
sire", Versailles, 1814 Paris, 1879; 
teacher and composer. 

Bessems (beV-sams), A., Antwerp, 
1809 1868; violinist and composer. 

Besson (btts-s6n), Gv. Aug., Paris, 
1820 1875; improver of valves in 

Best, Wm. T., Carlisle, Engl., Aug. 
13, 1826 Liverpool, May 10, 1897; 
org.-virtuoso; pupil of Young; or- 
ganist at various ch., and the Philh. 
Society; in 1880, declined knight- 
hood, but accented Civil-List pen- 



slop, of 100 per annum; 1894, 
retired; 1890 went to Sydney, Aus- 
tralia, to inaugurate the organ in the 
new Town Hall; composed overtures, 
sonatas, preludes, etc,, for organ, 
also 2 overtures and march for orch.; 
and pf.-pcs.; wrote "Tke Art of 
Organ-playing" etc. 

Bestflndig (bS-stSii'-dXkh), Otto, Strie- 
gau, Silesia, Feb. 21, 1835 Wands- 
beck. Feb., 1917; cond. and comp.; 
pupil of Mettner, etc., in Breslau; 
tounded a conservatory in Hamburg: 
c. oratorio "Der Tod Baldurs" and 
"Victoria Crucis," etc. 

Bet'ti, Adolfo, b. Bagni di Lucca, Italy. 
March 21, 1875; violinist; studied 
with C6sar Thomson, Liege Cons., 
ist prize, harmony and chamber 
music, 1895; gold medal ia violin, 
2896; dbut Vienna, 1897; toured in 
solo recitals in various European 
countries; assist, prof,, Brussels 
Cons., 1900-03; first violinist, of 
Flonzaley Quartet, 1903-29, touring 
widely in Europe and 0, $.; then 
made home in Italy; was Podesti 
of Bagni di Lucca, 1945; edited 
and arranged early Italian music for 
orchestra, including works of Gemi* 
niani;d. Bagni di Lucca, Dec. a, 1950. 

Bett (bts), Fa:., Mayence, March 39, 
1835 Berlin, Aug* 12. 1900; bary- 
tone; created "Wotan/* and "Haas 

Ber'an, FT. Chas b. London* July 3, 
1856 Adelaide, 1939; pupil of Wil- 
ling and Hoyte; organist; then 
studied singing with Schira, Deacon, 
and Walker; 1877 Gentleman of the 
Chapel Royal; composed pop. songs* 


Bevignanl (ba-vSn-yit'-ae), Cavallere 
Enrico, Naples, Sept. 29, 1841 
Aug. 29, 1903; pupil of Albanese, 
LiUo, etc., ist opera, "Catering 
Bloom," succ.; Czar made him 
Knight of the Order of St. Stanislas, 
and conferred a life-pension; noted 
as cond. in London, Moscow, and 
New York; after 1894 at Met, Op., 

y, Wales, 1560 (-70?) 
?); Gentleman or the Chapel 
; organist, writer, and composer. 
Wm* Rd,, Norwich, 1824 
a, 1853; orgauist and com- 




ttaggi (bWd'-je), Gir. Ales,, Milan, 

i8x$ Florence^ 1897; prof., drain, 

composer, writer under pseudonym 

Bianchi (b-n'-ke% (i) Fran,, Cre- 
paona, 1752 London, xSio; organ- 
ist; composed 47 operas, (a) Valen- 
tine, Wifna, 1839 Candau, Rutland, 
1884; dram, soprano; dbut, 1855. 
(3) Biaxtea (rightly Schwarz), b. 
Heidelberg, Jan, 28, 1855; dram.- 
soprano; pupil of Wilczek and 
Viardot- Garcia; Poll Ins (whom she 
m., 1894) paid her tuition and then 
engaged her for 10 years; dbut 
Carlsruhe, 1873; taught Munich 
Akad., 1902-25; later at Salzburg 
Mozarteum. (4) Eliodoro, 1773 
1848, a tenor singer who composed 
operas; "Gara d* Amort" (Ban, 1873); 
"Sarak"; "Almantor," (5) Renzo, 
b. Maggianico, Italy, July 39, 1887; 
composer; grad. of Milan Cons.; c. 
(operas) "Fausta" (Florence), "Gkis- 
monda" (La Scala, 19x8), "&*- 
bcttina" (Costanzi Thcat., Rome, 
1924), also orch. works, 
Bibr (be"-ber), (i) H* Jnu 3?fc. von, 
W&rtenberg, Bohemia, 1644 Sals- 
burg f May 3, 1704; violinist, and 
one of the founders of the German 
school of vln. -playing; Leopold I. 
ennobled him. (2) Aloys, Ellingen, 
%8o4 Munich, 1858; piano-maker. 
Bib! (beb-l), (i) Attdreii, Vienaa, 
2797 18 ?8 organist and composer. 
His son and pupil (a) Rudolf, 
Vienna, Jan. 6, 1832^ Aug. 2, looa; 
pupil of Lechter; organist and com- 
poser of organ sonata, etc. 
Bie (b), Oskar, b. Breslau, Feb. 9, 
1864; critic; pupil of Ph. Scharwenka; 
x8B6 t Dr. Phi!.: 1800, Privat Docent 
at Technical High School, Berlin; 
author of books; also comp. 
Biehr (br) f Oskajr, Dresden, 1851 
Munich, March 7, xgaa; violinist; 
pupil of David; for twenty-five years 
member of Munich court orchestra. 
my (b*r'-I), OL Bm^dlikt. Dresden, 
1773 Breslau, 1840; conductor and 
dram, composer. 

Bieruadd (b-er'ntt'^ke) T Michael 
Marian, b* Lublin, Sept. o, 1855; 
comp.; pupil of Warsaw Cons.; later 
director there; comp. a masses, 
Prolotu* for orc'i. # etc. 
Bignami (bin-yt'-mi), (i) Carlo, Cre- 
mona, Doc* 6, 1808 Voghcra, Aug 
a, 1848; cond., violinist aui dii., 
Cremona; Paganini called him "the 
fast violinist of Italy/* (a) Enrico, 
1836 Genoa, 1894; violinist, dram, 
Bigot (b*-*e) it, (n6e Klme) t Colmar. 



Upper Alsaiia, 1786 Paris, 1820: 

Bifiion (or Billon) (be-y6n), J. de, i6th 
cent.; composer and singer in the 
Papal Chapel. 

Billings, Wm., Boston, Mass,, Oct. 7, 
1746 Sept. 29, 1800; composed 
hymns; introduced the pitch-pipe 
and the 'cello into American church- 
choirs, and is said to have given the 
first concert in New England. 

BilOington, (i) Th., pianist, harpist, and 
composer, latter part of iSth cent. 
(2) Elizabeth (ne'e Weichsel), Lon- 
don, ca. 1768 near Venice, Aug. 23, 
1818; pupil of her father, a clarinet- 
tist; then of J. Chr. Bach; handsome 
operatic soprano, had a compass of 
3 octaves, a-a'" (Vide PITCH, D. D.), 
1784, Dublin; 1786, Covent Garden; 
retired, 1818. 

Billrot(h) (bel'-r5t), (i) Jn. Gv. FT., 
Halle, near Liibeck, 1808 Halle, 
1836; composer and writer. (2) 
Tfceodor, Bergen, Isle of Riigen, 1829 
Abbazia, 1804; surgeon and writer. 

Bilse (bfil'-sfi), Benj., Liegnitz, Aug. 
17, 1816 Berlin, July 13, 1902, 
where 1868-84 he cond. notable 
popular series of orch. concerts; 
originally "Stadtmusikus" at Lieg- * 
aitz, and trained a remarkable or- 
chestra; retired 1894 as "Hofmusi- 

Binchois (Gilles de Binche, called 
Bincfeols) (b&nsh-wa), Binche, in 
Belgian Hainault, ca. 1400 Lille, 
1460; one of the early Netherland 
composers; 3-part chanson, ron- 
deaux, etc*, of his are extant. 

Binder (bfcit'-r), (i) K. Wm. Fd., 
b. Dresden, 1764; harp-maker at 
Weimar, ca. 1797* (2) IE., Vienna, 
1816 1860; conductor and dram, 

Bini (bS'njS), Pasqualino, b. Pesaro, ca. 
1720: violinist. 

Bioni (b5-3'-ne-), A. T b. Venice, 1698; 
composed 26 operas. 

Birch 'all, Robt., d. 1819; music-pub- 
lisher, London. 

Bhckenstock (bSr'-kn-sht6k), Johann 
Adam, Alsfeld, 1687 Eisenach, 1733; 

Bird, (x) Wm. Vide BYRD. (2) Arthur, 
Cambridge, Mass., July 23, 1856 
Berlin, Dec. 22, 1923; pupil of 
Haupt, Ldschhorn, and Ronde, Ber- 
lin, 1875-77; organist and teacher at 
Halifax^ N, S.; founded the first male 
chorus in N. S,, 1881; studied comp. 

and orchestration with Urban, Ber- 
lin; 188586 with Liszt at Weimar; 
1886, gave a successful concert, and 
lived, later, in Berlin- Griinewald; 
composed symphony and 3 suites for 
orch.; various pieces for piano; comic 
opera "Daphne" (New York, 1897); 
and a ballet, "RilbezM." (3; Henry 
Richard, Walthamstow, Nov. 14, 
1842 London, 1915; organist; son 
of George B., an organist; at 9, be- 
came org.; pupil of Turle; since 1872 
org. at St. Mary Abbots, London; 
conducted concerts, and won promi- 
nence as accompanist. 

Birnbach (bSrn'-bakh), (i) K. Jos., 
K.6pernick, Silesia, 1751 Warsaw, 
1805; conductor. (2) Jos. Benj. 
H., Breslau, 1795 Berlin, 1879, 
pianist and composer; son and pupil 
of above. 

Bischoff (besh'-6f), (i) G. Fr., Ellrich, 
Harz Mts., 1780 Hildesheim, 1841; 
conductor; founded the German mus. 
festivals. (2) L. Fr. Ch., Dessau, 
1794 Cologne, 1867; translator; son 
of (3) K. B., court-mus., Dresden. 

(4) Kasper Jakob, Ansbach, 1823 
Munich, 1893; teacher and composer. 

(5) Hans, Berlin, 1852 Nieder- 
schSnhausen, near Berlin, 1889; pf.- 
teacher, conductor, and editor. 

Bish'op, (i) Sir H. Rowley, London, 
Nov. 1 8, 1786 April 30, 1855; noted 
Engl. composer; pupil of Bianca; his 
first opera, "The Circassian Bride/ 9 
was prod. Drury Lane, when he was 
20; 1810 ii comp. and cond. at Co- 
vent Garden; 1813 alternate cond. 
Philh. Soc.; 1825 cond. at Drury 
Lane; 1830 musical dir. at Vauxhall; 
184143, prof, music, Edinburgh; 
knighted, 1842; 1848 prof, of music 
at Oxford; 1853, Mus. Doc. (Oxon); 
prod, over So operas, farces, ballets, 
an oratorio, cantata, etc. (2) J., 
b. Cheltenham, 1814; organist, editor, 
and composer. (3) Ann, or Anna, 
London, 1814 New York, March 
1 8, 1884; soprano; daughter of Jules 
Rivi&re; married Sir Henry Bishop, 
1831, deserted him for the harpist 
Bochsa, with whom she toured the 
world in concert; after his death, in 
1856, she married a Mr. Schulz. 

Bispham (bfep'-hm), David, Philadel- 
phia, Jan. 5, 1857 New York, Oct. 
2, 1921; dram, barytone; sang in 
church and oratorio; 1885-87 pupil 
of Vannuccini and Wm* Shakespeare; 
from 1891 in opera at Covent Gar- 


den, and America, with much success 
and versatility; and also in recitals, 
in both of which fields his high 
dramatic intelligence played an un- 
usual part; brilliant in comic or tragic 
roles; he had a huge repertoire, In- 
cluding 50 operatic r61es, more than 
100 oratorio parts, and some 1500 
recital numbers. After 1909 he 
withdrew from opera and sang in 
concerts. A brilliant teacher. 

Bitt'ner, Julius, b. April, 1874, Vienna, 
d. there Jan. 9, 1939; composer and 
jurist; active for many years as a 
judge in Vienna, he was a pupil in 
music of Josef Labor and also for a 
time of Bruno Walter. He is best 
known for a series of popular operas 
many of which are written to his 
own texts, including "Der Musi- 
kant" (Vienna, 19x0), "Der Bergsee" 
(Vienna, 1911), "Der Abenteurer" 
(Cologne, 1912)." Das HVllisck Grid'* 
(Dresden, 1910;, usually considered 
his most successful work i"Die Kohl- 
haimerin" (Vienna, 1921); and "Das 
Rosengar&ein" (Mannheim, 19*3); 
also dance plays, piano works, songs, 

Bizet (b5-zft), G. (Alex. C$sar Leopold), ( 
Paris, Oct. 25, 1838 Bougival, 
June 3, 1875; distinguished com- 
poser. At 9, pupil at Paris Cons, of 
Marmontel (pf.), Benoist (org.), 
Zimmerman (narm,)* an 4 Halevy 
(whose opera "Notf* he finished, and 
whose daughter Genevteve he m.); 
1857, too, Offenbach xst prize for an 
opera buffa, "Le Docteur Miracle?* 
prod, at Bouffes Parisiens, 1863; also 
won the Grand Prix de Rome* In 
place of the Mass prescribed he sent 
from Rome a a-act ItaL opera buffa 
"Dan Procopio"i a movements of a 
symphony, "La Chasse D'Qssian?* 
an overture; and "La Ousta de 
VRmir" a comic opera, 1836, his 
grand opera, "Les Pechenrs de 
Perles," was prod, Paris (Th. Lyr- 
ique); it failed, as did "La Julie 
Fille de Perth" (1867), and the i-act 
"Djamileh" (1872)* In all his music 
B. revealed a strong leaning to wan! 
Wagner, then so unpopular in 
France; but 1873 his overture 
"Patrick the 2 symphonic move- 
ments, and incidental music to 
Daudet's " L'ArUsitnneS' brought 
him success; and "Carmen" (<)pra- 
Com., March 3, 1875) brought him a 
fame, which he hardly knew, as he 

died three months later of heart dis- 
ease; c. Symph. in C; 2 operas, 
"Nvma" (1871) and "/** le Terri- 
&"; 150 pf.-pcs., songs, etc.; collab- 
orated with Delibes, Jonah and 
Legouix in opera "Malbrough> s*en 
va-t-en-guerre. h Biog. by Hgot, 1886, 
and D. C. Parker, 1926. (See article, 
page 488.) 

Bj&rfiog, Jussi (Y6S'-s* byfirMing), b. 
Dalarna, Sweden, February 2, 1910; 
eminent tenor; son of operatic singer; 
one of three brothers, all singers, who 
with father formed quartet and made 
American concert tour when B. wa? 
eight years old, singing in churches, 
etc.; on return to Sweden B. began 
vocal study with Julia Svedeiius; ia 
1929 admitted to Royal Op. Sen., 
Stockholm, where in one 3 ? ear of in- 
tensive study under John Forsell, 
Opera director, he prepared for his 
dbut as Don Ottavio (Don Gio- 
vanni); won permanent contract 
there and sang some fifty r6!es in lear 
than decade; ^935, made guest 
appearances in Vienna, Prague an^ 
Dresden with sensational success; e& 
gaged for America; dbut N. Y. a. 
soloist on Genera! Motors Radio 
Hour, with symphony orchestra, 
1937-8; same season sang in "La 
Votemc" and "Rig&ktto" with Chicago 
Op. Co., and gave concerts; engaged 
for Met. Op*, 1938-9. 

Black, Frank, b. Philadelphia; con- 
ductor; studied to be chemical 
engineer, but after graduation de- 
cided on musical lareer; studied 
piano with Joseffy; active in radio 
programmes, esp. as cond.; appointed 
mus. dir, of Nat*!. Broadcasting Co., 
1930, in which post has taken leading 
part in direction of musical pro- 
grammes; he has appeared as guest 
cond. with other Amer. orchs.; hon. 
Mus. D., and Officer with Palms of 
the French Academic. 

Blahag (bia'hakh) (or Blahak), Jostl, 
Raggendorf , Hungary, 1 779- Vienna, 
1846; tenor, conductor, and com- 

Blahetta (or Piahefka), Marie- 
L^opoldiae, Gumtramsdorf, near 
Vienna, 1811 Boulogne, 18^7; pi* 
anist and dram, composer. 

Blainville (blflifi-vft'-yQ), Chas. H. f 
near Tours, 1711 Paris, 1769, *cel 
list, writer, and composer* 

Blanchet (DlSn-ahftO, Emile, b, Lau- 
sanne, Switzerland, July 17, 1877; 


pianist and composer; studied at 
Cologne Cons, and with Busoni; 
ttas for three years dir. of Cons, in 
native city and taught there after- 
ward; c. piano works rich in colour 
and of refined harmonic style. 

Blanckenburgh (blank'-Sn-boorkh), 
Gerbrandt van, organist at Gouda, 
1 7th century. 

Bland (blant), (i) Maria Theresa (n6e 
Romanzini), 1 769 1838; pop. Italian 
singer in England; married an actor, 
Bland, and had two sons. 1(2) Chas., 
tenor. (3) James, 1798 1861, bass. 

Blangini (blSn-je'-ne), Giu. Marco, M. 
Felice, Turin, 1781 Paris, 1841; 

Blankenburg (blSrk-Sn-boorkh), (i) 
Quirin van, Gouda, Holland, 1654 
The Hague, ca. 1740; probably son of 
(q. v.); organist and writer. (2) 
Ciur. !Pr. von, Kolberg, Ppmerania, 
1744 Leipzig, 1796; Prussian officer 
and composer. 

Maramberg (bl&'-ram-bSrkh), Paid L, 
Orenburg, Russia, Sept. 26, 1841 
Nice, Feb. 28, 1907; pupil of Balaki- 
rew; lawyer, then editor; composed 
succ. operas, "Maria, Tudor" (St. 
Petersburg, 1883); "The First Rus- 
sian Comedian"} " Tusckinsky"* 
(Moscow, 1895). 

Blaser'na, Pietro, Fiumicello, Feb. 29. 
1836 Rome, 1917; teacher and 

Blasius (biaz'-yiis), Mathieu Fr., 
Lauterburg, Alsatia, 1758 ^Ver- 
sailles, 1829; cond. Op. Comique, 
Paris; composer. 

Blassmann (bl&s'-m&n), Ad. Jos. M., 
Dresden, 1823 Bautzen, 1891; pi- 
anist, court-conductor, and wnter. 

Blauvelt (blou'-fSlt), LilHan, b. Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., March 16, 1873; soprano; 
studied Nat. Cons., N. Y., and in 
Paris; after years of success at home, 
toured Europe, 1900; decorated in 
Italy with the order of St. Cecilia; 
she made her debut in opera in 
"Faust" at Covent Garden, 1903, 
with success; until 1914 sang mucn 
in Europe; d. Chicago, Aug. 31, 1947. 

Blauwart (blow'-vart), Emil, St. 
Nicholas, Belgium, 1845 Brussels, 
1891; barytone. 

Blavet (bla-va), Michel, Besancon; 
Man 13, 1700 Paris, Dec. 28, 1768, 
composer of comic operas, etc. 

Blaze (b&z), (i) (Called Castil-Blaze), 
Fran. H. Jos., Cavaillon Vaucluse, 

1784 Paris, 1857; "The father of 
modern French musical criticism"; 
son and pupil of Henri Sebastian B., 
wrote scathing "L'Opfra en France*'* 
(1820); was made critic on "Journal 
des Debats" where his articles were 
signed "XXX"; transl. libretti ot 
German and Italian operas; com- 
posed 3 operas, several* /'pastiches," 
etc. (2) H., Baron de Bury, Avig- 
non, 1813 Paris, 1888; son of above; 

Blech (blakh), Leo, b. Aachen, April 
22, 1871; conductor; pupil of Berlin 
Hochschule; 1893 1896, cond. at 
Municipal Theatre, Aachen, and 
pupil of Huraperdinck; 1899 1906, 
cond. German Landestheatre at 
Prague; 1906, Royal Opera, Berlin; 
1908, cond. first East-Prussian Festi- 
val at KQnigsberg; c. 3 symph. 
poems, successful i-act opera, "Das 
War Ich" (Dresden, 1902); 3-act 
opera, "Aschenbrodel"- (Prague, 1905); 
"Versiegelt" (Hamburg, 1908; New 
York, 1912); operetta "Die Stroh- 
witwe"', orch, works, etc.; 1925, cond. 
in Stockholm; after 1949 again at Ber- 
lin Opera. 

Bleichmann (bllkh'-man), Julius 
Jvanovitch, St. Petersburg, Dec. 5, 
1868 Jan. 10, 1909; conductor; 
pupil at the Cons., and of Reinecke 
and Jadassohn; cond. various orchs. 
at St. Petersburg; c. 2 operas, cham- 
ber music, etc. 

Bleuer (bloi'-er), L., Budapest, 3863 
Berlin, 1897; violinist; 1883-03, 
leader of Philh. orch., Berlin; 1894., 
of Philh. Club, Detroit (Michigan). 

Blew'itt, (i) Jonathan, London, 1782^ 
1853; organist and director; son and 
pupil of (2) Jonas, organist and 

Bleyle (blT-le), Karl, b. Feldkirch, 
May 7, 1880; pupil of Wehrle and de 
Lange; later at Stuttgart Cons, and 
of Thuille; gave up violin on account 
of nervous affliction of the arm; lived 
in Munich; c. symph., "An den 
Mistral" (from Nietzsche), for mixed 
chorus and orch., "Lernt lachen" 
(from Nietzsche's "Zarathustra") l 
do.; symph. poem "Flagellantenzug,'* 

Bliss, Sir Arthur, b. London, Aug. 2, 
1891; educated at Pembroke Coll.; 
Cambridge, and R. Coll. of Mus.: 
pupil of Stanford, Charles Wood and 
Vaughan Williams; his early string 
quartet in A and piano quartet in 



A minor were perf. during his period 
of war service, but though pub., were 
later withdrawn by him; incid. xnus. 
to "As You Like It" heard at Strat- 
ford, 1919; his rhapsody for soprano 
and tenor, flute, "cor anglais," string 
quartet, and bass (winning Carnegie 
Pub. Fund award and heard at 
Salzburg Fest., 1922) and his "Rout" 
(for soprano and chamber orch.) 
both date from 1920; also c. "Colour 
Symphony" (the movements portray- 
ing different colours), heard Three 
Choirs Fest., 1922; "Mel&e Fan- 
Basque" and "Madame Noy" Pasto- 
rale, string quartet; concerto for two 
pianos and orch.: (orch.) *'Two 
Studies," "Battle Variations," 
"Hymn to Apollo"; Introduction 
and Allegro: Serenade (for barytone 
and orch.); songs, piano pieces, etc.; 
"Morning Heroes, for orator, cho- 
rus, orch. (1930): ballets, "Check- 
mate," "Miracle in the Corbals" (both 
for Sadler's Wells Ballet, London); 
grand opera, "TheOlympians" (Covent 
Garden, 1949), libretto by Priestley; 
mus. dir, of B. B. C. radio, England; 
lived in U. S. T 1923-5; arr. suite by 
Jfurcell; knighted, 1950. 

Blitesteia (bllts'-stin), Marc, b. Phila- 
delphia, March 2, 1905; composer; 
studied piano with Siloti; comp. with 
Scalero at Curtis Inst. of Mus.; 
Nadia Boulanger and SchSnberg; 
composer of modern tendencies; c. 
(orch.) "Romantic Piece"! piano 
concerto: music for film "Surf and 
Seaweed" ; (chamber works) "Geds" 
for mezzo-soprano and chamber 
orch.; "Serenade" ; string quartet; 
(opera-farce) "Triple-Sec"; (short 
operas) "Parabola and <?ircvla'*t 
"Ear pies"; "The Condemned" (latter 
written for four choruses); (ballet) 
"Cain"; (son* cycle) "Is Five"; 
"Percussion Music" and other pieces 
for piano; mus. play* "The Cradle 
Witt Rock," 

Block (b!6kh) (i) G-> Breslau, Nov. a. 
1847 Berlin, Feb. xi, 1910; pupil 
of Hainsch, J. Schubert, Taubert, 
and F* Geyer; teacher in Breslaur's 
Cons., Berlin; founded Opera So- 
ciety, 1879; composer. (2) Ernest, 
b. Geneva, Switzerland, July 24* 
1880; now American citizen; studied 
violin with Ysaye; composition with 
Dakrase, Rasse, and Knorr; acted 
as lecturer at Geneva Cons,; con- 
ducted symphony concerts, Lausanne 

and Neuchatel; made first Americas 
tour as conductor for Maud Allan, 
dancer, 1916; has led owr works with 
various American orchestras; direc- 
tor of Cleveland Institute of Music. 
1920-25; also of San Francisco Conss.. 
1925-30; received fuid with annual 
income of $5,000 for ten years, begin- 
ning 1930, from family of late Jacob 
and Rosa Stern, San Francisco, on 
agreement that he devote himself 
to creative work entirely; c. sym- 
phony in C sharp minor (1902): 
(Symphonic poems) " Winter-Spring** 
(1905): (opera) "Macbttk" (Paris 
Op. Comique, 1910); Prelude and 
Two Psalms, for sopr. or ten. and 
orch. (1914); "Psalm aa" for bar, 
or alt- and orch. (19x6); "Israel" 
Symphony with 5 soio voices (1915); 
"Sckelomo" Hebrew rhapsody for 
*cello and orch. (1916); ** JVtfM Poe- 
tries JtOfs," for orchestra; Suite for 
viola and piano or orch, (Coolidge 
Prize, 19x9)5 "Baal Stem" for 
violin and piano (1923); Concerto 
Grosso for strings and piano (1095); 
"America epic rhapsody for orches- 
tra (won Musical America $3,ooc 
prize, 1927-28), string quartets, 
piano quintet, violin and piano 
works; also sacred service for bary- 
tone, mixed chorus and orchestra, a 
setting of Jewish liturgy (1935), 
B combines a strong sense of modern 
orchestral colour, forma! ingenuity, 
and emotional fervour. Racia* 
colouring predominates in many of 
his works. 

Blockx (bids), Jan., Antwerp, Jan, 
25, 1851 May aa, 191 a; pianist ami 
composer; pupil, Flemish Mus. 
School; from 1886, teacher of harm, 
there; iocx succeeded Bgnolt, at 
Antwerp Cons.: composed succ. 
operas, inch "MaUrc Martin," etc. 

Blodek (bl6d-*k), (OP- Aug. L-, Paris, 
1784 1856; viola-player and dram, 
composer, (a) Wm*, Prague, 1834 
1874: prof, and dram, comporer, 

Blon (bl6n), Franz von, 6. Berlin, 
July 1 6, 1861; cond.; pupil of Stern's 
Cons.; *8o8, c. operettas **$& risa" 
ttLiibeck, 1887); **#> Amazon*" 
(Magdeburg, 1905), etc. 

Blondeau (bioft-do), Pierre August* 
Louis, Paris, Aug. 15, 17841865: 
viola-piayer at the Opra; pupil of 
the Cons,, taking the Pro: de Rome, 
1808; c. opera, ballet, etc. 

Bloom 'field-Zeisler (UtaMir), Fanny, 



Sielitz, Austrian Silesia, July 16, 
1863 Chicago, Aug. 21, 1927; pi- 
anist; at 2 was brought to Chicago, 
where she lived; played in public at 
10; was pupil of Ziehn and Karl 
Wolfsohn, and 1876-81 of Lesche- 
tizky; from 1883 toured America 
with distinction; from 1893, Ger- 
many, Austria, England, and France 
with great success. 

Blow, Jolm (Mus. Doc. Oxon.), Col- 
lingham, Nottinghamshire, 1649 
Westminster (London), Oct. i, 1708; 
organist Westminster Abbey, 1680; 
was superseded by Purcell, whom he 
in turn succeeded; he is buried in 
the Abbey; 1674, organist and (1699) 
composer to the Chapel Royal; be- 
ginning to compose as a boy, he 
achieved a vast amount of church- 

Blum (bloom), K- L., Berlin, 1786 
July a, 1844; actor, singer, poet, 
organist, 'cellist, cond., and com- 
poser: chamber-musician to the 
Prussian Ct., 1822; stage mgr.; prod, 
nearly 30 operas, ballets, songs, etc.; 
also vaudevilles, which he introduced 

' to the German stage. 

Blumenfetd (bloo'-mn-fSlt} 7 Felix M., 
Kovalevska, Russia, April 19, 1863 
Moscow, Jan, 23, 1931; pianist, 
pupil of Th. Stein; took gold medal 
at St. Petersburg Cons.; composed 
"Alltgre de Concert," with orchestra, 
etc.; many pf. works; 1898-1912 
cond. Imperial Opera, St. Peters- 
burg; also after 1885 prof, at Cons. 
<here. His brothers (a), Stanislaus, 
jZev, x8$o-97 t pianist and teacher; 
(3) Sigisraundf Odessa, Dec. 27, 
i8$a St, Petersburg, 1920; song- 

Slumentbal (bloo'-xn8n~tal), (i) Jos. 
von, Brussels, 1782 Vienna, 1850, 
violinist and dram, composer. (2) 
Jacob (Jacques), Hamburg, Oct. 
4, 1820 Chelsea, May 17, *Qo8; 
pupil of Grund, Bocklet, and Sechter 
(Vienna), and 1846 of Hera and 
Halvy; after 1848 in London; 
pianist to the Queen, and composer. 
(3) Paul, Steinau-on-Oder, Silesia, 
Aug, *3, 1843 Frankfort-on-Oder, 
May 9, 1930; pupil of R. A., Berlin, 
1870; organist, Frankfort-on-Oder: 
from 1870, "R, mus. air."; composed 
masses, motets, etc. 

Bfumner (bloom '-ncr), Martin, Ftir- 
stenberg, Mecklenburg, Nov. 21, 
*8a7 Serlia, Nov. 6, lo^; pupil 

of S. W. Dehn; 1876, cond. of Berlin 
Singakademie; titles "R. Musik-dir," 
and "Prof."; composed 2 oratorios, 
"Abraham" and "Der Fall Jerusa- 
lem*" '; cantata "Columbia"; "Te 
Deum" etc. 

Bluthner (bliit'-ner), Julius Fd., 
Falkenhain, near Merseburg, March 
ii, 1824 Leipzig, April 13, 1910; 
piano-maker, Leipzig, from 1853. 

Boccabadati (b6k-ka-bS,-da'-te) , Ltii- 
gia, Parma Turin, 1850; soprano. 

Boccherini (bdk-kg-rg'-ng), Luigi, 
Lucca, Italy, Feb. 19, 1743* Madrid, 
May 28, 1805; 'cellist; toured with 
success; 1797, made chamber-corn" 
poser to Friedrich Wilhelm II., of 
Prussia, in return for a dedication; 
after the king's death B.'s fortune 
left him, and he died in dire poverty. 
His prolific and of- en fascinatingly 
graceful compositions include 20 
symphonies, an opera, an orchestral 
suite, a 'cello-concerto, 2 octets 
16 sextets, 125 string-quintets, 12 
pf.-quintets, 18 quintets for strings 
and flute (QJ, oboe), 91 string-quartets, 
54 string-trios, 42 trips, sonatas and 
duets for vln., etc.; biog. by Picquot 
(Paris, 1851), and Schletternd 

Bochsa (bdkh'-sa), (i) K., Bohemia 
Paris, 1821: oboist; music-seller. 
(2) Rob. NIC. Chas., Montmedy, 
Meuse, Aug. 9, 1789 Sydney, Aus- 
tralia, Jan. 6, 1856; son and pupil of 
above; composed a symphony at 9, 
an opera at 16; pupil of Fr. Beck; 
harpist to Napoleon and x> Louis 
XVIII,; he eloped with Sir Henry 
Bishop's wife, made tours in Europe 
and America, and finally to Aus- 
tralia; composed 9 French operas, 
prod, in Lyons (1804), and in Paris 
(1813-16); 4 ballets; an oratorio, 
etc.; wrote a standard method for 

Bock'elmann, Rudolf, b. Bodenteich, 
Germany, April 2, 1892; barytone; 
studied at Leipzig Univ.; voice with 
Oscar Lassner in that city; sang at 
Neues Theat. there, 1921-26; after 
latter year heroic r61es at Hamburg 
Stadtheat.; also guest engagements 
at Covent Garden, with Chicago Op... 
etc.; esp. noted for his Wotan and 
other Wagnerian portrayals. 

Bocksfcora (b6ks'-h6rn) ("Capricor- 
xms")> Samuel, Germany, 1629 
Stuttgart, 1665; compoper and con- 



Bodanzky (b5-dantz'-shkl) ? Artur, b. 
Vienna, Dec. 1877 N. Y., Nov. 23, 
*939; grad. Vienna Cons., 1896; 
dlbut, Budweiss, Bohemia, 1900; 
from 1896 violinist at the Vienna 
Op.; in 1901, took up baton activi- 
ties in native city; in 1903 assistant 
to Mahler at the Op6fa; 1904, cond. 
Theater an der Wien, Vienna; 
1905, at Lortzing Theatre, Berlin; 
1906-09, orchestra and theatre cond., 
Prague; 1909-15, Grand Ducal 
Theatre, Mannheim, also appearing 
widely as guest conductor; 1912, 
Mahler Fest., in Mannheim; 1914* 
London premiere of "Parsifal"; en- 
gaged Met. Oj>., N. Y., in 1915, 
where he has since served as prin- 
cipal conductor and leader of Ger- 
man opera performances; in 1919 
conducted National Symphony Or- 
chestra (since merged with N, Y. 
Philharmonic); cond. New York 
Friends of Music Society in pro- 
grammes of rare music by older com- 
posers, Bruckner, Mahler, etc. 

Bodenschatz (bs'-d'n-shats), Exftard, 
XAchtenberg, Saxony, 1576 Gross- 
Osterhausen, near Querfurt, 1636; 

Boedecker (ba'-de*k-er), Ixmis, Ham- 
burg, 1845 *8p9; teacher, critic, 
and composer. 

Boehm, Boehme. Vide BdHM (E). 

Boekelman (ba'-kgl-inanX Berncrdus, 
Utrecht, Holland, 1838 New York, 
Aug. a, 1930; pupil and son of A. J. 
B*; director, studied with Moscheles, 
Richter and Hauptmann, at Leipzig 
Cons,; von Billow, Kiel, and Weite- 
mann, at Berlin; from 1866, lived in 
New York; founded and cond, (till 
1888) the N. Y. Trio Club; 1883-97, 
xnub. dir Mis? Porter's School, 
Farmington, Conn,: later pianist 
and teacher in New York; composed 
orch.-pcs., etc,; ed- an analytical 
edition of Bach's "Well-tempered 
Clavichord" in colours, etc. 

BoSUraann (bwel'-man), Le*on Ensi- 
sheim, Alsatia, 1863 Paris, 1897; 
composer and teacher. 

Bo61y (bwtt'-e), Alex, P. Fran., Ver- 
sailles, 1785 Paris, 1858; pianist 
and composer. 

Boers (boors), Jos. Karel, Nymwegen, 
Holland, 1812 Delft, 1896; cond, 
and writer. 

Boesset (bwte-sa), (i) A., Sieur de 
Villedieu, ca, 1585 1643; intcndant 
of music to Louis Kill* (a) J* B. f 

i6i2 1685; son and succt^sor of 
above; and in turn succeeded by his 
son. (3) C, J. B., b. ca. 1636* 

Boe'tius (or Boethius), Am'ciu& 
Man'lius Torqua'tus Severi'nus, 
Rome ca. 475 executed 524 (?); emi- 
nent poet and writer on music. 

Bohlmann (bal'-man), Th. H, Fr. 
Osterwieck am Harz, Germany, June 
23, 2865 Memphis, Ten.!., Feb., 
1926; pianist; pupil of Dr. Stade, 
Barth, Klind worth, Tiersch, d* Albert, 
and Mosakowski; de*but Berlin, 
1890; toured Germany 1890, of .-prof. 
Cincinnati Cons.; later head of his 
own school in Memphis. 

Bohm (b6m), K., Berlin, Sept. ix, 1844 
April 4, 1920; pupil of LSschhorn, 
Reissmann, and Geyer; pianist and 
composer in Berlin. 

BShm (bam), (i) G., Goldbach, 
Thuringia, 1661 Liineburg, 17337 
organist and clavichord ist; com- 
posed important organ preludes and 
suites. (2) Elizabeth Riga, 1756 
1797: soprano, m. the actor B* 

(3) Theobald, Munich, April 9, 1793 
Nov. 15, 1881; inv. the **B6hni 
flute" (vide 0. .); flutist and com- 
poser for flute; "HofmusSkua," and 
player in royal orch, (4) Jos,, Pesth, 
*795 Vienna, 1876; son and oupil 
of above; violinist and prof. (5) 
Heinrich, Blatu, Bohemia, 1836 
(?); composed 35 operas in Bohemian. 
(6) Jos., Klihnitz, Moravia, 1841 
Vienna, 1893; organist, cond., and 
director, (7) K^rl, b. Gras, Aug. 28* 
1894; cond. Munich, 1921; ZO27 
Darmstadt; 1933, din Dresden Op, 

Bfthxne (bft'm), (i) Jn. Aug., 1794; 
founder of pub. house at Hamburg. 
His son, (2) Justus Eduard, suc- 
ceeded him in 1830; and his grand- 
son, (3) August Eduard, in 1885. 

(4) Aug. Julius Fd., Ganderheira, 
Brunswick, 1815 1883; conductor. 
(<) Fz. Magnus, WeUerstedt, near 
^A^eiInar, 1827 Dresden, 1898; 
teacher, Dresden, later prof.; com- 
poser, writer, and collector. 

Boomer (b&'-m&r), & (Hermann 
Khrfried), The Hague, 1799 Berlin, 
3:884; dram, composer* 

Bohn (bdn), Bmil, IBidau, near Neisse, 
Jan. *4, 1839 Breslau, July 5, 1909; 
organist, 1884, founded the Bofan 
Choral Society, giving historical 
concerts; lecturer, writer, critic, and 
composer; R. Prof, of Music. 



b. Keulen, Germany, Jan. 23, 1888; 
opera bass; studied Cologne Cons., 
d6but in "Der Freischutz," Diissel- 
dorf; has sung in opera at Berlin, 
Bayreuth, London, Vienna, Barce- 
lona, Stockholm, and New York 
(member of Met. Op. Co. for a 
number of years after 1923); also has 
appeared in motion pictures in 
Germany; m. Mary Lewis, soprano; 

Boliner (bS/-ne*r), Jn. L., Tdttelstedt, 
Gotha, 1787 near Gptha, 1860; 
composer; led a roving life of drunk- 
enness and talent; said to be the 
original of Hofmann's " Kreisler" 
(vide SCHUMANN); composed opera, 

Bonrer (bQ'-rer), (i) Antony Munich, 
1783 Hanover, 1852; violinist; com- 
poser for vln; a co-member of the 
Bavarian Court-orch. and concert- 
giver with his brother, (2) Max, 
Mannheim, 1785 Stuttgart, 1867; 

Boleldieu (b5-d-yu), (i) Fran. Adrien, 
Rouen, Dec. 16 (not 15), 1775 
Jarcy, near Grosbois, Oct. 8, 1834; 
son of secretary of Archp. Laroche- 
loucauld and a milliner; apprenticed 
to the intemperate, brutal cathedral 
organist Broche, he ran away, at 12, 
and walked to Paris, but was brought 
back. He is not known to have had 
other teaching. At 18, he prod. succ. 
4 *j6a Jttlc coupable" (Rouen, 1793); 
*79S "Rosalie et Myrza" text of 
both by his father. Discouraged in 
a planned Cons, at Rouen, he again 
walked to Paris, and subsisted as 
teacher and piano-tuner to Erard. 
The tenor Garat sang his still pop. 
songs, in public, and won him a 
publisher. 1796, " La Dot de Suzette,"- 
in one act, was prod, with succ. 
(Qpra-Com.); 1797, "La famille 
Suisse" (ran 30 nights at the Th. 
Feydeau); 1798, he pub. sonatas, 
and a pf. -concerto, etc.; 1800, prof. 
of piano, Paris Cons. "Zoraime et 
Zulnare" (1798), "Beniowski" and 
"Le Calife de Bagdad' 9 (1800) were 
succ. and ended his first period, one 
of light gracefulness. He now studied 
cpt. seriously, probably with Cheru- 
bim, who had criticised him. After 
3 years' silence, he reappeared with 
enlarged powers, succ. in "M a Xante 
Aurore" (Th. Feydeau, 1803). In 
1803 he m. Clotilde Mafleuroy, a 
twdlet-dancer; 1803, he went to St. 

Petersburg, partially perhaps (but 
not surely) because of domestic un- 
happiness, and became cond. of the 
Imperial Opera, writing by contract 
3 operas annually and a number of 
marches. He returned to Paris, 
181 1 ; had immense succ., particularly 
with "Jean de Paris," 1812; 1817 
prof, of comp. at the Cons, and 
member of Institut; 1821, Chevalier 
of the Legion of Honour; 1818, "Le 
Petit Chaperon rouge" was succ., fol- 
lowed, after 7 years' silence, by "La 
Dame Blanche" his masterpiece. 
His last opera, "Les Deux Nuits" 
(1829), failed. His wife d. 1825, and 
1827 he m. Mile. Phillis, a singer, 
who was a devoted wife. The pov- 
erty of their last years was relieved 
by Thiers, minister of Louis Philippe, 
who made him an annuity of 6,000 
francs. He died at his country- 
home, of pulmonary trouble. B.'s 
work has great vivacity and vitality 
combined with musical sweetness, 
and rhythm without jingle. His 
large gifts in the construction of 
ensembles are seen in the septet and 
chorus at the end of the 2d act of 
"La Dame Blanche" which up to 
1875 had been performed 1340 times 
at the same theatre; its libretto is a 
combination of 2 of Scott's novels 
"The Monastery" and "Guy Man* 
nering." He collaborated with Che- 
rubim in "La Prisonniere" (i799)j 
with M6hul, Kxeutzer, and others, 
in "Le Baiser et la Quittance" (1802); 
with Cherubini, Catel, and Niccdlu 
Isouard, in "Bayard d Mezieres", 
with Kreutzer in "Henri IV. en, 
Voyage" (1814); with Mme. Gail, 
in ** Angela" (1814); with Harold in 
"Charles de France"; with Cherubini, 
Berton, and others, in "La Cour des 
Fees" Ci82i) and "Pharamond"; 
with Auber, in "Les Trois Genres"; 
wJth Berton, and others, in "La 
Marquise de Brinwlliers." Bipg. 
by A. Pougin, 1875. (2) Adrien 
L. V., b. Paris, 1816 near Paris, 
1883; son and pupil of above; dram. 

Boisdeffre (bwa-dSfr), Chas. H. RSne* 
de, Vesoul ;Haute-Savoie} 7 1838 
V6zelise, Dec., 1906; Chev. of Legion 
of Honour; composer of religious 
and chamber music, the latter taking 
Chartier prize, 1883. 

Boise (bois;, Otis Bardwell, Oberlin, 
Ohio, Aug. 13, 1844 Baltimore, 



M<L, Dec. 1 6, 1912; organist; 1861 
pupil of Hauptmann, Richter, Mos- 
cheles, etc., Leipzig; 1864, of Kullak, 
at Berlin; 1864-70, organist and 
teacher in Cleveland; 1870-^76, in 
New York; 1876-78, spent in Eu- 
rope; for some years prominent in 
Berlin as a teacher; 1901, settled in 
Baltimore; composed symphonies, 
overtures, pf. -concertos, etc., wrote 
"Music and Its Masters" (1902), etc. 

Boismprtier (bwa-mdrt-ya), Josef 
Bo din I>e, Perpignan, ca. 1691 
Paris, ca. 1765; c. ballet operas, 
cantatas, etc. 

Boisselot (bwas-15), (i) J. Lotus, 
Montpellier, 1785 Marseilles, 1847; 
piano-maker at Marseilles; his eldest 
son (2) Louis (1809 -1850) was 
the manager. His grandson, (3) 
Francois, was later the proprietor* 
(4) Xavier, Montpellier, 1811 Mar- 
seilles, 1893; second son of above; 

Bolto (bc-e'-td), Arrigo, Padua, Feb. 
24, 1842 Milan, June 10, 1918; 
poet, soldier, novelist, editor, essay- 
ist, librettist, and composer; son of 
an Italian painter and a Polish 
woman. Pupil, 1853-62, of Milan 
Cons., almost dismissed fot- mus. 
incompetence (cf. VERDI); composed 
2 cantatas, "II 4 di Giueno" (x86o), 
and Le Sorelle d'Italia?*< (1862), in 
collab. with. Faccio; they met with 
such great succ. that the Govt. gave 
F. and B. funds for z years in Paris 
and Germany. B. had already 
taken up Goethe's "Faust," long 
before Gounod, at the suggestion or 
his bro, Camillo, an eminent archi- 
tect. B. brought back from Germany 
a passion for Beethoven, then little 
heeded in Italy, 1:867 at Paris, as 
journalist; then Poland, where he 
sketched out text ana music of 
"Mcfistofele,"* which was prod, at 
Milan, 1868 (La Scala), after 52 
rehearsals, and with great hopes; but 
it was then in a rather shapeless 
state, and Gounod's "Faust" having 
meanwhile been prod, at Milan with 
succ., B/s work was hissed by some, 
and having provoked riots and duels 
was withdrawn by order of the 
police* It was remodelled with 
more attention to stage requirements 
and prod, with great succ. at Bologna, 
Oct. 4, 1875. An earlier opera, 
"Etro e Leandro^ was never prod., 
B* lending his own libretto to Botte- 

sini, and later to MancinellL Other 
libretti of his are, Ponchielli's "GtV- 
condar Verdi's "Otello" and "Fal- 
staff," Faccio's "Amleto" and 
Coronaro's " Un Tramonio." His 
opera, " N crone," on which he worked 
for many years and which was re- 
peatedly announced for production, 
finally saw the stage posthumously 
when Toscanim cond. the work at 
La Scala, with great scenic splendour 
of production, May i, 1924, before a 
distinguished international audience. 
Its succ. proved not to be lasting. 
B. translated 2 of Wagner's \Ibretti 
into Italian, and wrote often under 
the pseud. **Tobia Gorrio." The 
King made him "Cavaliere" and 
"Commendatore"; 1892, Inspector- 
Gen, of Technical Instruction in the 
Italian Cons, and Lyceums; 2895 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honour, 

Bok, Mary Louise Curtis (Mrs. Edward 
Bofc), b. Boston, Aug. 6, 1876; music 
patron; d. of Cyrus H. $L Curtis and 
Louisa (Knapp); founder (1923) and 
pres. Curtis Institute of Music, 
Philadelphia, est, in memory of her 
father, the prominent publisher; also 
active in many other musical and 
civic philanthropies. 

Bolck (bolk), Oskar, Hobenstela, 2830 
Bremen, 1888; dram* composer. 

Bolm, Adolph, b. St. Petersburg, Rus- 
sia, Sept. 25, 1884; dancer and ballet 
director; educated Imp. Ballet 
School; dbut, Maryinsky Theatre, 
St. Petersburg, 2904; soloist, Diaghi- 
leflf Ballet Russe, 1900^*7; org. his 
own ballet company, 19x7; bas also 
directed ballets and appeared as 
soloist at Met. Op.: d, 1951, 

Bblscfce (bel'-she 1 ), Fraaz, b. Wegen- 
stedt, Aug. ao. 1869^ Bad Oeyn- 
hausen, 2935; theorist; pupil Berlin 
Royal Hochschule; 1896, teacher Co- 
logne Cons.; c. overture JudUk % etc. 

Bomtempo (bOm-tam'-p^), Jofto Do~ 
mingos, Lisbon, 1775 1842; pianist, 
director, and writer. 

Bona (b5'-na), Giov ? Mondovi, 1609 
Rome,. 1674; cardinal and composer. 

Bonawitz (bO'-na*vts) (or Bonewitz), 
Jn. H., DUrkheim-on-Rhine, Dec. 
4f 1839 London, Aug* 15, 19x7; 
pupil Liege Cons, till 1852, then 
brought to America; 2873-73 cond. 
"Popular Symphony Concerts/* New 
York; 1873* toured U* S.; prod. 2 
operas in PhOadelphia; 1876, ret. to 
Europe; livxi in Vienna aad London. 



Bond (b6n'cheO, Alessandro, b. Cesena, 
Feb. 10, 1870 Milan, Aug. 10, 1940- 
lyric tenor; at 7 sang in choir, studied 
singing with. Coen at Pesaro Lyceum 
for 5 years; then member of choir 
at Loreto; operatic d6but in "Fal- 
staff"', sang with great success at 
Co vent Garden, 1900, and in 1908 
at Metropolitan Opera House; toured 
U. S., 1911-12; 1912-13, Chicago 
Op. Co. 

Bond, Carrie Jacobs, b. Janes ville, 
Wis.; composer; studied with Bisch- 
off; c. many songs of ballad variety, 
usually with sentimental texts, 
among which wide popularity has 
been won by "A Perfect Day," "Just 
A-Wearyin' For You' 9 and "7 Love 
You Truly 17 ; also composed scores for 
films; d. Los Angeles, Dec. 28, 1946. 

Bonel'li, Richard, b. Port Byron, 
N. Y.; barytone; educated Syracuse 
Univ.; studied voice with Arthur 
Alexander and William Vilonat; 
dbut as Valentine, Brooklyn, N. Y., 
1915; member San Carlo Opera, 
in America; later sang with Monte 
Carlo Op., La Scala Op., Milan and in 
Germany; member Chicago Civic Op., 
1925-31; since 1933 with Met. Op. 
Co.; m. Pauline Cornelys, soprano. 

Btfnicke (ba'-nl-ke 1 ), Hermann, En- 
dorf, 1821 Hermannstadt, Transyl- 
vania, 1879; conductor, composer, 
and writer. 

Bo'niforti, Carlo, Arona, Sept. 25, 
1818 Trezzo d'Adda, Dec. 10, 1879; 
organist and comp. 

Benin! (b3-ne'~ne), Severe, b. Flor- 
ence, 1 7th century; Benedictine 
njonk, one of the first writers in mono- 
die style; c madrigals, etc., 1607-13. 

Boniventi (bo-n*-vSn'-t5) (or Bone- 
venti), Gius, b. Venice, ca. 1660; 
conductor and dram, composer. 

JJonnet (bttn-na), (i) Jacques, Paris, 
1644 1724; writer. (2) J. Bap., 
b. Montauban, 1763: organist and 
composer. (3) Josepn, b. Bordeaux, 
France, March 17, 1884; organist; 

studied with Tournemire, GSdalge, 
and Guilmant; ist prize, organ play- 
ing and improvisation, Pans Cons., 
1906; won competition in 1906 as 
organist at St. Eustache, Paris; 
organist Socit6 des Concerts du 
Conservatoire, 1911-20; soloist with 
various European and American 
orchestras; made many tours of Can. 
and U. S.j d. Can., Aug., 1044- 

Bonno (b6n -no) (or Bono) t Jos., Vi- 

enna, 1710 1788; court-cond. and 
dram, composer. 

Bononcini (bo-n6n-chS'-n5), (i) Giov. 
M., Modena, 1640 Nov. 19, 1678; 
conductor, composer, and writer of 
Bologna. (2) Who usually wrote it 
Buononcini (boo-6-n6n-chg'-ne), 
Giov.Bat., Modena, 1660 (?) Venice 
(?), 1750 (?); son and pupil of above; 
studied with Colonna and Buoni 
('cello), at Bologna; 1685-91, pub. 7 
vols. masses and instr. mus.; in 1690, 
court 'cellist of Vienna; 1694, Rome, 
prod. 2 operas, "Tidlo Ostilio" and 
"Serse"; 1699-1701 prod. 2 operas 
at Vienna; 1703-05, at Berlin as 
court-composer; prod. "Polifemo" 
(1703); ret. to Vienna, where 6 new 
operas were prod. In I7i5 3 invited 
to London as r.ond. and composer for 
the new King's Theatre, and to rival 
Handel; this provoked a famous and 
bitter war with some success for B., 
who prod. 8 operas, 1702-27; but in 
1731 he was caught in a plagiarism 
from A. Lotti (a crime of which 
Handel was by no means guiltless 
himself); 1733 an alchemist swindled 
him from affluence to bankruptcy. 
Later he appeared in Paris and 
prod. a. motet for the "Chapelle 
royale," playing the 'cello-accomp. 
before the King; 1737 his opera 
"Alessandro in Sidone," and an ora- 
torio, "Ezechia" were prod, in Vi- 
enna; 1748, he was called to Vienna 
to write peace-festival music and 
later went to Venice as theatre- 
composer, a post retained at least 
till he was 90. (3) Marc An., 
Modena, 1675 (?) 1726; bro. of 
above; court-cond. there; prod, u 
operas highly rated by Padre Mar- 
tini; also composed an oratorio. 

Bonporti (bon-pdr'-tS), F. A., Trent, 
ca. 1660; Imperial Counsellor and 

Bontem^i (bdn-te'm'-pe') (surnamed 
Angeuni), Giov. Andrea, Perugia, 
ca. 1624 Bruso, near Perugia, 1705, 
dram, composer and writer. 

Bonvin (b$n-v&n), L., b. Siders, 
Feb. 17, 1850 Buffalo, Feb. 18, 
1939; self-taught; studied medicine, 
Vienna; entered Jesuit novitiate in 
Holland; became organist and choir- 
master; from 1887, mus. dir. Canisius 
College, Buffalo, N. Y.; pub. masses, 

Boom (b6m), (i) Jan. E. G, van 
(Senior), b. Rotterdam, April 17* 



1783: flutist and composer for flute. 
(2) Jan. (Jns,) van, Utrecht, 1807 
Stockholm, 1872; son of above; 
pianist, professor, and dram, com- 
poser. (3) Hermann. M. van, 
Utrecht, 1809 1883; son and pupil 
of (i); flutist. 

Boo'sey, Thos. (1825). founded the 
London pub. house of Boosey & Co. 

Boott, Francis, Boston, Mass., June 
21, 1813 Cambridge, Mass., March 
2, 1904; pupil of L. Picchianti, in 
Florence; lived in Cambridge, Mass.; 
composed under pseud. "TelforoV* 

Bopp, Wilhelm, Mannheim, Nov. 4, 
1863 Biihler Hdhe, June n, 1931; 
pupil of Leipzig Cons., and of Emil 
JPaur; 1884, dir, in Freiburg; 1886, 
assistant to Mottl at Bayreuth; 
1889, teacher at Mannheim Cons.; 
1900^ opened a High School of 
Music; 1907-19, dir. Royal Cons., 
Vienna; cond. His wife, born Glaser, 
a court opera singer at Stuttgart. 

Bordes (b6rd), Charles, Vouvray-sur- 
Loire, May 12, 1863 Toulon, Nov. 
8, 1909; composer; important figure 
in the revival of French church 
music; pupil of C6sar Franck; 1887, 
church-conductor at Nogent-sur- 
Marne; 1880 commissioned by the 
govt. to collect Basque folk music; 
from 1890 chapel-master at St. Ger- 
vais> Paris; founder of the ** Associa- 
tion of the Singers of St. Gtrvais" and 
of the "Schola Cantorum de Si. GJ* 
1898 with d'Indy and Guilmant: 
1905 retired to Montpellier ana 
founded a Schola there; 1909 went 
to Nice to give a concert and died 
on his waynome. He resuscitated 
many forgotten master works, and 
wrote many articles on them; c. 
"Pkaniasie" and "Rapsodi* B&$g$te"- 
for orch.; opera *'Le$ trots V agues ^ 
religious music, choruses, and songs 
ana piano pieces. 

Bordese (bojr-dft'-ze'), Luigi T Naples, 
1815 Paris, 1886; singing teacher 
and dram, composer. 

Bordier (b6rd-ya), (i) L* Chas., Paris, 
1700 1764; abbe% conductor, com- 
poser, and writer. (2) Jules, 1846 (?) 
Paris, 1896; dram, composer. 

Bordogni (bdr-dSn'-yft), Giulio Marco, 
Gazzaniga, Bergamo, 1788 Paris, 
July 31, 1856; distinguished tenor 
and singing teacher: prof. Paris 
Cons.; pub. standard "Vocalises" 

Bordo'ni, Faustina. Vide BASSE, 


Borghi (b6r'-g5)> Luigi, Italian violin- 
ist, came to London, ca. 1774; pub. 
symphonies, excellent music for vln., 

Borghi-Mamo (m&'-mo), (i) Adelaide, 
Bologna, 1 8 26 1 901 ; mezzo-so- 
prano; dbut, 1846, at Urbino, where 
she was engaged; then in Vienna 
and Paris; later lived in Florence; 
her daughter (2) Ermmia, soprano; 
dbut 1874, Bologna; sang in Italy 
and Paris. 

Borgioli {b3r-j&'-l6), I>ino, b. Florence* 
Italy; operatic tenor; became mem- 
ber of Dal Verme pp., Milan, 1918, 
following war service; has sung at 
Costanzi, Rome; San Carlo, Naples; 
Co vent Garden, London; Monte 
Carlo, Lisbon. Madrid, and La 
Scala Op., Milan, also as assisting 
artist to Dame Nellie Melba in tour 
of Australia, 1924; came to America, 
1928, making dlbut in California: 

jDon vo -rejj juucrezia. ingnuy jsoxgiA;, 
b. Valencia, Spain, Dec. 24, 1888; 
noted soprano; pupil of Vidaf: made 
dbut at Rome, in "Carmen?* xooS 
singing i61e of Micaela: appeared in 
other leading opera theatres with 
siicc., ncl. Naples, Milan, Buenos 
Aires, and at Paris in 1910 when the 
Met. Op. Co* made a guest appear- 
ance there; 1912-13, made dbut with 
that company in "Afanon" in the 
autumn at New York; quickly be- 
came one of most popular members 
of forces; owing to vocal indisposi- 
tion, retired for brief period in 19x5, 
but returned to New York several 
seasons later and resumed place as 
an important singer, eap. in lyric 
*6les; member of Met* Op. until 
*93$-36, portraying large variety of 
French, Italian, Spanish, and English 
parts; a distinguished actress and 
an exemplary vocalist; she took 
active part in assisting company to 
raise fund to cover deficit in 1933-34, 
and was elected a member of the 
Met. Op, board of directors. 

Borodin (bd'-r&-dn), Alex* Porphyr- 
jevitch, St. Petersburg, Nov. i, 
1834 Feb. 29, 1887; composer of 
the neo-Russian school; Prof, at 
the St. P. Medico-surg. Institute; 
Counsellor of State; Knight; pres. 
Mus. Soc. of Amateurs; at BaUki- 
rev's suggestion studied music; com- 
posed opera, ** Prince fgor n (finished 



after his death by Rimsky-EIorsakov, 
and prod. succ. 1891); 3 symphonies, 
A fiat, B minor, and A minor (last 
left incomplete, ed. by Glazounov), 
symphonic poem, "On the Steppes 
&f Central Asia"-, scherzo for orch., 
2 string-quartets, piano quintet; 
string trio; pf. pcs., etc.; biog. by 
A. Habets, in English, London, 1895. 
Memoirs by Stassov and Gerald 
Abraham also published, 

Boroni (b5-r6'-nS) (or Buroni), A., 
Rome, 1738 1792; court-conductor. 

Borovsky (bSr-Sf'-skg), Alexandra, b. 
Libau, Russia, March 19. 1889; 
pianist; studied at Petersburg Cons. 
with Essipov.; studied to be lawyer; 
won gold medal and Rubinstein 
prize as pianist, 1912; taught at 
Moscow Cons, after 1915; following 
1920 he made tours of France, Eng- 
land, Germany, and U. S. 

Borowski (bSr-Sf'-skeO, Felix, b. Bur- 
ton, EngL, March 10, 1872; studied 
Cologne Cons, and London; taught 
composition and history, Chicago 
Musical College, 1897; pres. of this 
school, 1916-24; music ed., Chic. 
Mve. Post) 1908, and Chic. Herald, 
1909-17; ed. programme book, Chic. 
Symph. Orch.; c. orchestral and 
chamber music works, organ, piano, 
and other pieces: (ballet) "Boudour" 
(Chic. Op., 19*9)- 

BortniansM (bart-nyan'-shkX) (or 
Dimitry Stepanovitcn, 

GJttchov, Ukraine, 1751 St. Peters- 
burg, Sept. 28 (Oct. 9), 1825; choir 
dir. ana dram, composer, called 
**the Russian Palestrina"; pupil of 
Galuppi, under patronage of Empress 
Catherine, 1770-96 dir. of her choir; 
then of her orchestra. 

Bor'wick, Leonard, Walthamstow, 
Essex, Engl., 1868 Le Mans, 
France, Sept. 17, 1925; pianist; 
pupil H. R. Bird, and Clara Schu- 
mann, B. Scholtz, and Ivan Knorr 
at Frankfort Cons.; dbut, at Lon- 
don PhlUi. Concert, 1890; toured 
Europe, 1895-96; 1914, U. S. 

Bos (b6s), Coenraad V., b. Leiden, 
Dec. 7, 1875; pianist; studied Am- 
sterdam Cons.; played in Berlin, a 
member of the **Dutch Trio" with 
J. M* van Veen and J. van Lier; 
after 1908 toured U. S, as accompa- 
nist to noted singers; also active as 
vocal coach. 

Boschetti (b6s-kt'-t), Viktor, Frank- 
fott-on-Maxn, Aug. 13, 1871 April 

X2, 1933; pupil of Prague Cons.; 
organist at Vienna (1896-1921, 
St. Stephen's Cath.); and Dir. Court 
Opera, 1900-03; c. 5 operas, church 
music, etc. 

BiSsendorfer (ba'-zgn-d6rf-er), firm of 
Vienna pf. -makers founded by (i) 
Ignaz B., Vienna, 1796 1859, _later 
managed by his son (2) Ludwig, b. 
Vienna, 1835. 

Bosio (b6'-zi-6), Angiolina, Turin, 
1830 St. Petersburg, 1859; mezzo- 

Bos'si, (b6s'-se), (i) Pietro B., Mor- 
begno, 1834 1896; organist. (2) 
Marco Enrico, Sale, Brescia, Italy, 
April 25, 1861 Feb. 21, 1925, while 
returning from America; son and 
pupil of above, 1881-91, conductor 
and organist at Como Cath.; then 
till 1895, prof, of org. and harm. 
Naples; 1896, dir. and j>rof. Liceo 
Benedetto Marcello, Venice; 1902- 
12, dir. Bologna Liceo; after 1916, 
dir. Liceo of Santa Cecilia, Rome; 
member of the permanent goyt. 
commission for musical art, Chevalier 
of the Jtalian Crown and of the 
Spanish order of Isabella la Catolica; 
composed 2 i-act operas, "Paquitd" 
and "// Veggente"} 4-act melodrama 
"L 9 Angela Delia Notte" (Comp); 
symph. poem "II Cieco" (1897), with 
tenor solo, and chorus; "Westminster 
Abbey," Inno di Gloria, for chorus 
and organ, Requiem Masses, etc.; 
wrote important "Metodo di Studio 
per VOrgano utodemo," with G. 
Tebaldini (Milan, 1893). (3) Renzo, 
b. Como, Italy, April o, 1883; com- 
poser, pianist; son of (2); active as 
conductor in Italy, Germany, and 
Austria; later prof, of organ and 
comp. at Parma Cons.; and then of 
comp. at Milan Cons.: appeared 
widely with the Polo and Bolognese 
Quartets; c. orch., chamber and 
vocal works, also stage music, ind. 
"Volpino," which won a national 
lyric prize and was given at the 
Carcano Theat., Milan, 1924. 

Bote und Bock (b5'-tfi oont b6k), 
firm of mus. pubs., Berlin, est. 1838 
by Eduard Bote and Gustav Bock. 

Bott (b6t), Jean Jos., Cassel, March 
9, 1826 New York, April 30, 1895; 
violinist; son and pupu of a court- 
muskian; 1852, court-conductor; 
1878 pensioned: 1885 came to New 
York; composed a operas, etc. 

Bot'ta, Luca, Italy, 1882 New York, 



1917; tenor; sang with Pacific Coast 
Op. Co., 1912; after 1914 until his 
death, mem* of Met. Op. Co., also 
appearing in South America with 

BottSe, de Toulxnon (dti toom6ii b6t- 
ta), Aug., Paris, 1797 1850; 'cellist 
and writer. 

Bottesini (b6t-tS-sS'-n5), Giov., Crema, 
Lombardy, 1821 Parma, 1889: 
double-bass virtuoso; conductor and 
dram, composer. 

Bottrigari (b6t-tr-ga'-rS), Ercole, 
Bologna, Aug. 1531 S. Alberto, 
Sept. 30, 1612; wrote 3 learned theo- 
letical treatises, each called by the 
name, of a friend (a) Patrizio, (b) De- 
siderio, and (c) Melone. 

Boucher (boo-sha), Alex J, Paris, 
April ii, 1778 Dec. 29, 1861; vln.- 
virtuoso; a charlatan but amazing in 
technic; played before the court at 6; 
composed vln.-concertos; his wife 
was a clever harpist, also eccentric, 
playing duets with one hand on harp 
ana one on a piano. 

Boughton (bow'-ttfn), Rutland, b, Ayles- 
bury, England, Jan. 33, 1878; com- 
poser; educated, Royal College of 
Music, London; studied with Stan- 
ford and Walford Davies; teacher 
at Birmingham School of Music; 
founder, Glastonbury Festival, 19x4, 
aim of which was to produce music 
dramas based on Arthurian legend: 
c, (operas) "The Immortal Hour* 
(London, 1922) which had a long 
run and subsequent revivals, also 
having brief New York production 
without pronounced success; "Beth- 
lehem" (London, 19*3); "Alke$tis"> 
(Covent Garden Op., 1924); also 
choral works "The Birth of Arthur," 
"The Skeleton in Armor," "The 
Invincible Armada,"*, in igax-aa B, 
founded the Bristol Fest. School; he 
has also c. chamber music. 

Bouhy (boo '-6), Jacques, Pepinster, 
Belgium, 1848 Paris, 1929; bary- 
tone; pupil at Liege Cons*, then Paris 
Cons.; 1871 the Opera Paris; after 
1872 at Ope"ra Comique creating 
the Toreador r6le in "Carmen" etc.; 
1885-89, director of New York Con- 
servatory; returned to Paris Opra; 
later a famous teacher; c. songs* 

Botticbere (bw-shar), Bmile, 1860 
(?) Paris, Sept. 4, 1895; pupil of G. 
Lefevre's Acad.; eat. a vocal acad. 
1893; composed valuable sacred and 
chamber music. 

Boulanger (boc-lSn-zh&), (i) Marie 
Julie (nee Haffiger), 1786 1850; 
dram, singer. (2) Henri Alex, An- 
dre" Ernest, Paris, Dec. 16, 1815 
April 14, 1900. Son of above. Pupil 
of Lesueur and Halvy at the Cons., 
taking Grand Prix de Rome, 1835; 
prof, there 1871. Composed many 
operettas for Ope*ra Comique. 
Legion of Honour, 2868. (3) Nadia, 
b- Paris, Sept. 16, 1887; studied 
Paris Cons., ist prizes in harmony, 
organ and accompanying, fugue and 
counterpoint; third Rome Prix; 
teachers inch Chapuis, Guilmant, 
VIerne, Vidal, Faure* and Widor; 
prof, of harmony, counterpoint, 
nistpry of music, at Ecole Normale, 
Paris; prof, history of music and 
harmony, American Cons., Fontaine- 
bleau; has had among her pupils 
many of the younger American com- 
posers. (4) Liii, Paris, Aug. ax, 
1893 March 15, 19x8; composer; 
sister of (3); trained at Paris Cons*; 
won Prix de Rome, 1913; composed 
various orch,, chamber music, and 
vocal works of considerable promise 
and left Incomplete at her early death 
the opera "La Princess* Malfine." 

Boult (bait), Sir Adrian, b. Chester, 
Engl., April 8, 1889; ed, Westminster 
School. Christ Church, Oxford; 
studied Leipzig Cons.; Mus. D., 
Oxford; dbut as conductor, Covent 
Garden Op., 19x4; ted Birmingham 
Orch., x 9 23-36; London Bach Choir, 
after 2938; guest cond., Royal Phil- 
harmonic Soc., London Symphony 
and Queens Hall Orch.; prof, con- 
ducting at Royal College of Music 
since 19x9; cond., Patron's Fund 
Concerts and of British Broadcasting 
Corp. Orch.; visited America as 
guest cond. of Boston Symph. Orch., 
1935. Knighted, 1937. 

Bouman (boo'-man), Martin G., 
Herzogenbusch, Holland, Dec* 29* 
1858 Gouda, May xi, zoos; pupil 
of Bree and Holl; city director at 
Gouda; c. operas, masses, etc. 

Bourgault-Ducoudray (boor-g6-dtt- 
koo-dr*), Louis-Albert* Nantes, Feb. 
a, 1840 VernouiUet, July 4, xgxor 
pupil of Thomas at Paris Cons., 
taking Grand Prix de Rome, 1862; 
prof, of rnus. hist, at the Cons. 1878; 
wounded as volunteer at siege of 
Paris; later visited Greece and wrote 
on Oriental music. 

Bourgeois Oxwr'-zhwa), (i) Loy 



(Lotus), Paris, ca. 1510 (?); disciple 
of Calvin; 1545-5 7> Geneva; one of 
the first to harmonise the French 
melodies; wrote "Le droict ckemin 
de musique" proposing the naming 
the tones after solmisation-syllables, 
a system since prevalent in France. 
(2) Louis Thomas, Fontaine 1'Evfcque, 
1676 Paris, 1750; tenor and com- 
poser; d. in poverty. 

Bourges (boorzh), (i) ClSmentine de, 
d, 1561; notable woman-composer. 
(2) J. Maurice, Bordeaux, 1812 
Paris, 1881; critic and dram, com- 

Bousquet (boos-ka), G., Perpignan, 
1818 St. Cloud, 1854; conductor at 
the Paris OpeYa (1847); critic and 
dram, composer. 

Bovery (b5-vft-re), Jules (rightly Bovy 
(b6 r -v6), A, Nic. Jos.), Ltege, 1808 
Paris, 1868; self-taught violinist, 
conductor and dram, composer. 

Bovy (b5'-v), (x) Chas. Sml. (known 
under pseud. Lysberg), Lysberg, 
near Geneva, 1821 Geneva, 1873; 
composer. (2) Vina, b. Ghent; 
soprano; d6but Met. Op., 1936. 

Bo 'wen, York, b. London, Feb. 22, 
1884; composer and pianist; 1898 
1905, pupil of the R. A. M.; then 
piano teacher there; c. 3 pf .-concertos; 
symph. fantasia for orch., concerto 
and sonatas for the viola; Phantasy 
Trio; string quartet, pf.-pieces, etc. 

Bow 'man, Ed. Morris, Barnard, Vt., 
July 18, 1848 Brooklyn, N. Y., 
Aug. 27, 1913; pupil Wm. Mason, 
and J. P. Morgan, at New York, 
2866; 1867-70, organist St. Louis, 
Mo.; studied in Berlin and Paris, 
873; 1874. St. Louis; 1881 studied 
under Bridge, Macfarren, Turpin, 
and Guilmant; was the first Amer- 
ican to pass the examination of the 
London K. ColL for Organists: 1884, 
one of the founders of Amer. Coll. of 
Musicians; organist, Brooklyn, N. Y.; 
1891-05, prof, of music Vassar Coll.: 
1895 founded the "Temple Choir,'* 
Brooklyn (200 voices); cond. also the 
Newark Harmonic Soc. and the 
Cecilian Choir. 

Boyce (bois), Wm., London, 1710 
Kensington, 1779; organist and com- 

Boyd, Chas. N., Pleasant Unity, Pa., 
Dec. 2, 1875 Pittsburgh, April 24, 
1937; pupil of Fred K. Hodge, Leo 
Qenmler, and von Kunits; grad. 
XIalv* of Pittsburgh: Mus. D.. 1026; 

beginning 1894 active in that city as 
conductor and organist; after 1903, 
instructor in church music, Western 
Theol. Sem.; 1915 appointed dir. 
Pittsburgh Mus. Inst.; after 1924, 
treasurer, Nat'l Ass'n. of Schools 
of Music; ass't. ed. Amer. vol., 
Grove's Dictionary, author of articles 
on music, 

Boyle, Geo. Frdk, b. Sydney, Australia, 
June 29, 1886; pianist, composer and 
teacher; 1910, at Peabody Cons., 
Baltimore; later at Curtis Inst. of 
Music; then at Inst. of Musical Art, 
Juilliard School, N. Y.; c. piano 
concerto, which he cond. with suc- 
cess Feb. 1912 at New York Phil, 
concert; also chamber works, can- 
tatas, etc.; d. Philadelphia, 1948. 

Brade '(bra'-de 1 ), Wm.., b. England, 
lived and died at Frankfort, 1630; 
player of the viol, etc. 

Bradford, Jacob, London, June 3, 
1842 April 19, 1897; organist; pupil 
of Goss and Steggal; Mus. Doc- 
Oxford, 1878; 1892 organist at St. 
Mary's, Newington; c. oratorio 
"Judith"} "Sinfonia Ecclesiastica" 
with double chorus: overtures, etc. 

Bradsky (brat'-shke), Wenzel Th., 
Rakovnik, Bohemia, 1833 i88x; 
dram, composer. 

Braga (bra '-git), Gaetano, Giulianova, 
Abruzzi, June 9, 1829 Milan, Nov. 
21, 1907; 'cellist, pupil of C. Gaetano 
(1841-52); lived at Florence, Vienna, 
Paris, and London and toured 
Europe; dram, composer; also wrote 
"Metodo di Violoncello.'* 

Bra ham (rightly Abraham) , J., London, 
1774 Feb. 17, 1856; noted tenor; 
compass 3 octaves; composed pop. 

Brahms (brSms), Johannes, Hamburg, 
May 7, 1833 Vienna, April 3, 1897; 
son and pupil of a double-bass player 
in the Hamburg City Theatre, later 
studied with Marxsen of Altona; 
d6but Hamburg, at 14, playing his 
own variations on a folk-song; 1853, 
toured with Remenyi. Joachim 
heard him and sent him to Schu- 
mann, at Dfisseldorf. Schumann, 
with characteristic openness of mind 
and enthusiasm, pub. an article in 
the Neue Zeitschrift filr Musik, 
greeting B. as the new Messiah of 
music, a welcome that was a mixture 
of blessing and bane, embarrassing 
the young Brahms with a mission 
that was a white elephant on his 


hands; for lie forsook the romanti- 
cism which Schumann, and later 
Liszt expected of him, and took up 
a determined classicism in the matter 
of form, in which, however, he made 
many modifications to suit his 
enormous intellectuality and tech- 
nical resource. This early welcome 
also gave him over to be bandied 
between believers like Hanslick who 
were frantic to find an opponent to 
the progress of Wagner, and sceptics 
who would not have him praised for 
any quality. Schumann's advocacy 
did not save B,'s publication and 
concert performance of his 3 pf.- 
sonatas and 3 books of songs from 
failure. After serving for a time as 
cond. to the Prince of Lippe-Detmold, 
he retired for study to Hamburg, 
1858-62. 1862 Vienna; 1863-64 
cond. of the SingakademU there; 
1864-69 Hamburg, Zurich, Baden-* 
Baden, etc., and made tours with 
Stockhausen; 1869, Vienna, which 
was afterward his headquarters. 
In 1871-74, cond. "Gesellschaft der 
Musikfreunde," In 1877 Cambridge 
University offered him the degree of 
Mus. Doc., which offer he ignored, 
accepting, *88t, Dr. Phil, from 
Breslau and writing in acknowledg- 
ment the "Akadcmische Festeuwr- 
Wre"\ 1886, a knight of the Prussian 
Ordre pour le Me*rite, with voting 
privilege, and a member of the Br- 
Kn Acad. of Arts, 1889 presented 
with the freedom of Hamburg. His 
"German Requiem" op. 45 (the first 
3 choruses given in Vienna, 1867), 
was given complete in the Bremen 
cathedral, April, *868, and estab- 
lished him on a peak where he has 
since remained while the storms of 
de-bate rage below him. He wrote in 
almost every form but opera (he had 
considered that at one time) but ad- 
mitted he "knew nothing about the 
theatre.* 7 He valued Wagner's 
scores, and owned several Wagner 
autographs; Wagner, however, said 
"Brahms is a composer whose im- 
portance lies in not wishing to create 
any striking effect." His first sym- 
phony, on which he had spent 10 
years, made a sensation when prod. 
1876. His vln.-concerto when first 
shown to Joachim was so impossible 
to the vln. that J, laughed at it till 
tears poured down his cheeks; he is 
said to have materially assisted in its 

revision. Brahms was a brilliant 
pianist in his youth; in his aoth year, 
at a concert with Remenyi, the piano 
was discovered to be a semitone 
below concert-pitch; B M playing 
without notes, transposed the ac- 
companiment to Beethoven's 
" Kreutzcr Sonata" a semitone higher 
throughout. (Beethoven similarly 
transposed his own concerto in C to 
C# at a rehearsal.) 
COMPOSITIONS (exclusive of Songs for 
one voice with pf.)- For orch. 
Symphonies, Op. 68, in C minor, Op, 
73, D, op. 90, F, op, 98, E minor; 
overtures, op. 80, "Akadtmische Pest- 
overt&rc"', op. 81, "Pragistfa Ouver- 
t#re"; op. xx-x6 t serenades; op. 56, 
variations on a theme of Haydn's. 
CHAMBER Music. Op. 8, tno for 
pf. z vln., 'cello; x8, *6, sextet for 
strings; 40, trios, pf., vln., horn; *X4 
pf., clan and 'ceUo; 51, two string- 
quartets; 67, stringnquartet; 88, in, 
string-quintet; 115, quintet for clar. 
and strings. 

For piano, op. z, a and $, sonatas, 4, 
scherzo; variations on a theme by 
Schumann; so, four ballads; 15, 83, 
concertos; ai 35, variations; 54, 
variations and fugue on theme by 
Handel; op. 76, 8 DCS.* 79, a Rhap- 
sodies; 1x0, Faniasien; 117, 3 Inter- 
mezzi; xs8, 6 Clavierstucke (3 
Intermezzi, Ballades, Romanze); 1x9, 
4 Clavierstacke (3 Intermezzi, Rhap- 
sodic; unnumbered Gluck'a ga- 
votte, and a studies). For piano, 4 
hands, op. 23, variations on a theme 
by Schumann; 34, sonata air. from 
op. 34; 39 *6 walUes; op. as, a6 60, 
pf.-quartels; 34, pf.-quintet; 87, io* 
pf.-trio*. For piano and 'cello, op. 
38, and 99; sonatas; for vln., 77, 
concerto; 78, too 108, sonatas pf. 
and vln.; for vln. and Velio, op. ioa. 
concerto; for clarinet (or viola) and 
pf., op. 1 20, a sonatas; for organ > 
Prelude and fugue, and fugue (un- 
numbered). For voices, op. 50, 
"Rinddo" cantata (Goethe); 63, 
Rhapsodic (from Goethe's "#or*- 
rwr *), for alto solo, male chor, and 
orch.; $4> "Stki(k$al*tifd** (Song of 
Destiny), for chor. and orch*; 55, 
"Triumpklied" (Revelations, chap, 
XIX.), for 8- part char, and orch.: 
82, " tftfuwr" (Schiller), for chor. and 
orch.; 80- "Cesang dfr par&r** 
(Goethe), for 6-part rhor. and orch.; 
op. ia> *Mve J/0riW female chor. 



with orch. (or org.)j 13, funeral 
hymn, 109. Deutsche Fest-und Ge- 
denkspruche, for double chorus, also 
numerous works for choruses of all 
sorts accompanied or a cappella. 
Brahms' songs are generally admired 
even by those opposed to him; they 
are very numerous and are pub. in 
sets, op. 121 being his last published 
work, except for several posth. songs 
for Ophelia in Shakespeare's "Ham- 
let" which were pub. in 1936 by 

Memoirs and studies of the com- 
poser's music have been written by 
Deiters, Kohler, Mesnard, Reimann, 
Dietrich, Widmann, Kalbeck (most 
imp. biography, in 8 vols.), Erb, 
Antcliffe, Jenner, Imbert, Henschel, 
Pauli, Leyen, Von Perger, Colles, 
Fuller-Maitland, Thomas-San Galli, 
Evans, Lee, Niemann, FriedlSnder, 
May, Murdoch, Parker, Pulver, 
Specht, and Eugenie Schumann. 
His letters pub. in part by the Ger- 
man B. Gesellschaf t; thematic cata- 
logue of his works, by Simrock. 
(See article, page 489.) 

Brailowsky (bra-e-18f'ske), Alexander, 
b. Kiev, Russia; pianist; studied with 
his father and after 1911 with Les- 
chetizky, Vienna; res* in Switzerland 
19x4-18; thereafter in Paris, where 
made his dbut with striking succ.; 
toured Europe, South America, Aus- 
tralia, and after 1926 in U. S.; one 
of most brilliant younger virtuosi, 

Brambach (bram'-bakh), (i) Kaspar 
Jos., Bonn, July 14, 1833 June 19, 
1902; pupil in comp. of A. zur 
Nfieden, then of Cologne Cor 3.; won 
Mozart scholarship, and studied 
under Fd. Hiller, Frankfort; 1858-61, 
teacher Cologne Cons.; 1861-69, dir. 
at Bonn, where he composed im- 
portant secular cantatas; also an 
opera "Ariadne 99 , concert-overture 
" Tasso"; pf .-concerto, etc. (2) Win., 
Bonn, Dec. 17, 1841 Carlsruhe, 
Feb. 26, 1932; where from 1872, 
librarian; writer. 

Barambitta (bram-bSl'-la), (i) Paolo, 
Milan, 1786 1838; dram, composer, 
(a) Marietta, Cassano D'Adda, 1807 
Milan, 1875; singer, teacher, and 
composer; contralto and eldest of 
five singers. (3) Teresa, Cassano 
d'Adda, 1813 Milan, 1895; sister of 
above, soprano; she created "Gilda" 
in "Rizotetto," 1851. 

Branca (bran'-ka), Guglielmo, b, Bo- 

logna, April 13, 1849; pupil of A. 
Busi, Bologna Cons., where he 
taught after 1890; composed succ. 
operas "La Catalana" (Florence, 
1876); "Hermosa," (Florence, 1883); 
and "La Figlia di Jorio" (Cremona, 

Brancaccio (bran-kat'-cho), A., Naples, 
1813 1846; dram, composer. 

Brandeis (bran'-dls), Fr., Vienna, 1835 
New York, 1899; toured the U. S., 
then lived in N. Y., later Brooklyn, 
as organist and prolific composer. 

Brandenburg (bran'-d&a-boorkh), Fd., 
b. Erfurt d. Rudolstadt, 1850; 
violinist and dram, composer. 

Brandl (brant'-'l), (i) Jn., Kloster 
Rohr, near Ratisbon, 1760 Carls- 
ruhe, 1837; dir. and dram, composer, 
(2) Johann, Kirchenbirk, Bohemia, 
Aug. 30, 1835 Vienna, June 10, 
1913; c. operettas. 

Brandstetter. Vide GARBRECHT. 

Brandt (brant), Marianne (rightly 
Marie Bischof), Vienna, Sept. 12, 
1842 July 9, 1921; dram, contralto; 
pupil Frau Marschner and of Viardot- 
Garcia; 1868-86 at Berlin Ct. Opera; 
created "Kundry"' in "Parsifal 99 at 
Bayreuth, 1882; 1886-90, sang in 
New York, at Met. Op.; later active 
as teacher in Vienna. 

Brandts-Buys (brant-bois), (i) Corne- 
lius Alex., Zait-Bommel, April 3, 
1812 Dordrecht, Nov. 18, 1890; 
from 1840 lived in D event er as 
organist and cond. His sons are 
^2) Marius Adrianus (b. 1840); 
(3; L. F. (1847 iQi?) organist and 
conductor at Rotterdam; (4) EL 
(1851 1905), conductor at Amster- 
dam and dram, composer. (5) Jan 
(1868 1933), son of (2); composer of 
operas, songs, etc.; pupil of Frank- 
fort Cons.; lived in Vienna and after 
1910 at Bozen. 

Bran'dukov, Anatol Andrejevitch, Mos- 
cow, Jan. 6, 1859 Oct., 1930; 'cel- 
list; pupil Moscow Cons.; spent 
many years in Paris; founded a quar- 
tet there with Marsick; 1890 re- 
turned to Moscow; c. for 'cello and 
orch,, etc. 

Brant (br&rt), Jobst (or Jodocus) vom, 
Junior, i6th cent, captain and gov. 
of Liebenstein; cptist. 

Branzell, Karin (kar'-in brant-sel), b. 
Stockholm, Sept. 24, 1891; mezzo- 
soprano; studied with Thekla Hofer 
and Louis Bachner (Berlin); debut 
Stockholm; member Berlin State 



Op., after 1919; Met. Op. Co., N. Y. 
after 1924; has also sung at Buenos 
Aires, and in various European cities; 
repertoire includes principal Wagner 
contralto rdles. 

Braslau (br&s'-la), Sophie, New York, 
Aug. 16, 1892 Dec. 22, 1935; ccm- 
tralto; studied piano with Alexander 
Lambert and voice with A. Buzzi- 
Peccia, Gabriele Sibella, and Dr. 
M. Marafioti; d6but Met. Op. Co., 
1913, as Feodor in "Boris Godounojf"; 
member of company for seven years, 
singing title r6le in Cadman's opera 
"Shawms," 1918; sang in concerts 
and with leading orchestras; toured 
Scandinavia, Netherlands, and Eng- 
land, 193*- 

Brassart, Johannes, priest, composer, 
and singer; in Papal Choir in 1431; 
probably same as Johannes de Ludo; 
c. sacred music. 

Brassin (bras-s&n), (i) Louis, Aix-ia- 
Chapelle, 1840 St. Petersburg, 1884; 
pianist. (2) Ld., Strassburg, 1843 
Constantinople, 1890; bro. and pupil 
of above; pianist. (3) Gerhard, 
Aix-la-Chapelle, Tune xo, 1844 
Constantinople (?); leader; teacher 
at Stern Cons., Berlin; i87S-8o 
cond. of Tonkunsfleroerein in Bres- 
lau; then, St. Petersburg and Con- 

Brauer (brow'eY, Max, Mannheim, 
May 9, 1855 Carlsruhe, Jan, 2, 
1918; pupil of V. Lachner, Hiller, 
Jensen, and De Lange; 1880-88, dir. 
Kaiserslautern; i88S, dir. court- 
church at Carlsruhe; prod. "Der 
Lotse," succ. x-act opera, Carlsruhe, 

Bratui, (i) Anton, Cassel, Feb. 6, 1720 
17851; violinist and c.; perhaps the 
son of (2) Braun, whose flute com- 
positions were pub* in Paris, 1729- 
40. His brother (3) Jphiuxn, 
Cassel, 1753 Berlin, 1795, violinist 
and comp. (4) Johann Fr. t Cassel. 
1759 Ludwigslust, 1824; oboist and 
comp.; father of (5) Karl A. P n b. 
Ludwigslust, 1788; oboist; and of 

(6) Wfihehn, b. Ludwigslust, 179?; 
oboist, whose wife was his cousin 

(7) Kathfalka B., a singer. 
Bratinfels (brands), Walter, b. 

Frankfort, Dec* 19, 1882; composer 
of neo-Roinantic tendency, with sa- 
tiric elements and modern outlook; 
grad. Hoch Cons* in native city; also 
pupil of Kwast, Leschetizkyj Navra- 
til and Thuille; res. in Munich after 

1903, but several years in war serv- 
ice; c. (operas) "Prinzessin Bram- 
billa" (1919), " Ulenspiegtl" (*9*s)> 
"Die Vogel" (1920, a work portray- 
ing denizens of birdland and enjoying 
popularity when prod, in Munich), 
"Don GU ^on den griinen Hosen" 
(1924), "Galatea"; (orch.) Variations 
on an Old Nursery Song; "Ariel's 
Song"; Serenade; Fantastic Varia- 
tions on a Theme by Berlioz; "Don 
Juan" (variations on the champagne 
song from Mozart's opera); Praelud- 
ium and Fugue; Symphonic Suite; 
'cello concerto; "Funk" (Radio) 
Music; (choral) "Te Deum"; Mass; 
"Revelation of St. John" (tenor solo 
and orch.); " Neues Federspiel" for 
voices and orch.; "Die A mmtn~l r kr" 
for boys 7 chorus and orch.; orch. 
songs: music to "As You Like It" 
vul t{ Macbetk"i "Witch*** Sabbath" 
for piano and orch.; piano concerto 
and many pieces for this lustrum.; 
songs, etc.; after 1925 dir. (with H 
Abendroth) of Cologne Cons. 

Bree (bra) (Jn. Bernardus), J. Bernard 
van, Amsterdam, 1801 1857; violin- 
ist; 1840, founded the "Cecilia.*' 

Brett (bill), Jos. Carl, Pittsburgh, 1870 
Los Angeles, Cal., Jan. 23, 1926; 
composer and tenor; studied in Leip- 
zig and Milan; sang in Juch Op* Co., 
later at Pittsburgh; after 1897 theat 
cond.; c. comic operas, also a one-act 
grand opera, "The Legend," given by 
Met. Op. Co., 1919. 

Breithaupt (brlt-howpt), Rudolf Maria, 

b. Braunschweig, Aug. n, 1875; 
critic and teacher; pupil Leipzig 
Cons., 1897; after 1918 taught at 
Stern Cons., Berlin; author of in-* 
fluential works on piano technique, 
espousing a system of "weight"; 

c. songs, 

Breitkopf und H&rtel (brlt'-ktof oont 
hrt'-l), mus.-publishers, founded 
(as a printing-office) 17x9 by B* C* 
Breitkopf; Klausthal, Hars, 1695 
1777. His son, J- G. Immanuel 
Breitkopf (1730 J7Q4>t succeeded 
and revived Petrucci's invention of 
movable types and took up music 
printing. 1795, Ootte. Cte. Hftrtel 
(Schneeberg, 17631857) added a 
piano-factory, founded the "Allg. 
musikalische Zeitung" (1708); later 
heads were Florenz KULrtei (1827-35), 
Dr. Hermann Hfirtel (d. 1875), and 
his bro. Reimund (d, 1888); two 



nephews, Wm. Volkmann (1837- 
7*896 ?) and Dr. Oskar von Hase 
(b. 1846). 

Brema (bra '-ma), Marie, London, Feb. 
28, 1856 March 22, 1925; notable 
dramatic soprano; d6but in opera, 
Shaftesbury Theatre, 1891; sang in 
New York, 1895-96; 1897 at Bay- 
reuth; long a favourite in oratorio 
perfs. in England; later prof., Man- 
chester Coll. of Music. 

Brem'mer, Robt., Scotland, 1720 
Kensington, 1789; teacher. 

Brendel (brSnt '->!), K. Fz., Stolberg, 
1811 Leipzig, 1868; critic, prof,, and 

Brenet (brtt-na), Michel, Luneville, 
France, April n. 1858 Paris, Nov. 
4, 1918; wrote il Histoire de la sym- 
phonic a orchestre depuis ses origines"* 
(prize-essay), etc. 

Brenner (brSn'-ne'r), L., Ritter von, 
Leipzig, 1833 190*2; pupil of the 
Cons.; toured the Continent; 15 
years member of the Imp. orch.; 
1872-76, cond. Berlin Symphony 
Orch.; 1897, cond. M cyder's Concert 
Orch., Breslau; composed 4 grand 
masses; symphonic poems. 

Brent, Charlotte, d. 1802, Engl.; so- 
prano; m. Pinto, a violinist, 1766. 

Brescianello (brS'-sha-ngl'-l5), Giu- 
seppe Antonio, Mus. Director at 
Stuttgart, 1717-57; published vio- 
iin concertos, etc. 

Breslaur (br&s'-lowr), Emil, Kottbus, 
May 20, 1836 Berlin, July 26, 1899; 
pupil Stern Cons., Berlin; 1868-79, 
teacher Kullak's Acad.; 1883 choirm.. 
Reformed Synagogue; founder and 
dir. Piano-Teachers* Seminary; ed. 
'* Klavierlehrer"*, wrote technical 
works, etc. 

Bress'ler-Gianoli (j-nS'-l6), Clotilde, 
b/ Geneva, 1875; d. there after opera- 
tion for appendicitis, May 12, 19x2. 
Operatic mezzo-sopr.; studied Paris 
Cons., d6but Geneva, at 19; 1900, 
Paris Op. Com.; 1903 with New 
Orleans Op. Co.; from 1907 sang 
with success at Manhattan Opera, 
N. Y.; 1910 with Metropolitan 
Opera, N. Y.; her "Carmen"- was 

Breton y Hernandez (bra-t6n $ 8r-n&n'- 
dfcth), Tomas, Salamanca, Dec, 23, 
1850 Madrid, Dec. 10, 1923; lead- 
ing Spanish composer of zarzuelas, 
an oratorio "Apocalypsia"; for orch. 

"Andalusian Scenes"; funeral march 
for Alfonso XII., etc. 

Breuer (broi'-Sr), Hans, b. Cologne, 
1869; tenor; studied at the Cons. 
at Stolzenberg. Sang "Mime" and 
"David" at Bayreuth; d. Vienna, 

Bretining (broi'-nXng), Fd., Brotterode, 
Thuringia, 1830 Aix-la-Chapelle, 
1883; pf. prof., Cologne Cons.; 
1865, director. 

BrSval (bra-val), (i) J. Bap., Dept. of 
FAisne, France, 1756 Chamouille, 
1825; 'cellist and teacher. (2) Lu- 
cienne, Berlin, Nov. 4, 1869 Paris, 
Aug. 15, 1935; pupil of Warot at 
Paris Cons.; notable dramatic so- 
prano at Grand Op&ra, Paris, for 
years; de*but there in " L' Africaine"> 
1892; created " Brttnnhilde"' in 
French; sang at Co vent Garden, and 
1900 in New York. 

BrSville (bra-vSl). Pierre Onfroy de, 
b. Bar-le-Duc, France, Feb. 21, i86rj 
d. Paris, Sept., 1049; ^ a< i diplomatic 
career; then studied at Paris Cons, 
and with Csar Franck; teacher at 
the Schola Cantorum; c. masses, 
sacred chorus with orch., "Sainte Rose 
de Lima"; symph. poem, " Nuit de 
d&cembre"} overture, "Princesse Ma- 
leine," music for "Les sept Princesses ,"> 
and "Sakuntala" etc., orch. fantasie 
"Portraits des Musiciens"; songs, etc. 

Brew'er, (i) Thos., 1609 1676; viol.- 
player, "father of the glee." (2) J. 
Hyatt, Brooklyn, N. Y., 1856 
Nov. 30, 1931; for 7 years boy- 
soprano; studied with Dudley Buck 
and others; 1871 organist various 
churches, i88x at the Lafayette Av. 
Presby. Ch.; cond. various vocal 
societies; composed cantatas, etc, 

"Brick'en, Carl, b. Shelbyville, Ky., 
1898; comp., cond. U. of Chi. Symph., 
1931; Seattle Symph. after 1044. 

Bridge, (i) Sir J. Fr., Oldbury, Worces- 
tershire, Engl., Dec. 5, 1844 
London, March 16, 1924; son and 
pupil of J. Bridge, lay-clerk; pupil 
later of J. Hopkins and Sir J. Goss; 
organist 1869 Manchester cathedral; 
1882 of Westminster Abbey; 1868 
Mus. Bac. (Oxford), with the orato- 
rio "Mount Moriah"; prof, of harm, 
and cpt. R. A. M.; cond. Western 
and the Madrigal Societies; 1897, 
knighted; composed cantatas, over- 
tures, etc. 1902, made member of 
the Victorian Order; 1903, King 
Edward Prof, of Music, London 


University and R. C. M. (2) Frank, 
b. Brighton, 1879 London, Jan. n, 
194,1; Viola pupil, R. A. M., gaining 
a scholarship in composition; c. 
prize quartet in E. Minor (Bologna 
competition); string quartet "Three 
Idylls"; rhapsody for orch. and 
symp. poem, * Isabella"; "Sea" Suite; 
tf Danc* Rhapsody"; "Dance Poem"; 
piano trio and many chamber works; 
member of various quartets; cond. 
Co vent Garden, 1013. 

Bridge'tower, G. A. P., Poland, 1779 
ca. 1845; son of an African father 
assd European mother; brilliant vio- 

Briegel (brg'gel), Wg. K., Germany, 
1626 Darmstadt, 1712; conductor 
and composer. 

Brighenti (or Brighettl) (br5-g$t'-t), 
Maria (n6e Giorgi), b. Bologna, 179*; 
soprano; created "Rosina" in "Bar- 
biere di Siviglia" 

Bright, Dora Estella, b. Sheffield, 
Aug, 16, 1863; pianist; pupil R. A. 
M., London; 1892 married Capt. 
Knatchbull; c. 2 piano concertos; 
variations with orch,, etc. 

Brink, Jules Ten (tan brSnk), Amster- 
dam, 1838 Paris, 1889; director and 
dram, composer. 

Brms'mead, (i) J., North Devon, 
Oct. 13, 1814 London, Feb. 17* 
1908; 1835, founded piano-factory, 
London; inv. "Perfect Check Re- 
peater Action"; in 1863 his sons 
(2) Thomas and (3) Bdgar were 
taken in partnership J 

Brfe'tow, (i) W, R,, England, 1803 
N* Y,, 1867; cond. in New York, 
(2) G. !Pr* Brooklyn, N. Y., Dec. 19, 
1835 New York, Dec. 13, 1898; 
son of above; violinist N. Y. Piulh, 
Soc.; cond. of the Harmonic Soc,, 
later of the Mendelssohn Union; or- 
ganist various churches; composed 
operas, oratorios, etc. 

Britt, Horace, b. Antwerp; 'cellist; 
studied Paris Cons* with Delsart and 
Lavignac, ist prize at ^14; soloist 
with Faris orcha.; U. S. tours. 

Brit'ten, Benjamin, b. Lowestoft, Eng., 
1913; pupil, R. C. M.; c. operas, 
"Peter Crimes" (Berkshire Fest,, and 
Met. Op,); "& a P* f Lucrctia" 

(Gisrndebourne Fest., 1946, also in 
N, Y.); u Albert Herring* (Glynde- 
boume, 1947; Berkshire Fest.). 
(See Composers* List) 
Brlfton, Tho., i6<x ^714; called 
" - *' eause 

he earned his living by hawking coal; 
gave concerts in a room over Ms shop, 
which were patronised by the aristoc- 
racy; H&ndel and Pepusch were per- 
formers at these concerts. 

Bribd (brfix'-g), Fz. Xaver, Prague, 
1732 1771; conductor and com- 

BroadVood & Sons, firm of London 
pf. -makers; est. 1730 by the Swiss 
harpsichord-maker fiurkhard Tscbu- 
di (or Shudi), succeeded by his son- 
in-law J, Broadwood (1732 1812), 
later by James and Thos. Shudi; 
then by H. Fowler Broadwood (d. 
London, 1893). 

Brock 'way, Howard A., b. Brooklyn, 
" Y., No * -.'- 

Musical Small-coal Man,*' because 

(comp.)", since 1895, has lived in 
N. Y. teaching and touring; his 
symphony in D succ., prod. Berlin: 
composed also cantata, Ballade and 
Scherzo for orch.; d* 19$** 

B>d (br6) f H., Paris, xSox^ 1839; 
oboist and conductor. 

Btodo (br3'-de% Max, BerHa, Feb. 25, 
1850 KSnigsberg, Dec. 30^ 19x7; 
studied with Paul Mendelssohn and 
at Stern Cons., Leipzig Cons,, and 
Berlin Hochschule; dfebut Frankfort- 
on-Main; prof, and teacher at 
KSnigsberg, violinist, conductor- 

Brodsky (br6d f -shkI) T Adolf Taganrog, 
Russia, March 21, 1851 Manches- 
ter, Jan. 22, 1929; violinist; pupil of 
J. Hellmesberger and Vienna Cons.; 
member Heumesberger Quartet; 
1868-70 Imp. Opera orch.; pupil of 
Laub, Moscow, later prof, at the 
Cons.; 1870, cond, symphony coiv* 
certs at Kiev; toured, x88x; 1883^ 
vln.-prof. at Leipzig Cons.; 1891-94, 
N. Y,; 1894 in BcrBn; 1895, prof* of 
vln,, later dir, R. C. M,, Manchester, 

Bron*aer, Georg, Holstein, 1666 
Hamburg, 1724; organist; c* for the 
Hamburg Opera "Echo and Nar- 
cissus," **FiiMr t "etc. 

Bronsart (brdn'-x^trt) (i) voa Schel- 
lendorf, Hans (Hans voa Bronsart), 
Berlin, Feb. xx, 1830 Munich, 
Nov. 3, 1913; pupil, Dehn, Kullat, 
Liszt; concerts in Paris; 1867, in* 
tendant R. Tfa, at Hanover; 1887-95, 
"Hof musikintendant/* Weimar; com- 
posed opera, cantata, symphony "/* 
den Alp**" etc. (2) Ingeborg, Ton 
Starcfc), St. Petersburg, Aug. 94,. 



1840 Munich, June 17, 1913; wife 
(since 1862) of above; pupil of Liszt; 
composed 3 operas, etc. 

Bro'sa, Antonio, violinist; founder, 
1925, in London of noted Brosa 
Quartet, with himself as ist vln., 
David Wise, 2nd vln., Leonard 
Rubens, viola, and Livio Mannucci, 
*cello; dbut, 1926, London; next 
year heard at Siena Fest. of I. S. C. 
M.; toured England, Germany, 
France, Holland, Italy; 1930, Amer. 
dbut at Coolidge Fest., Washington, 
D. C. 

Brosig (br6'-z*kh), Moritz, Fuchs- 
winkel, Upper Silesia, 1815 Bres- 
lau, 1887; organist and theorist. 

Brossard (dtt br6s-sar), Sebastien de, 
1654 Meux, France, 1730; conduc- 
tor, lexicographer, and composer. 

Brounoff (broo'-n6f), Platon, Eliza- 
bethgrad, Russia, 1869 New York, 
July n, 1924; composer; pupil of 
Rubinstein and Rimsky-Korsakov, 
St. Petersburg Cons.; cantata "The 
Angel," prod, at court; lived in New 
York as cond. of Russian choral 
society, etc.; c, operas, piano suites, 
and songs. 

Branstet (broo-sta), Ed., Toulouse, 
April 29, 1836 Louchon, Dec., 1901; 
pupil of Stamaty, Litolff, and Ravina; 
pianist and composer; toured Russia, 
etc.; lived in Toulouse; composer. 

Brown, (i) Dr. J, Northumberland, 
*7*5 1766; writer. (2) Eddy, b. 
Chicago, July 15, 1895; violinist; 
studied with Hubay and Auer; d6but 
with London Philh. Orch,, 1909; 
toured widely in Europe and America; 
active also in chamber music groups, 
particularly in radio programmes. 

Brown lee, John, b. Geelong, Australia, 
1901; operatic barytone; studied with 
Gilly; discovered by Melba and came 
to England, sang at her Covent 
Garden Op. farewell, 1926; dbut 
Paris Op. 1927, of which he has been 
a member since; has also sung at 
Monte Carlo and Covent Garden, 
principally in Italian and French 
roles; engaged for Met. Op. Co., 


Bruch (brookh), Max, Cologne, Jan. 6, 
1838 near Berlin, Oct. 2, 1020; 
noted pianist and composer; at nrst, 
pupil of his mother (ne Almenra- 
der), a singer; later with Breiden- 
stein, Bonn; 1853 he gained the 
four-year scholarship of the Mozart 
Foundation at Frankfort, and stud- 

ied with Hiller, Reinecke, and 
Breuning; at 14, prod, a symphony, 
Cologne; 1858, his first dram, work, 
Goethe's Singspiel, "Scherz, List und 
Roche 19 (op. i); 1864, prod, opera 
"Loreley," etc.; male chorus "Fr&h- 
jof"; 1865-457, at Coblenz, composed 
his first pop. vln.-concerto (G 
minor); 1867-70, court-cond. at Son- 
dershausen; in 1878 cond. Stern 
Choral Union, Berlin; in 1880, coad. 
Liverpool Philh. Soc,; 1883, dir. 
Breslau Orchestral Soc.; iSSi, m. 
Frl. Tuczek, of Berlin, a singer; lived 
in Breslau till 1890; 18921910, at 
JEC. Hochschule in Berlin; he Deceived 
in 1908 the Prussian order or merit 
in art and learning, and many honours 
from England, France, etc.; prod. 
1872, "" Hermione" based on "Win- 
ter's Tale"; 1873-78, prod, the 
chorals "Arminius" and "Lied < 9on 
derGlocke," and the 2d vln.-coacerlo; 
1883, came to U. S. and prod, hie 
"Arminius," Boston. The epic oan> 
tata is his special field; among his 
works of this sort are w ^^-- -- - " 

"Arminivs," "Lied von der Gleck*," 
and "AchillGus"*, for male chorus, 
"F*M#cf," "Salamis," " Noriwinncn- 
zug" and "Leonidas" (op. 66). He 
arranged the old Hebrew melody 
Kol Nidre, and composed a cantat* 
"Das F&uerkreud* (<>P- $*, iSS8); 
three symphonies; oratorio, "Af<w*s" 
(1895); 3 vln.-concertos, which have 
won great popularity^ secular orato- 
rio, "Gustav Adolf 9 ; " Nal und Dwma- 
janf; "Die Macht des Gesawges," for 
barytone, mixed chor. and orch. y etc. 

Briickler (brUkM&r), Hugo, Dresden, 
1845 *8ri; composer. 

Bruclmer (brook '-nr) 7 Anton, Aus- 
felden, Upper Austria, Sept. 4, 1824 
Vienna, Oct. it, 1396; emment 
composer; mainly self-taught as or- 
ganist; 1867, court-organist at Vien- 
na; prof, of org., harm, and cpt. at 
Vienna Cons.; 1875, "Lektor" of 
music at Vienna Univ.; 1891, Dr. 
hon. causa; noted organ- virtuoso and 
a disciple of Wagner; he composed 
nine symphonies: i, C minor 

2, C minor (1873); 3 3D minor (1877): 
4, E flat, known as the "Romantic* 

(1881); 5, B flat (1894); 6 A 

7, E (1884); 8, C minor (1892)^0, 

left inconaplete but often play&d with 

his "Te Deum" as concluding choral 


In 1936 the publication of 



original version of Bruckner's sym- 
phonies by the Musikwissentschaft- 
liche Verlag, Vienna, led to a con- 
troversy as to whether the previously 
known copies had been indefensibly 
altered and ed. by his pupils Ferdi- 
nand Loewe and the brothers Franz 
and Josef Schalk, But evidence was 
adduced to show that B. approved 
these changes. 

His choral works include three 
Grand Masses, a "Te Deum," a 
Requiem, motets, psalms, and vari- 
ous church music, pcs. for male 
chorus. C. also a stnng quintet. 
The fame of B. has grown to great 
proportions since his death, not only 
in Germany and Austria, where he is 
considered a classic in the great line 
of Romantic composers, but also in 
other countries. An International 
Bruckner Soc. devotes itself to fur- 
thering perfs. of his music. The best 
passages in his works are undoubt- 
edly of noble fervour and breadth, 
some even approaching sublimity, 
but other pages are clumsy, repeti- 
tious, and lacking in contrast. The 
influence of Wagner is evident m Eis 
scores, also of baroque organ style, 
Biog. by Fz. B runner (Linz-on- 
Danube, 1895). Other memoirs by 
Louis, Funtek, Gr&flinger, Morold, 
Halm, Krug, Grunsky and Goll- 

Briickner (bruk'-nSr), Oscar, Erfurt, 
Jan. 2> 1857 Wiesbaden, June 8> 
1930; 'cellist: pupil of GrUtzmacher 
and Draeseke; toured Germany, 
Russia, etc.; Ducal chamber-virtuoso 
at Strelitz; 1889 teacher in the 
Wiesbaden Cons., and composer* 

Brugnoli (brSdn-yS'-la), Attllio, b. 
Rome, Sept* 7, 1880 Bolzano, July 
io 1937; won ist prize in inter- 
national Rubinstein contest, Paris, 
1905; appointed prof, of piano at 
Parma Cons, in competition same 
year; 1007, Naples Cons.; xox6, at 
Kome Cona* and after 1921, Florence 
Cons.; has c. music for orch., piano, 
violin^ also ed. complete works of 

Bruhns (broons), Nikolaus, Schwab* 
stadt, SchleswJg, 1665 Husum, 
1697: organist and violinist. 

Brflll (brtf), Ignaz, Moravia, Nov. 7, 
1846 Vienna, Sept. 17, 1907*5 pian- 
ist; pupil of Epstein, Rufinatscha 
and Dessoff; 1872-78, pf-prof. Ho- 
rak Institute, Vienna; his first opera 

"Die BetHer von Sami*arkand" (1864) 
was not succ., but "Das Goldene 
Kreuz" (Berlin) (1875) was very 
pop.; followed by 6 other operas and 
the succ. comic opera "Der Husar" 
(Vienna, March 2, 1898); composed 
also hunting overture "Im Weldc,"- 

Brume! (broo'-mSl), Anton, ca* 1480* 
ca. 1520; Flemish cptist. 

Bruneau (brti-n5) (Louis Chas, Bona- 
venture), Alfred, Paris, March 3, 
1857 ^June 15, 1934; pupil of 
Franchomme at the Cons.; took first 
'cello prize, 2876; studied with Savart 
and Massenet; 1882, took first prize 
with cantata "Sainte Genev&vc"; 
composed operas " Kcrim" (Op^ra- 
Populaire, 1887), "Le K&ve** (Paris, 
1892), and the very succ. drame 
Ivrique "L'AUague du Moulin'** 
(OpSra-Comique, Paris, 1893); un- 
succ, drame lyrique "Me 
(Paris, Or. Opera, Feb. 3:9, 
the last three are on texts from , 

incid- music 

a., 1903); i -a 
drama "iLasare" (1905); incic 

to "La Faute de I 9 Abb* 2 

(Od&m, 1007); lyric drama "Nats 
Nicoulitf* (Monte Carlo, 1907); "Le 
Rot Candavle" (1920); "Le Jardin 
du Paradis" (1921); ballets, orch. 
and choral works: songs set to 
Catulle MendeV "Lieds en prose"; 
1803-05, critic of "Oil Bias." 1895 of 
"Le Figaro** officier of Legion ol 

BrunelH (broo-nfcl'-le), A., i7th cent.; 
conductor to Duke of Florence; 
writer and composer, 

Brunetti (broo~nt'-te"), Gaetano, Pisa, 
1740? Madrid, xSoB; composer. 

Bruni (broo'-na), A, Bart, Coni, Pied- 
mont, 5759 1823; violinist, cond. 
and dram, composer. 

Brun'skill, Muriel, b, Kendall, Eng- 
land* Dec. fc i8, i Spp ; contra! to j d^but, 
London, m recital. 1920; jneniber 
British Nat'!. Op. Co., 2922-27; hits 
sung with leading British orchs. and 
at festivals; also appeared in United 

Bruyck (broik), K. Debrois van, BrQnn, 
March 14, 1828 Wiidhofen, Aug. 
i, 1902; studied law. Vienna, 1850; 
and theory with Rufinatscha; writer 
on Bach, etc* 

Bryen'nius, Manuel, lived cat* 1320; 
last Greek theorist. 



Buchholz (bookh'-h61ts), (i) Jn. Sim- 
eon, Schlosswippach, 1758 Ber- 
lin, 1825; founded firm of organ- 
builders; succeeded by his son 

(2) K. Aug. (1796 1884), whose son 

(3) K. FT., d. Feb. 17, 1885. 
Buchner (bookh'-ner), Philipp Fr., 

Wertheim, 1614 Wiirzburg, 1669; 
cond. and comp. 

Biichner (btikh'-nSr), Emil, Osterfield, 
near Naumburg, Dec. 25, 1826 
Erfurt, June 9, 1908; pupil of Leipzig 
Cons.; 1865, court-conductor; com- 
posed 2 operas, etc. 

Buck, (i) Zechariah, Norwich, Eng- 
land, ^708 Newport, Essex, 1879; 
organist Norwich Cathedral; teacher 
and composer. (2) Dudley, Hart- 
ford, Conn., March 10, 1839 
Orange, N. J., Oct. 6, 1909; pupil 
W. J- Babcock (pf.) then of Plaidy 
and Moscheles (pf.)? Hauptmann 
(comp.) and J. Reitz (instrumenta- 
tion), Leipzig Cons.; later Dresden, 
under Reitz and Johann Schneider 
(organ); and 1861-62 in Paris; 1862, 
organist of the Park Ch., Hartford, 
U. S. A.; St. James, Chicago, 1872, 
St. Paul's and of the Music Hall As- 
sociation, Boston; 1875, organist 
Cincinnati May Festival; then, asst. 
cond. to Th. Thomas, New York; 
organist of Holy Trinity Ch., Brook- 
lyn; director Apollo Club; composed 
comic opera "Descret" (prod. 1880): 
symphonic overture * < Marmion * 
(xSSo), many cantatas; the 46th 
Psalm; "The Christian Year," a se- 
ries of 5 cantatas; wrote 2 books of 
Pedal-phrasing Studies, and "Illus- 
trations on Choir-accompaniment, with 
Hints on Registration*; pub. "The 
Organist's Repertoire" (with A. P. 
Warren); "The Influence of the Organ 
in History" (1882); and a "Diction- 
ary of Musical Terms * (3) Percy 
Carter, b West Ham., March 25, 
1871; pupil at R. A. M., London; 
won scholarship 1891-4, organist at 
Oxford; 1893, Mus. Doc.; 1896-9, 
organist Wells Cathedral, 1899-1901. 
Bristol Cathedral; 1910, prof, of 
music Dublin University, vice-pres.; 
1927, prof, of music, Univ. of Shef- 
field; c. overture tf Coeur de Lion"; 
chamber music, etc. 

Buhl (btil)* Joseph David, b. Amboise, 
1781; famous trumpet-player at 
Paris: author of trumpet-method. 

Bfihler (btt'-lSr), Fz. P. Gregorius, 
Schneidheim, 1760 Augsburg, 1824; 

Benedictine monk, 1794; conductor 
at Botzen; dram, composer and theo- 

Buhlig, Richard, b. Chicago, Dec. 21, 
1880; pianist; studied in^native city 
and with Leschetizky in Vienna; 
after 1901 taught in Berlin, and 
toured in Europe and U. S. as recital- 
ist; Amer. d6but, 1907, with Phila. 
Orch.; 1918-20, taught at Inst. of 
Mus. ~Art,"N. Y.; later lived on 
Pacific Coast; d. Los Angeles, 1952. 

Bull, John, Dr., Somersetshire, Eng- 
land, 1563 Antwerp, March 12, 
1628; 1582, organist; 1592, Mus. 
Doc. Oxon.; 1596, prof, of music at 
Gresham Coll. on Queen Elizabeth's 
recommendation; resigned on his 
marriage, 1607; 1617, organist Notre 
Dame, Antwerp; an early English 
composer whom Oscar Bie credits 
with remarkable originality in the 
midst of over-ornamentation. 

Bull (bool), Ole (Bornemann), Bergen, 
Norway, Feb. 5, 1810 Lysoen, 
Aug. 17, 1880; enormously popular 
and brilliant violin-virtuoso, a whit 
charlatanic; pupil of Pauls en; then 
self-taught, using a bridge almost 
level and a flat fingerboard; studied 
theology, but failed in examinations; 
1828, dir, Philh. and Dram. Soc. f 
Bergen; 1829, studied with Spohx 
briefly; 1832, d6but, Paris, after Hy- 
ing there a year observing Paganini's 
methods; toured Europe frequently, 
and North America 5 times (1843- 
79) ; he died at his country-seat. He 
played his own comps. almost alto- 
gether; wrote 2 concertos, and char- 
acteristic solos; biog. by Sara C. 
Bull, his second wife, Boston> 1883, 
and by Vlik (Bergen, 1890). 

Billiard, Fred. F., Boston, Mass., 
Sept. 21, 1864 June 24, 1904; 
1888-92, studied comp. under Rhein- 
berger, Munich; teacher of comp., 
critic and composer, Boston; pub. 
many successful ballads and four- 
part songs for male voices, also sacred 

Billow (fOn bti'-l6), Hans Guido von, 
Dresden, Jan. 8, 1830 Cairo, Egypt, 
Feb. 12, 1894; versatile and influen- 
tial musician; pianist and conductor 
of remarkable accuracy and memory, 
popularising the custom of conduct- 
ing without score; often called the 
best interpreter of Beethoven, but 
rather cola as a pianist; at 9, studied 
pf, with Fr. Wieck; harmony with 



Ebewein; 1848, entered Leipzig Univ. 
aslfc^studemt, but studied cpt. with 
Hauptmann; 1849, Wagner's "Die 
und die Revolution" stirred 

him deeply, and having heard 
" under Liszt's 

at Weimar under Liszt's 
direction, he joined Wagner, then 
exiled at Zurich, 1850-51; studied 
conducting with him, and acted as 
corwL in theatres at Zurich and St. 
Gallen, and later with Liszt; 1853 
and 1855 toured Germany and Aus- 
tria, with success; 1855-64, first pf.- 
teacher Stern Cons., Berlin. 1857, 
m. Cosima, Liszt's natural daughter, 
whom he later surrendered to his 
friend: Wagner <q v.); 1858, court- 
pianist; 1863, Dr. Phil. hon. causa, 
TJniv. of Jena; 1864, court-pianist, 
Mtajaich; 1867-69, court-conductor 
aad dir. School of Music; 1869-73, 
teacher and pianist in Florence; 
18 75-76 > gave 139 concerts in Amer- 
ica; 1878-80, court-conductor at 
Hanover; then till 1885, Hofmusik- 
intendant, Saace-Meiningen; i88a, m. 
Marie Schanzer; 1885-88, teacher 
RaE Cons.. Frankfort, KHad worth 
Cons., Berlin, and dir. Berlin Philh. 
Concerts; in 1888, founded the succ. 
"Subscription Concerts*" Composed 
music to "Julius Casar" (op* 10); a 
Ballads for orch., "Des S&ngers 
FfaeW (op, 16); "Nirvana," a sym- 
phottic Stimmungsbild (op. 20); 4 
Cha*akterstttcke for orch. {op. 23); 
a few pf.-pcs, and songs; also many 
piamo arrangements* His critical ed, 
of Beethoven's sonatas, and Cramer's 
, Etudes, are standard; biog. by his 

*d wife (Leipzig, x8o$). 
Btitas (book), Paul, Birkholz Manor, 
Priegnits, Dec. 19, 1847 Temeavar, 
Hungary, March 20, 19025 pupil of 
G. Engel; barytone at Dresdea 
(1876-89), later at Berlin court 

(boolt'-howpt), H. Bremen, 

Qct, 26, 1849 Aug. 21, 1905; wrote 
a valuable "Dramaiurgie der Optr"- 
(Leipzig* 1887). 
Btuogert (boong'-Srt), August, Mtthl- 
hwm-on-Ruhr, March i4> *%4f> 
Leutesdorf-on-Rhine, Oct. 26, 1915; 
pupil of Kufferath (pf.) iater at 
Cologne Cons,; for 4 years at Paris 
Cons.; then (1869) with Mathias; 
lived (1873*81) at Berlin, and stud- 
kd cpt- with Kiel; lived near Genoa. 
* * r JDs$ Kfimcrisch* Wettf in a 
Homeric opera-cycles, occupying 6 

"evenings" (Abende), each -with a 
"Vorspiei"; The Iliad ("Die Ilias"y 
is unfinished: (a) Antilles; (b) Kly- 
temnestra. The Odyssey (* ' Die Odys- 
see***) consists of Circe; Nausikaa; 
Odysseus' Heimkekr (Berlin, March 
31, 1898; succ.), and Odysseus'* Tod 
7Dresaen 7 1902). Other comp. are 
(comic opera) "Die Studenien von 
Salamanca" (Leipzig, 1884); symph. 
poem, "Aufder Wartburg"; " Hohes 
Lied der Licbe" with orch.; overture, 
"Tasso," pf, quartet, op. 18; Floren- 
tine quartet (prize, 1878); "Italie- 
nishe Reisebilder" etc., for pf.; songs 
to Carmen Syiva's "Lieder einer 
K8*igin," etc. 

Bun'nett, Edw., near Norwich, England, 
1834 1923; articled to Dr. Buck, 
1849; organist various churches, 
Mus. Doc, Oxon, 1869; 1871-92, 
cond. Norwich Mus. Union; 2872 
organist of the Norwich Festivals; 
composed cantata, etc. 

Bnn'nxng, Herbert, b. London, May 2, 
1863 Thundersley, 1937; pupii of V. 
Ferroni; c. Italian scena t "Ludavico 
41 Moro" (proci. with succ. t 1892), 
also 2 symphonic poems, opera "The 
Last Days of Pompeii" (NLS.) 


t w., Armagh, Feb., 1773 
Belfast, 2843; historian and collector 
of Irish music. 

Buonamente (boo-o-nfi-me'n -t), Glov* 
Bat. r cond* Franciscan monastery at 
Assisi; early and important composer 
or violin, also cornefcti (1623-36); 
confused by Ftis with Bonometti. 

Buoocuunici (boo-o-nt-mft'-ch*), (x) Giut. 
Florence. Feb. 12, 1846 March 18, 
1914; pianist; pupil of his uncle 
Ceccherini, and of BUlow and Rhcin- 
berger at Munich; 1873, cond. Flor- 
entine Choral Society "Chenibini"; 
founded the Fior, **Trio Society*'; 
pub. Etudes, etc, (a) Carlo, Flor- 
ence, June 20, 187$ Boston (?}, 
1920; pianist; son and pupil of Gtu~ 
seppe (q. v.), later studied at Wiirr- 
burg Royal Musicach., with Van 
ZeyT, taking first prine; after year in 
tbe army, settled in Boston, 1896, 
as teacher and pianist with Boston 
Symph. Orch., etc.; 1908 toured 

Buongiorno (boo-$n-j6r -n6), Ores- 
censco, Bonito, 1864 -Dresden, Nov. 
7> ^9<>3; operas* 

Buoaonoii, vide soscoNcnct. 

Burburd de Wesexnbeck (Hr-btlr dtt 




de, Termonde, 1812 Antwerp, 1889; 
Flemish nobleman; writer and com- 

Burde-Ney (bttr'-dS-ni 7 ) , Jenny, Graz, 
1826 Dresden, 1886; soprano; 1855, 
m. the actor K Biirde. 

Burette (bu-ret), P, J., Paris, 1665 
1747; Prof, of Medicine, Paris Univ.; 
writer on Greek music. 

Burgk (boorkhO, Joachim M oiler (or 
Muller), called Joachim A. Burgk (or 
Burg, or Burck), Burg, near Magde- 
burg; ca. 1541 Miilhausen, Thu- 
ringia, May 24, 1610; organist and 
eminent composer of Protestant 

Burgmein, J., pen-name of "Giulio 

Burgmiiller (boorkh'-mttl-lSr) , Norbert, 
Diisseldorf , 1 8 1 o Aix-la- Chapelle, 
1836; pianist and composer. 

Btirgstaller (boorkh'-shtal-lSr), Alois, 

b. Hplzkirchen, Sept. 27, 1871; tenor; 
studied with Bellurth and Kniese; 
sang small r6les at Bayreuth from 
1894, "Siegfried" (1897); "Siegmund"- 
(1899); sang Met. Op., from 1903. 

Bnrleigh, (i) Cecil, b. Wyoming, N. 
Y., April 17, 1885; violinist; studied 
in Berlin with GrUnberg and Witek 
(vin.), Leichtentritt (comp.) and in 
Chicago with Sauret, Hugo Heer- 
mann and Felix Borowski; made 
concert tours, and taught after 1909 
in Denver, Sioux City and Missoula; 
res. in N. Y., 1919-21; thereafter 
taught at Univ. of Wis. (vin.); c. 
viohn works and songs. (2) Harry 
Thacker, b. Erie, Pa., Dec. 2, 1866; 
Negro barytone and composer; stud- 
ied Nat'l. Cons, in N. Y., where he 
has lived since 1892; active as con- 
cert singer in U. S. and Europe; has 

c. or arr. more than 100 songs, esp. 
spirituals; d. Stamford, Conn., 1949. 

Burmeister (boor'-ml-shtSr) , (x) Rich- 
ard, Hamburg, 1860 Berlin, Feb. 9, 
1044; pupil Liszt, accompanying him 
as he travelled; teacher Hamburg 
Co is.; for 12 years head of pf. dept., 
Pea'>ody Frist., Baltimore; 1898, dir. 
\, Y, Scharvvenka Cons.; X903~o6, 
f )p sd^n Cons.; 1906-25, lived in 
lie i' 11 a; 1925-33 in Merano; c. pf.~ 
concerto (op. i), "The Chase after 
Fortune" ("Die Jagd nach dem 
<*/*&&"), a symphonic fantasy in 3 
movements; rescored Chopin's F 
minor concerto, and wrote orch. 
accomp. for Liszt's "Pathetic" con- 
certo. (2) Dory (ne Peterson), b. 

Oldenburg, 1860; pianist; wife of 

Burmester (boor'-ma-sliter), Willy, 
Hamburg, March 16, 1869 Jaa, 16, 
*933', violin- virtuoso; studied with 
his father and Joachim; toured with 
his sister, a concert-pianist. Von 
Billow aided him and brought public 
attention to his abilities; toured 
Europe, and 1899, America. Long a 
leading virtuoso, but in later years 
also a serious interpreter; revisited 
America a few years before his death. 

Bur'ney, Chas., Shrewsbury, England, 
1726 Chelsea, 1814; toured Europe; 
Mus. Doc. Oxon, 1769; pub. very 
interesting and gossipy "The Present 
State of Music in France and Italy," 
etc. (1771); "do. in Germany, the 
Netherlands," etc. (1773); "General 
History of Music" (4 vols., 177689), 

Bur'rian, Carl (rightly Karel Buiiaa), 
Rausinow near Rakonitz, Jan. 12, 
1870 Senomat, Sept. 25, 1924; 
opera tenor; pupil of Pivoda in 
Prague; d6but, 1891, in Briinn; sang 
in Reval, Cologne, Hanover, Ham- 
burg; 1898-1911 at the Dresden Op*; 
then several years in Vienna and 
Budapest; at Met. Op., N. Y., and 
at Bayreuth. 

Bur'rowes, J. Freckleton, London, 
1787 1852; organist, pianist and 

Bur'tius (orBtirciCboor'-che}) orBurzio 
(boor'-ts-5), Nicolaus, Parma, 1450 
1518; wrote the earliest specimen 
of printed mensural music. 

Bur 'ton, Frederick R., Jonesville, Mich., 
1 86 1 Lake Hopatcong, N. J., 1909; 
graduated at Harvard; 1. Yonkers, 
N. Y.; founded there, 1896, a choral 
society; c. pop. cantata " Biawat&a" 

Bus 'by, Thos., Westminster, Eaglaad,, 
1755 London, 1838; Mus. Doc.; 
composer and writer. 

Busch, (i) Adolf, b. Siegen, <*ermamy,. 
Aug. 8, 1891 Guilford, Vt., June 9, 
1952; studied at Cologne Cons.; first 
vin., Vienna Orch., 1912-1^; toured 
as solo performer in European cities, 
1918-22; in sonata recitals with 
Rudolf Serkin, pianist, and in tario 
with Serkin and H. Busch; suc- 
ceeded Marteau as teacher at Berlin 
Hochsch., 1919, where formed string 
auartet; has toured in U. S., as solo- 
ist with leading orchs.; c. orchestral 
and chamber works, songs. (2) Carl, 



Bjerre, Denmark, March 29, 1862 
Kan. City, Dec., 1943; pupil Brussels 
Cons., with Gade, Svendsen, Godard 
and others; res. in Kansas City, Mo., 
since 1887; org. and cond. Symph.. 
Orch. there for some years, beginning 
1912; knighted by Danish Gov't. 
same year; c. cantatas, orchestral 
and chamber music works, anthems 
and part-songs. (3) Fritz, b. Siegen, 
Mar. 13, 1890 London, Sept. 14, 1951; 
conductor; bro. of Adolf; studied at 
Cologne Cons., conductor Riga Op., 
1909; summer concerts, Bad Pyr- 
mont, 191012; choral director, 
Gotha Musikverein, 1911-12; court 
music director, Stuttgart, and cond. 
Opera there, 1918; conductor Dres- 
den Op. and Symph. Concerts, 1922 
until 1933, during which time he 
made guest tours to other countries 
including U. S., where led N. Y. 
Symph. Orch. as guest in 1925-26; 
has conducted opera and concerts in 
Buenos Aires, 1933 and subsequent 
years; also led Mozart opera festivals 
at Glyndebourne, Sussex, beginning 
1034; with Met. Op,, after 1946. 

Bus! (boo'-ae"), (i) Giu., Bologna, 1808 
1871; Prof, (a) Alessandro, Bo- 
logna, 1833 1895; SOB of above; 
'cellist and conductor. 

Busnois (btln-wa), A. (rightly de Btisne 
(du bun) ), d. 1481; Netherland con* 

Bttsoni (boo-ss'-nfc), Femicdo BHTO- 
ntrto, Erapoli, near Florence, April i, 
1866 Berlin, July 37, 1924; noted 
comp* and pianist; pupil of his father 
(FdoA clarinettist, and his mother 
(nte Weiss), a pianist; at 8, dfebut 
at Vienna; then studied with W. A* 
Remy: *88x, toured Italy; at *$, 
elected a member of the Reale Acca- 
demia Filarmonica, Bologna; 2886, 
Leipzig, where he c. a fantastic opera, 
a string-quartet (D min.), sym- 
phonic suite, etc.; 1888-89, Prof. 
Helslngfors Cons.; 1890, won Rubin- 
stein prizes for comp. and pf .-playing, 
with a Concertst&ck for pf . and orch. f 
op. 3ia; sonata for pf. and vln.; pf. 
arr* of Bach's Eb Organ Prelude, and 
Pugu*; and other pf. pcs. incl. 2 
Cadenzas to Beethoven's Concerto in 
G; 1890, Prof, in the Moscow Imp. 
Cons.j 1891-93 at Hew England 
Cons., Boston; in 1907 he succeeded 
Sauer as teacher of the master class 
at Vienna Cons.; 1911 toured 
America; X9i.v-xs, dlr* Bologna 

Liceo; 1915, took up residence in 
Zurich; after 1920, taught master 
class in comp. at Berlin Acad. of 
Arts. He made notable transcrip- 
tions of Bach organ works for piano, 
which have held a place in the 
repertoire; also Liszt piano pieces; 
mem. Legion of Honour, 1913. Wrote 
treatise on notation (1910); edited 
Bach's "Well-tempered Clavichord" 
with fitudes; other comps., "Lust- 
spiel OuvertUre"; 4 choruses with 
orch.; a suites for orch.; a *'Sym~ 
phonisckes Tongcdickt" for orch., 
symph. tone-poem " Pojokla*$ Tech- 
ier" festival overture, 1897; music 
to "Berceuse tUgiaqueJ* for orch.; 
wrote "Eniwurf finer neuen Aesthe- 
iik der Tonkunst" His opera, "Der 
Braut-wahl" was prod. Hamburg, 
April 13, 1912, based on Hoffman's 
"Serapeons* BHider." His operas 
"Turandof* and "Arletchino" were 
planned on old Italian "Commedia 
dell* Arte" (latter, Zurich, 19x8). He 
left unfinished an opera, "Doktor 

' Faust," on which he had worked for 
many years; completed by Jarnach, 
it was prod, with succ. (Dresden, 
1935)* Wrote memoirs. 

Biisser (biis-aa), Henri, b. Toulouse, 
Jan. 1 6. 1872; pupil of Guiraud ana 
Gounod; took first Grand Prix de 
Rome, with cantata "Antigone"; 
1892, organist at St. Cloud; after 
1902, cond. at Op.-Comique; c* succ. 
i-act pastorale ^Dapknis et Ckloc" 
(Paris, Op. Com.), 1807; cantata 
"Amodis de Gavle>" 1802 (taking ad 
Gra. i Prix de Rome); bauets 
"Colomba" and "Les Notes Corin~ 
ikitnnes"; "SommeU de V Enfant 
Jesus" for vln. and orch*; also over* 
tures, suites, organ works, harp and 
orch. comp. Member, Institut de 

Busslftr (boos'-l$r), L., Berlin, Nov. 26, 
1838 Jan. 18, 1901; theorist; son of 
the painter- author, Robert Bussler; 
pupil of von Hertz berg, Dehn. Grell, 
and Wieprecht; 1865, teacher of 
theory, Ganz School of Music; from 
1879, at ^ Stern Cons., Berlin; 
critic and writer of various treatises* 

Bussraeyer (boos'-ml-^r), (i) Hugo, 
Brunswick, 1842 ^Rio de Janeiro, ?; 
pianist; pupil of K. Richter. Litom 
<pf.)t and Methfesse! (comp,); 1860, 
toured in South America; 1860, N. 
Y.; settled in Rio de Janeiro; com- 
poser aad writer, (a) Harts, Bruns- 



wick, 1853 Poecking, Sept. 21, 1930; 
bro. of above; pianist; pupil of Royal 
School of Music at Munich, and 
teacher there, 1874; also studied with 
Liszt; toured S. America, 187274; 
1879, founded Munich Choral So- 

Bustini (boos-te'-ne), Aless.; b. Rome, 
Dec. 24, 1876; Italian composer, 
prod. succ. opera "Maria Didcis" 
Rome, 1902; libretto by Luigi Ilica. 

Buths (boots), Julius, Wiesbaden, 
May 7, 1851 Diisseldorf, March 12, 
1920; pianist; pupil of his father (an 
oboist), also of Gernsheim, Hiller and 
Kiel; 1871-72, cond. the "Cecilia," 
at Wiesbaden; 1873, won Meyerbeer 
Scholarship, and lived in Milan and 
Paris; 1875-79, cond. in Breslau; in 
Elberfeld, 1879-90; cond. Mus. Soc. 
at Elberfeld; 1890-1908, civic mus. 
dir., Diisseldorf and, 1902, head of 
Cons, there; c. concerto, etc., for pf . 

Butt, Clara, Southwick, Sussex, Feb. i, 
1873 near Oxford, Jan. 23, 1936; 
eminent English contralto; won 
scholarship at London R. C. M.; 
pupil of Bouhy and Mme. Gerster; 
deout, London, 1892; toured Amer- 
ica several times after 1899; l n S a 
favourite soloist at festivals in Great 
Britain, and one of the most popular 
concert singers of her day; made 
world tour in 1913-14 with her hus- 
band, R. Kennedy Rumford, bary- 
tone; works esp. written for her in- 
cluded Elgar's ft Sea Pictures"; Dame 
Commander of the British Empire. 

But' terwortn, George, London, July 12, 
1885 died in battle, at Pozifcres, 
Aug. $> 1916; composer; grad. of 
Oxford Univ., studied music pri- 
vately; a short time at R. College of 
Music; c, orch. works incl. "A Shrop- 
shire Lad," chamber music and songs. 

Buttstedt (boot'-shtSt), Jn. H., Bin- 
dersleben, 1666 Erfurt, 1727; writer 
of a famous defence of sol-mi-sa-tion; 
also organist and composer. 

Buus (boos). Jacket (Jacques) de, 
Bruges (?), 1510 Vienna, 1565; 
Flemish cptist; 1541, asst. organist, 
San Marco. 

Buartehude (boox'-tS-hoo-de*), Dietrich, 
Helsmgar (Elsinore), Denmark, 1637 
LUbeck, 1707; organist: 1673, he 
established the "Abendmusiken," 
which J* S. Bach walked 50 miles to 
hear; great composer of fugues and 

(Byrde, Bird, or Byred), Wm.; 

according to his will, discovered in 
1897, he was born London, 1542, or 
1543 (not 1538 or 1546, as stated); d. 
July 4, 1623; organist and notable 
English composer, in whose work 
there is much modernity; 1554? or- 
ganist; 1563, choirmaster and organ- 
ist Lincoln Cathedral; 1575, procured 
with Tallis, his former teacher, an 
exclusive patent for the privilege of 
printing music and selling music- 
paper; has been called "English 
Palestrina" for his supreme church 
choral music; also celebrated for 
his harpsichord comps. 

Caballero (ka-ba-ya'-r5), Manuel Fer- 
nandez, Murcia, March 14, 1835 
Madrid, Feb. 20, 1906; pupil of 
Fuertes (harm.) and Eslava (comp.), 
Madrid Cons.; c. pop. Zarzuelas 

r. D. D.) and church-music. 
el (kS.-bel), rightly Cabu, (i) Ed., 
singer Op. Com., Paris. (2) Marie 
Josephe (n6e Dreulette), Li6ge, 
1827 1885; sister-in-law, or perhaps 
mother, of above; soprano. 
Cabezon (ka'-ba-th6n), (i) (Felix), 
Antonio De, Santander, March 30, 
1510 May 26, 1566; composer; 
cembalist and organist to Philip II; 
called "The Spanish Bach"; blind 
from birth; c. harp and lute pieces, 
published in 1578 by his son (2) 
Hernando, who succeeded him. 
Cabo (ka'-bO), Francisco Javier, Na- 
guera, near Valencia, 1768 Valen- 
cia, 1832; organist, conductor and 

Caccinl (kat-che'-ne*), Giulio (called 
Romano), Rome, ca. 1546 Florence, 
1618; a revolutionary composer 
well called "The father pf a new style 
of music"; studied singing and flute- 
playing with Scipione della Palla. 
Wrote and sang "Musica in Stile 
Rappresentativo* and c. "II Rapti- 
mento di Cefalo" (Oct. o, 1600), the 
first opera ever publicly prod.; he 
had also set to music other works by 
Bardi (q. v.), and collaborated with 
Peri (q. v.) in "Dafne," the first 
opera ever composed. He c. also 
a novel set of madrigals justly called 
"Le nuove musiche" and other works 
of notable originality and importance 
to progress. 

Cad'inan, Charles Wakefield, b. Johns- 
town, Pa., Dec. 24, 1881; at 13 be^an 



piano studies, at 10 composed a 
comic opera, prod, at Pittsburgh, but 
did not study composition till 20; 
pupil of W. K. Steiner (organ), Luigi 
von Kunits (orchestration), with 
critical advice from Emil Paur; took 
up Indian music, 1906 published 
"Four Indian. Songs 9 '; 1909 spent 
summer among the Omaha Indians, 
taking phonograph records and tran- 
scribing them; gives lecture-recitals 
on Indian music. C. "Three Moods" 
for symph. orch.; chamber music; 
cantata for male voices "The Vision 
Sir Launfal" Japanese romance 


for two voices, "Sayonara"; three 
"Songs to Odysseus"; Indian songs, 
operas, "Skanewis" (Met. Op., 19*8); 
"Witch of Salem" (Chicago Op., 
1026); "Sunset Trail" (Denver, CoL, 
1922); "Garden of Mystery" (N. Y,, 
1923); song cycle, "White Enchant- 
ment"] also"Z>ar& Dancers of the Mardi 
Gras" for piano and orcfcu, in which 
the comp. has played as soloist with 
orchs.: d. Los Angeles, Dec. 50, 1946* 

Cafaro (kfi,-fa/-r$), Pasq. (called Caf- 
fariel'lo), San Pietro, Glatina, Italy, 
1706 Naples, 1787; noted composer; 
c. operas, oratorios, a notable "Stabat 
mater " etc. 

Caffarelli (rightly Gaetano Majorano) 
(kaf-fa-relMX), Ban, April x6, 1703 
Santo-Dorato, near Naples, Nov. 30, 
1783; famous male soprano; discov- 
ered as a peasant boy, by Cafifaro r a 
musician, he took the name Caffa- 
relli out of gratitude; he studied < 
years with Porpora; was a skilful 
sight-reader and harpsichordist, a 
marvellous singer of florid music, and 
also gifted with pathos; had most 
successful debut, Rome, 1724, in a 
female role, and sang with enormous 
success everywhere except London; 
made money enough to buy a duke- 

Caffi (kat'-te), Fran., Venice, 1780 
Padua, 1874; writer. 

Cagnoni (kan-y6'-n*), A., Godiasco, 
1828 Bergamo, 1896; conductor 
and dram, composer. 

Cahen (ka-an), (t) Ernest, Paris, 1828 
1803; pianist and dram, composer, 
(a) Albert, Paris, Jan. 8, 1846 Cap 
d'Ail, March, 1903; pianist; pupil of 
Mme. S&arvady and Cesar Franck; 
c. "Jeanl* Pr&curseur" biblical poem 
(1874); com, opera "Le Bois" fiSSo, 
Op. Com.); fairy opera "La Bell* au 
Bois j&ormant" (Geneva, *886); 4- 

act opera "Lc Venitien" (Rouen,, 
1800); unsucc. opera "La Femme de 
Claude" (Paris, Op. Com., 1*06), etc 

Cahier (ka-ya), Mme. Charles (ne'e 
Walker), b. Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 6, 
1875 Manhattan Beach, Cal,, Apr. 
15, 1 051; sang in concerts, then stud- 
ied with Jean de Reszke; dhut in op- 
era as "Orfeo" (Nice, 1004); sang in 
other cities and from i<>og at Vienna 
Royal Opera. 1912 at Met. Op. f 
N. Y.; also widely in concert; a noted 
contralto and teacher. 

Caimo (kfi/-e"-m6), Joseffo, b. Milan,, 
ca, 1540; composer. 

Caland (k&M&nt), Elizabeth, Rotter- 
dam, Jan. 30, 1862 Berlin, Jan. 26, 
1929; teacher and author of piano* 

Caidara (kal-d&'-ra), A,, Venice, 1670 
Vienna, Dec. 28, 1736; court- 
conductor and noted composer,. 
Vienna; c. operas, 70 sacred dramas,, 

Cal'dicott, Alfred Jas,, Worcester, 
England, 1842 near Gloucester, 
Oct. 24, 1897; organist of St. Ste- 
phen's Church, Worcester, and Cor- 
poration organist; 1883, prof* at 
R. C. M., London; from 1885, cond. 
at the Albert Palace; c. cantatas, 13 
operettas, etc. 

Calegari <kal-ft~gfc'-r*) (i) (or Calle- 
gari) Fraa. A., d. Padua, 1740?; a 
Franciscan monk, 1702-24; conduc- 
tor and writer at Ven*ce, then Padua, 
(a) A., Padua, 1757 1826; draix. 
composer and writer. 

Cal 'kin, I, Bapt., London, March x6, 
1827 May 15, 1905; pianist, organ- 
ist and composer; prof. Guildhall 
School of Mus.; pub. services, etc. 

Cattaartfi (IcJU'-lftru), tos., Antwerp, 
Aug. 22, 1838 March 3, 1301; pupi/ 
of Lemniens at Brussels Cons,; 01- 
ganist at Antwerp Cathedral, and 
teacher at the Music School from 
1867; c- a prize symphony and pf. 
trio, comic opera; "Lc Rctour Im- 
prtvu" (Antwerp, 1889), etc. 

CaU'cott, (i) J, Wail, Kensington, 
Nov. ao f 1766 May 15, 1811; 
mainly self-taught; organist; *7&g he 
won all the prizes oftered by the 
"Catch Club"; 1790, pupil of Haydn; 
1800, Mus. Doc, (Oxon); 1806, lec- 
tured at the Royal Institute; pro- 
jected unfinished musical dictionary; 
mental disorder overtook him be- 
fore it was coneluHH; his "Grawwiir 
of Musu" (i.SoO) is fitandftror. 



2) Wm. Hutchins, Kensington, 1807 
London, 1882, son of above; or- 
ganist and pianist. 

Calliope (kal-H'-C-pS or kal-lS'-6-pa), 
the Greek muse of heroic verse. 

Calo'ri, Angiola, Milan, 1732 1790; 

Calsabigi (kSl-sa-b5'-je), Raniero da, 
Livorno, 1715 Naples, 1795; 
Gluck's librettist and aide in opera- 

Calve" (kal-va), Emma (de Roquer), 
Dcazeville, France, 1863 (1866?) 
Millau, France, Jan. 6 (?) 1942; so- 
prano; pupil of Marches! and Pugets; 
1882, oUbut in Massenet's " Hfro- 
diade" Th. de la Monnaie, Brussels; 
1884, Paris Th. Italien; 1885, Op. 
Com.; also in London; after 1893 
sang in New York, making great 
furore with her inimitable and rakish 
"Carmen"; also feted for her "San- 
tuzza," "Juliette," etc., at Met. Op.; 
a concert singer of note; she was 
an Officier d' Academic and lived in 

Calvis'ius, Sethus (rightly Seth Kall- 
witz (kaT-vts) ), Feb. 21, 1556 
Leipzig, Nov. 24, 1615; son of a 
peasant; singer for alms, then as a 
teacher obtained funds to study; 
(1581) mus. dir.; writer of important 
treatises and composer. 

Calvocores'si, Michel D., b. Marseilles 
<of Greek parents), Oct. 2, 1877; 
critic and musicologist; studied Paris 
Cons.; writer and lecturer on French 
and especially Russian music; wrote 
biogs. of Liszt* Moussorgsky, Glinka, 
Schumann, and author of "La 
Musique Russe"; has contributed to 
many periodicals, and translated into 
French Rimsky-KLorsakofFs treatise 
on orchestration, as well as mus. 
texts into various languages; lived 
London, where d. Feb. i, 1944- 

Calvdr (kai'-far), Kaspar, Hildesheim, 
1650 Clausthal, 1725; theorist. 

Camar'go, (t) Felix Antonio, b. Guada- 
lajara, r6th cent.; cathedral cond. 
at Valladolid; c. remarkable bymn 
to St. lago, etc* (2) see COTIS. 

Cambert (kad-bar), Rob., Paris, ca. 
1628 London, 1677; first composer 
of French operas; organist at St. 
Honore"; 1659, "La Pastorale" was 
succ. prod, at the Chateau d'Issy; 
and followed by others on the texts of 
Perrin, who received letters patent 
for establishing the "AcadSmie roy- 
ale de musique" (now the Gr. 

Op6ra); with Perrin he also wrote 
the first genuine opera, "Pomone," 
prod. 1671, before Lully, who later 
took the patent for himself ; he went 
to England where he died as Master 
of the Music to Charles II. 

Cambini (kam-be'-ne), Giov. Giu., 
Leghorn, 1746 Bicfctre, 1825 (?); 
cond. at Paris, and prolific but cheap 
composer of over 60 symphonies, 144 
string-quartets, several operas, etc.; 
he died in the almshouse. 

Cam'eron, Basil, b. Reading, England, 
1885; conductor; sang as choir boy; 
began vln. study at 8 with Otto 
MUani, harmony and comp. from 
Tertius Noble; 1902, studied with 
Joachim in Berlin, conducting with 
Hausmann; played in Queen's Hall 
Orch. as violinist, also studying with 
Auer; 1913 cond. Munic. Orch., 
Torquay, where gave a Wagner 
Fest.; after war in charge of music 
at Harrogate and Hastings; guest 
cond. R. Phil. Soc., London; 1930, 
cond. San Francisco Symph. with 
Dobrowen^ re-engaged for 2nd 
season; after 1932, cond. Seattle 
Symph.; later again in England. 

Camet'ti, Alberto, b. Rome, May 5, 
1871 1935; pupil at Academy of 
St. Cecilia; organist of the French 
church of St. Louis at Rome; histo- 
rian of music and comp. 

Cam'idge, (i) J-, ca. 1735 YOTK, 
EngL, 1803; organist York cath., 47 
years; composer. (2) Mat., York, 
1764 1844; son and successor of 
above. (3) J., York, 1790 1859; 
son and successor of (2) . 

Caxnpagnoli (kam-pan-y6'-leO, Bart.- 
Cento, 1751 Neustrelitz, 1827; vio 
linist and court-conductor. 

Campana (kam-pa'-na), Fabio, Leg- 
horn, 1819 London, 1882; singing- 
teacher and dram, composer. 

Campanari (kam-pa-na'-r5), (i) Lean- 
dro, b. Rovigo, Italy, Oct. 20, 1857; 
pupil at Milan Cons.; toured Europe 
2 years; America, 1879; lived in 
Boston; organised "C. String-quar- 
tet"; 1883 ist prof, of vln. in N. E. 
Cons.; 1890, ist. prof, of vln. and 
head of orch. dept. Cincinnati Cons.; 
1897-1905, conductor at Milan; 
1906, at Manhattan Op. House, N. 
Y.; after 1907, taught in San Fran- 
cisco; where d. April 23, 1939- ( 2 ) 
Giuseppe, Venice, Nov. 17, 1858 
Milan, May 31, 1927; eminent dram, 
barytone; at first a 'cellist at La 



Soda; engaged to play in Boston 
Symph.; also in Adamowski Quar- 
tet; 18^3, after vocal study, sang 
with Hinrichs Op. Co.; also with 
Juch and Grau companies; 1895-08, 
Met. Op.; later in Europe. 

Campanini (kam-pa-nS'-nS), (i) Italo, 
Parma, 1846 Vigatto, near Parma, 
Nov. 22, 1806; operatic tenor, a 
blacksmith wnen discovered; dSbut, 
1869, at Odessa, without much suc- 
cess; then studied with Lamperti, 
and reappeared, Florence, 1871, as 
"Lohengrin," with great succ.; toured 
Europe and U. S. with Nilsson, Patti, 
etc. (2) Cleofoiite, Parma, Sept. i, 
1860 Chicago, Dec. 19, 1919; con- 
ductor; pupil Milan Cons., later 
teacher there; cond. at La Scala, 
Co vent Garden, and 1906-09, at 
Manhattan Opera House, New York; 
married Eva \Tetraszini, operatic so- 
prano (sister and teacher of Luisa); 
from 1910 he was cond. and after 
1913 artistic dir, of the Chicago Op. 
Co. He was instrumental in found- 
ing the Edith Rockefeller McCor- 
mick Prize for opera composers at 
the Milan Cons. 

Campbell-Tiptop Louis, Chicago, Nov. 
21. J&77 Paris, May i, 1921; stud- 
ied in Chicago, Boston and Leipzig; 
lived in Pans; his important com- 
positions played abroad, notably his 
"Heroic"* sonata for piano, piano 
suites, "The Four Seasons/' *%S**te 
Pastorale," for piano and violin; also 
c, striking &0 S S - 

Cam/pion. (x) Thos., d. London, Feb., 
1630; English physician, poet, dram- 
atist and noteworthy writer and 
composer; pub* two books of Ayres, 
etc, (1610); 2 more (1613). (2) 
Fran., 1703-19, thcorbist, Paris Gr. 

Campio'ni, Carlo A., Leghorn, ca, 1720 
-Florence. 1793; court-conductor. 

Camporese (ka.m-p<5-ra'-zS), Violante, 
b. Rome, 178^; operatic sopr. of 
Napoleon's private music; abut, 
London. 18x7; retired, 1829. 

Campos (k&m'p$s), Jofto Ribeiro de 
Almeida de, Tx Vizen, Portugal, ca, 
1770; cond, and professor. 

operas under his bro/s name and 
gave up church-mus.; cond* Royal 
Orch. and c, iS operas, (a) Jos. f 
bro, of above; double-bass player. 

Camps y Soler (k&mps 5 s5'-l5r), Oscar, 
Alexandria, Nov. 21, 1837 Madrid, 
?; Spanish pianist; pupil of Dshler 
and Mercadaate; played in public 
at 13; lived in Madrid; writer and 

Canal (ka'-nal), Abbate Pietro, Cres- 
pano, April 13, 1807 Dec. 15, 1883; 
historian and com p. 
Canale (or Canali) (fca-n&'-ls), FIo- 
riano, organist at Brescia, 1585- 
1603; c. church-music. 
Candeille (kan-dfi'-yii), (i) P. Jos., 
Estaires, 1744 Chantiily, 1827; 
dram, composer. (2) (Simons- 
Candeille) Amfilie JiUie, Paris, 1767 
1834; operatic sopr., actress, and 
composer; daughter of above; lived 
in Paris as teacher; she wrote libretto 
and music of the succ. operetta **<* 
Belle Fermiere" (1792); she played 
the leading role and sang to her own 
accomp. on piano and harp* 
Cange (dti k&j&zh), Ch&s.-Dttfrfesne, 
sieur du, Amiens, 16x0 Paris, 1688; 
lawyer and lexicographer, 
Cannabich (kan'-na-blkh), (x) Chr n 
Mannheim, 1731 Frankfort, 1798; 
noteworthy violinist and conductor, 
a pioneer in orchestra) diminuendo; 
son of (2) Mathias, a flutist in the 
Electoral Orch. at Mannheim of 
which hr. C. became leader in 1765, 
and cond. 1775. (3) K., Mannheim, 
1764^ Munich, 1806; son of (x); 
court-conductor* (4) Rose, b. about 
1762 according to Mosart, whose pu- 
pil she was; daughter of (2); pianist, 
Caonfciarl (kan~n*-chfc'-r), Don Pom- 
* ~ P^o*^. Rome, i744;concJuctor;conm. 
Caatelli, Guido, b. Novara, 1920; guest 
cond., N. Y. Philh-Symphony, 1051. 
Capet XkA-pftO, Luden, PanX>- \ 
1873 Dec. ip, ioaS; violinist and 
chamber music performer; pupil of 
Paris Cons., where won sst prize: 
taught at Bordeaux; After 1007 lee! 
chamber music classes at Paris Cons., 
and after 1024 artistic din of Paris 
Jnst. de Vioion; founded noted Capet 
Quartet in 2903, with which he ap- 
peared with succ* In many European 

Captet (kftp-ls), Andr^ Havre, Nov. 
*$> 3:878 Paris, April 34, xoas; 
eminent composer; pupil of Woifctt; 
violinist at Havre Theatre, 1896; 
pupil of Leroui at Paris Cons., 
winning first harmony prize, 1808, 
and Prix de Rome, 1001; lived in 
Rome, then in Germany; acted as 



assistant to Colonne, 1898; igoo, was 
the first to cond. Debussy's "Martyre 
de San Sebastien 99 ; 1911-12 cond. at 
Boston Op.; also at Covent Garden, 
London; c. piano quintet; "Legend 9 * 
for harp and orch. after Poe's 
"Masque of the Red Death 99 -, "Suite 
Persane" for wood-winds; Septet for 
three women's voices and strings; 
Mass for three-part women's chorus; 
Sonata for voice, 'cello and piano; 
"Le Miroir de JSsus," 15 pieces for 
soloists, chorus and orch., which has 
been perf. frequently in France; a 
number of songs and choruses. 
Capocci (ka-p6t-che), (i) Gaetano, 
Rome. Oct. 16, 1811 Jan. n, 1898; 
notable teacher; pub. much sacred 
music. (.2) Filippo, Rome, May n, 
1840 July 25, 1911; son of above; 
Italian organist; 1875 organist of 
San Giovanni at the Lateran; c. 
works for organ. 

Capoul (ka-pool) (Jos. Am&tee), Vic- 
tor, Toulouse, Feb. 27, 1839 Pujan- 
dran-du-Gers, Feb. 18, 1924; tenor; 
pupil of R 6 vial and Mocker, Paris 
Cons.; 1861-72 at the Op. Com.; 
1892 prof* of operatic singing in Nat. 
Cons*, New York; 1897, stage man- 
ager, Paris Op6ra* 

Capuzfci (ka-jjood'-zS), Giuseppe An- 
tonio, Brescia, 1753-1818; c, 5 operas, 

CaracdoU (ka-rSt-chS-le*), Luigi, Andria 
(Bari), 1849 London, 1887; dram, 

Carado'ri-Allan ? Maria C. R. (ne de 
Munck), Milan, 1800 London, 
1865; soprano. 

Carafa de Colobrano (k-rS/-fa da 
kS~l6-bri,'-n6), Michele Enrico, Na- 
ples, Nov. 17, 1787 Paris, July 26, 
1873; son of Prince Colobrano; while 
very young c. an opera, 2 cantatas, 
etc., with much success; 1837, mem- 
ber of the Academy; 1840, prof, of 
comp. at Cons,; c, also ballets, can- 
tatas, and good church-music. 
Cardoat (kr-d6n), (i) Louis, Paris, 
1747 Russia, x8o$; harpist. (2) P., 
b Paris, 1751; 'cellist and singer. 
Cardo'so, Manuel, Fronteira, 1569; 

Spanish priest and composer. 
Caresana (kar-ft-sa'-na), Cristoforo, b. 
Tarentum, 165$; lived in Naples as 

Carestbi (ka-ras-tC'-nS), Giov. (stage 
name Cusanino), Mente Filatrano 
(Ancona), ca- 1705 1760; male so- 
prano (n*tsico). 

Ca'rey, (i) Henry, 1685 (?) London, 
Oct. 4, 1743; a reputed natural son of 
Marquis of Halifax, and disputed 
composer of "God Save the King"\ 
c. the song "Sally in Our Alley 99 ; 
ballad operas, etc. (2) Bruce, b. 
Hamilton, Ontario, 1877; conductor; 
studied at R. Coll. of Music, London, 
also in Florence and Munich; 
founded and cond. Hamilton Elgar 
Choir for 17 years; later Phila. 
Mendelssohn Club and music dir. at 
Girard Coll. there; succeeded the 
late Dr. J. Fred Wolle as cond. of 
Bethlehem Bach Choir, 1933-8 

Carissimi (ka-rls'-s5-mS), Giacomo, 
Marino, near Rome, ca. 1604 
Rome, Jan. 12, 1674; ca. 1624, 
church-conductor at Rome; impor- 
tant ch.-composer and writer; many 
of his MSS. are lost; 5 oratorios and 
other pieces remain. 

Carl, "Win. Crane, Bloomfield, N. J., 
March 2, 1865 New York, Dec. 8, 
1936; pupil of S. P. Warren, Mad 
Schiller fpf.) and Guilmant, Paris; 
after 1892, organist First Presby. 
Ch., N. Y.; made tours as concert- 
organist; 1899, founded Guilmant 
Organ School, New York; had pub. 
collections of organ music; active as 

Car'michael, Mary Grant, Birkenhead, 
EngL, 1851 London, March 17, 
*935; pupil of O. Beringer, W. Bache, 
and F. Hartvigson (pf.) and E. 
Prout (comp.); accompanist; c. oper- 
etta, "The Snow Queen' 9 ; a pf.-suite- f 
and many pop. songs. 

Carnicer (kar'-nS-th&r), Ramon, Tar- 
egga, Catalonia, Oct. 24, 1789 
Madrid, March 17, 1855; cond. 
Royal Opera, Madrid, 1830-54, prof, 
of comp. Madrid Cons.; one of the 
creators of the Zarzuela (v. D. D.). 

Caro (kS/ro), Paul, b. Breslau, Dec. 25, 
1859; pupil of Sch&ffer and Scholz, 
and Vienna Cons.; c. 2 operas, 5 
symphs.; str-qts.; etc.; d. (?). 

Caron (ka-r6n"), (i) Philippe, i$th cent., 
cptist. (of Netherlands ?). (2) Rose 
Lucile (ne'e Meuniez), Monerville, 
France, Nov. 17, i&57 Paris, April 
9, 1930; soprano; after her marriage 
entered Paris Cons., 1880, as pupil of 

. Tharset, later of Marie Sasse; d6but 
Brussels, 1883; 1885-88, Opra Paris; 
1888-90, Brussels; from 1890, Op6ra 
Paris; also at the Op. Com., from 
1902 prof, at the Cons. She created 
many of the chief r6les in modern 



French. Opera and in French versions 
of Wagner. She sang "Salammbo" 
at the Op6ra, 1908. 

Carpani (k&r-pS'-n), Giu. A., b, Vilal- 
bese (Como), 1752 Vienna, 1825; 

Car'penter, John Alden, b. Park Ridge, 
I1L, Feb. 28, 1876 May, 1951; grad. 
Harvard Univ.; studied with Ber- 
nard Ziehn and Seeboeck; a promi- 
nent business executive in Chicago, 
he has made much more than an 
avocation of music, taking his place 
among the most accomplished Amer- 
ican comps.j his musical idiom is 
modern and his output fairly large. 
C. (ballets) "The Birthday of the 
Iitfanto" (Chicago Op., 1919-20); 
"JKraxy Kri"\ "Skyscrapers" (Met. 
Op., *$6); the orch. works, "Adven- 
tures in & Per ambulator** $ symphony 
(Norfolk Fest., 19x7); concertino 
with piano; "$e* Drift" (N- Y. 
Philh., 1935); also a string quartet 
(Coolidge Fest,, Washington); vioiin 
sonata; "Water Odors*' for mezzo- 
soprano and chamber orch.j "Jf- 
proving Songs for Anxious Children"; 
and many songs incl. the cycle 

Carpentras (H Carpentras'so). Vide 


CarrS (k&r-ra), (i) Lotds, Clofontaine 
Brie, 1663 Paris, 1711; writer. (2) 
Albert, b. Strassburg, June 22, 1852; 
1898-1913, dir. Op. Com., Paris; 
librettist; d. Paris, Dec, 12, 1938, 

Carrefio (kar-rftn'-yo 1 ), Teresa, Cara- 
cas, Venezuela, Dec. 22, 1853 New 
York, Tune 13, 19x7; pupil of L, M, 
Gottschalk, and G. Mathias; notable 
pianist; played in public at 12; at 22 
toured the U. S.; 1889-90 toured 
Germany with much success; for 
some years wife of E. Sauret; then of 
Giov. Tagiiapietra; 1892-95, wife of 
Eugeu d T Albert; 1902, *. Arturo 
Tagiiapietra, bro. of Giov. T.; c. a 
string-quartet and pf. salon pieces. 
Her daughter Teresita Xagliapietr*, 
also a pianist. 

Carreras (ka-ra'-ras), Maria, b. Italy; 
pianist; at six awarded m prize at 
Acad, of Santa Cecilia, Rome, by 
Liszt, then hon* pres. of this school; 
studied with Sgambati, under whose 
baton at 15 she played his concerto 
with Rome Philh. with much succ.; 
immediately engaged for concerts in 
Russia with Imp, Music. Soc, under 
Safo&off; toured widely in Europe 

and South America; later in U. S., 
where she has been res. for some 
years and has given master classes. 

CarriHo (kSr-5'-y5), Julian, b. Mexico, 
1875; composer who has embodied 
novel harmonic system in his orch., 
chamber musk: and choral works; 
also author of "Synthetic Treatise of 

CarroMus, J. Tiplady, Keighley (York- 
shire), 1836 London, 1895; violinist. 

Car'ron, Arthur (rightly Cox), b. Eng- 
land; tenor; pupil of Florence Eas- 
ton; sang with Old Vic. Op. Co., 
London; dbut, Met. Op. Co., 
summer popular season, 1936, as 
Canio; engaged for regular roster of 
company following unusual succ. in 
this rdle. 

Carse, Adam, b. Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
May 19, 1878; pupil R. A. M., with 
the Macfarren scholarship; made an 
associate there in 1902; c. symph. in 
C minor; symph. in G minor, symph* 
poem, **tn a Balcony"; concert over- 
ture, etc.; writer on music. 

Car'ter, (x) Thos^ Ireland, ca. 1735 
London, x 804; composer. (2) Ernest 
Trow^, b. Oraiage, N. J., xS66; organ- 
ist, conductor, composer; studied' 
New York and Berlin: org. of Amer. 
Ch. In latter city, ana 1899-1901 at 
Princeton Univ.; c. comic op., "The 
Blonde Donna" \ opera t "The Wktte 

Cartlr (k&rt-yft), J. Bap Avignon. 
1765^ Paris, 2841; vioiimst ana 
dram, composer. 

Caruili (k&-rool'-l), (x) Fdo.. Naples, 
x 770 Paris, 2841 ; self-taught guitar- 
virtuoso and teacher; c. 400 con-' 
certos. (2) Gustavo, Leghorn, xBoz 
Bologna, 1876; son of above; 
teacher ana dram, composer* 

Caruso (ka-rop'-zo), Luigi, Naples, 
x 754 Perugia. x8ai; conductor, c. 
69 operas, (a) Enrico, Naples,. 
Feb. a$, x873-*Aug. 2, 1921: famous 
Italian tenor; pupU of Vergine; 
d6but, xdgc, winning gradual success 
in Italy (Naples, 1898; 1809 3L* 
Scaia), and creating the teaor r6lcs 
ia Giordano's "FetioraJ* Cilea's 
"Lttfiuwcur," and Franchetti's 4 *Grr- 
zwt"; x 800- 1003 sang in Stu 
Petersburg, and Buenos Aires; xooa, 
appeared with Melba at Monte 
Carlo, began his tremendous vogue; 



1902- at Covent Garden; 1903-21, 
Met. Op. House, N. Y.; 1908, his 
voice was threatened, but an opera- 
tion restored it. He created the 
tenor r61e in Puccini's "Girl of the 
Golden West," in addition to a large 
number of first Amer. perfs. His 
xepertohe incl. more than 50 r61es, 
chiefly in Italian and French works, 
both old and modern. In his later 
years the voice which was unique 
among singers of his period for ro- 
bustness of timbre and fine cultiva- 
tion, changed slightly from its earlier 
lyric quality to a darker dram, colour. 
His powers of characterisation de- 
veloped also and he made a deep and 
poignant impression as Eleazar in 
**# Juive 9 " the role he last sang at 
the Met. Op., Christmas Eve, 1920, 
when stricken with a hemorrhage of 
the throat. An emergency opera- 
tion later performed to relieve an 
abscessed condition of one lung re- 
sulted in a partial convalescence and 
he sailed for Naples, but passed 
away suddenly there during the 
summer. He was for long the most 
ffited vocalist throughout the world 
and sang for the highest fees in 
European capitals, but from 1903 
made N. Y, his headquarters. A 
clever cartoonist, he pub. a book of 
Ms drawings and also c. several 
popular songs. 

CanraUtxo (k&r-v&l'-5) (rightly Car- 
vaille), (x) L6on, in a French colony, 
1825 Paris, 1897; from 1875 dir. Op. 
Com, (2) Carvalho-Miolan (m6-6- 
ULn), Caroline M.-F&ix, Marseilles, 
1827 Puys, near Dieppe, 1895; so- 
prano; wife of above; d6but 1849. 
Ca'ry, Annie Louise, Wayne, Kennebec 
County* Me., Oct. 22, 1842 Nor- 
walk, Conn., April 13, 1921; noted 
operatic and concert contralto; stud- 
ied in Boston and Milan, and with 
Viardot-Garcia, etc.; d6but 1868, at 
Hamburg; later Stockholm, Copen- 
hagen, Brussels, London, New York 
(1870), St. Petersburg (1875); 1882, 
m. C. M. Raymond, Cincinnati. 
'Casadesus (cas-a-dSs-fisO, (i) Francis, 
b. Paris, Dec. 2, 1870; conductor, 
composer; studied Paris Cons., with 
Lavxgnac and Franck (harmony 
prize); Tremont Prize, French Inst.; 
cond. symphu concerts, Trocadero, 
Paris, 3918-24; dir. American Cons., 
Fontainebleau, 1921-23; has cond. 
radio concerts and been active as 

music critic; among his dram, works, 
" Un Beau Jar din de France" was 
given at Paris Op. Comique, 1918; 
also c. orchestral works and songs. 
(2) Henri, b. Paris, Sept. 30, 1879; 
violist; dir. Socie'te' des Instruments 
Anciens, which he founded in collab- 
oration with Saint-Sae"ns, 1901; of 
which members are Henri, viole 
d'amour; Marius C., quinton; Mau- 
rice DeviUiers, basse de viole; 
Lucette C., viole de gambe, and 
Regina C.-Patorni, clavecin; this 
group has toured widely in Europe, 
also visiting U. S., and presenting 
programmes of rare interest from his- 
torical standpoint; C. has also been 
a collector of old music and insts.; 
Chev. of the Legion of Honor; d. in 
Paris, May 31, 1947. (3) Marius, 
b. Paris, Oct. 24, 1892; composer, 
violinist; studied Paris Cons., ist 
prize, 1914; c. works for vln., orch., 
voice, 'cello, also chamber music; has 
appeared as vln. soloist with Boston 
Symph. Orch. (4) Robert, b. Paris, 
April 7, 1899; pianist; received early 
training from Mrne. Marie Simon, 
an aunt; at 13 entered Paris Cons., 
winning ist prize in piano; has ap- 
peared widely in concerts in France, 
Belgium, Holland, etc., after 1935-36 
in U. S., where made d6but as soloist 
with N. Y. Philh.; dir. piano dept., 
Amer. Cons., Fontainebleau. 

Casali (ka-sS'-lS), Giov. Bat., d. 1792; 
conductor and dram, composer. 

Casals', Pablo, b. Vendrell, Spain, 
Dec. 30, 1876; eminent 'cellist; pupil 
of Jose Garcia, Rodereda and Breton; 
1897, prof, at Barcelona Cons.; 
toured widely; c. "La Vision de 
Fray Martin" for chorus and orch.; 
'cello pieces, etc.; after 1919 cond. 
of Orquesta Pau Casals, Barcelona, 
and made few concert appearances as 
'cellist; member of noted trio includ- 
ing Cortot and Thibaud; m. Guil- 
hermina Suggia. 'cellist, 1:906; di- 
vorced, 1912; (2) Susan Metcalfe, 
singer; lived in France after 1938, 

Casamorata (ka-sa-mS-ra'-ta), Luigi 
Fdo., Wiirzburg, 1807 Florence, 
1881; editor, writer, and composer. 

Casati (ka-s/-tS), Gasparo, d. Novara, 
1643; cond. at Novara Cathedral; 
c. church music. 

Casa'vola, Franco, b. Ban, Italy, 

ey 13, 1892; composer; pupil of 
Rotella, Mapelli and Respighi; 
his music has been called "futuristic" 


and includes various ballets and a 
comic opera, "// Gobbo del CaKjpo," 
which won ist prize in a nat'l. con- 
test and was given at the Rome R. 
Op., 1929. 

Case, Anna, b. Clinton, N. J., Oct. 29, 
1889; soprano; studied with Augusta 
Ohrstrom-Renard; mem. Met. Op. 
Co., 1909-16; has also sung in con- 
certs and at festivals; m. Clarence H. 
Mackay, chm. board of directors, 
N. Y. Philh. Soc. 

Casel'la, P., (i) Pieve (Umbria), 1769 
Naples, 1843; dram, composer. 
(2) Alfredo, b. Turin, Italy, July 25, 
1883 Rome, March 3, 1947; com- 
poser; studied with Dimmer, Leroux and 
Faur6, Paris Cons., ist piano prize, 
1899; d6but, Paris, 1911; cond. pop- 
ular concerts, Trocadero, Paris, 1912; 
prof, advanced pf., Paris Cons., 
1912-15; also at Liceo Musicale di 
S. Cecilia, Rome, 1915; has served as 
guest cond* of many orchs. in various 
Eur. and Amer. cities; leading spring 
concert series with Boston Symph. 
Orch., 1927-29; is best known as 
a versatile, somewhat eclectic but 
highly accomplished composer of 
works in modern idiom, incl. "Italia^* 
rhapsody for orch.; the ballet, "La 
Gicra" fMet, Op. House production, 
1926-27); a symphonies; "Prologue 
pour vn* Tragfdie," " Notte di 
Maggio** (with chorus), string-quar- 
tet, *ceflo sonata, and other chamber 
music, songs, piano pieces; Serenata 
lor small chamber ensemble, etc. 
C. in 10 T 7 founded a Societa di 
Musica Moderna in Rome; he has 
lectured in America and also ap- 
peared here with the Trio Italiano; 
winner in 1928 of ist prize of Phila- 
delphia Musical Fund Soc. for com- 
position. Has also c. an opera, "La 
Donna Serpenie*' after a fairy tale 
by Goszi (1932); symph, suite. "L* 
Convent sur l*Ew" from a ballet of 
the same name: "JRlegia Eroica" and 
"Pagin* di Gucrra" for orch.; Pu- 
paxzetti" 5 pieces for marionettes: 
"Concerto Romano" for organ and 
orch,; "Sicilians e Burlcsca" for vln., 
'cello and pf,; "Cin&u* Pte*i" for 
string-quartet, etc. His earlier style 
was markedly dissonantal as shown 
in his "A NMe Alta"*, later comps, 
show a reversion to a simpler manner 
based on pre-dassic models. Author, 
"Tte Evolution of 
sky," etc. 

Caser'ta, Philippe de, Neapolitan the- 
orist, isth century. 

Casixniro (k&-s-m5'~r5), da Silva 
Joaquizn, Lisbon, May 30, 1808 
Dec. 28, 1862; Portuguese comp. of 
church music. 

Casini (kS-s5'-n5), G. M., b. 1670 <?); 
Florentine priest; he tried to revive 
Greek modes. 

Cassado (cfi-sa'-d&), Caspar, b. Barce- 
lona, 1898; 'cellist; pupil of Casals; 
has toured widely as outstanding 
virtuoso, incl. Spain, France, Ger- 
many, Austria, and in 1936 for first 
time in U. S.; also active as com- 
poser; his Rapsodia Catalana played 
by N. Y. Philh. under Meageiberg, 
1^28; c. 3 string quartets, trio for 
piano, v!n. and T ceflo; ed, works of 
Mozart, Weber and Schubert. 

Castagaa (k&s-tSn'-yfi), Bruaa; Jtal. 
mezzo- sopb.; sang Met. Op* after 

Castel (k&s-t*l) Louis Bertrand, Mont- 
pellier, 1688 Paris* 1757; a Jesuit 
writer who attempted without sue* 
cess to construct a "Clavecin ocu- 
laire," to prod, colour harmonies. 

Castellan (k&s-tel-l&n), Jeanne A., b. 
Beaujeu, Oct. 26, 1819; retired, 1859; 

Castel li, (i) Ignaz Fz., Vienna, 1781 
1862; editor* 

Castebnary (kas-t*l-mft-rt) (stage 
name of Comte Annand da Castaii), 
Toulouse, Aug. 16, 1834 ^New York, 
Feb. 9, 1897; barytone; died on the 
stage of the Met. Op., N. Y., just 
after the first act of * r Martka." 

Castelnuovo-Tedesco (cfts-Ul-n<3o-o'- 
vO t*-d*3'-ito), Mario, b* Florence. 
April 3, 2895; composer; studied 
Cnerubini Cons., Florence; composi- 
tion with Pizxetti; c. opera "La 
Mandragola" which won national 
lyric prize in 1925 and had premiere 
at Venice, 1926; "Italian" Concerto 
for v!n, and orch., concerto for 
piano and orch. (2926); Symphonic 
Variations for vln. and orch. (N. Y, 
Phllh., under Toscanini, 1330); also 
many madrigals, part-songs, songs 
and piano works; in the last category 
are some 30 "Poemetti" and 3 "Poemi 
Campc$tri"\ he is known for his 
" Three Chorales on Hebrew Mtlodits" 
for voice and piano; also about 100 
settings of lyrics in various languages, 
incl. original series of "Shakespeare 
3ong$"i a trio, a quartet; **Ct>rsY' 
an orch. sonata; "Tre FioreUi di 



Santo Francesco" for voice and orch 
and "Bacco in Toscana," a "dith- 
yramb in one act" for soloists, 
chorus, orch. and dancers, to a poem 
by Redi; has written extensively 
on music. 

Castil-Blaze. Vide BLAZE, p. H. T. 

Castiilon (kas-tS-y6n), Alexis de, 
Vicomte de Saint Victor, Chartres, 
Dec. 13, 1838 Paris, March 5, 1873; 
composer; pupil of Mass6 and C6sar 
Franck; c. symphony; overture, 
Torquato Tasso, Psalm 84 with 
orch.; piano concerto and important 
chamber music. 

Cas'tro, (i) Jean de, played Lyons, 
1570; composer and lutenist. (2) 
Juan Jose, b. Buenos Aires, March 
7, 1895; composer; pupil of d'Indy 
at Pans Schola Cantorum; cond. of 
orch. at Colon Theatre, in native 
city, introd. many modern scores: 
o. of orch. works, incl. "Biblical** 

Castrucd (kSs~troot'-ch5), (i) P., Rome, 
1670 Dublin, 1752; violinist; leader 
of Handel's opera-orch.; inv. and 
played the violetta marina. His 
bro. (a) Prospero (d. London, 1769); 
violinist and composer. 

Catalani (kat-S.-la'-ne), (i) Angelica, 
Sinigaglia, Oct., 1780 -Paris, June 
X2, 1849; famous operatic soprano of 
great beauty; her voice was notably 
flexible and reached to g"' (v. CHART 
OP PITCH); in 1806, at London, she 
earned over 16,000 ($80,000) in one 
year; 1814-17, she took up manage- 
ment of the Th. Italien, Paris, with- 
out succ. After final appearance, 
York festival, in 1828, she retired to 
her country-seat, near Florence. 
(2) Alfredo, Lucca, June 19, 1854 
Milan, Aug. 6, 1893; pupil of his 
father, an organist; at 14, c. a mass 
sung at the cathedral; pupil of Magi, 
and of Paris Cons, and Milan Cons.; 
c. operas "La Falcc" (Milan. 1875); 
"Elda" (Turin, 1880; revised as 
"Isorcley," 1890); "Dcjanice" (1883): 
"Ero e Leandro (1885), "Edmea'* 
(1886), "La Wally" (La Scala, 1892); 
symph, poem "Ero e Lcandro" etc. 

Catel (kfc-tel), Chas. Simon, L'Aigle, 
Orne, 1773 Paris, 1830; dram. 
composer and writer. 

Catelani (k&t--l&'-ne) Angelo, Guas- 
talla, 1811 S. Martino di Mugnano, 
1866; dram, composer and writer. 

Catolre (kfiLt~w&r), Georg L., Moscow, 
April 27* 1861 May* 1926; pupil 

of Klindworth, Willborg, and Liadov; 
c. symphony; symph. poem, "Mzyri"; 
cantata, "Russalka," piano concerto, 
quintet, quartet and trio for strings, 
"Po&me" for vln., choruses, songs, 

Catrufo (ka-troo'-f6), Giu., Naples, 
1771 London, 1851; dram, com- 

Caurroy (k5r-wa), Fran. Eustache 
du, sieur de St.-Fremin, Gerberoy, 
1549 Paris, 1609; singer and con 

Cavaccio (ka-vat 7 -ch5), Giovanni, 
Bergamo, ca. 1556 Rome, 1626; 

CavaillS-ColL (ka-vl'-yS-k610, Aristide, 
Montpellier, 1811 Paris, 1899; fa- 
mous organ-builder; son of Hya- 
dnthe Cavaille, c. 1771 1862, org.- 
builder and inv. of separate wind- 
chests with different pressures, etc. 

Cavalieri (del ka-val-yaVre), (i) EmiHo 
del, Rome, ca. 1550 March n, 
1602; appointed "Inspector- Gen. of 
Art and Artists" to the Tuscan court; 
advocated non-polyphonic music; his 
" Rap present azione di Anima e di 
Corpo" (Rome, 1600) is the first ora- 
torio. (2) Katherina, Vienna, 1761 
1801; singer, whom Mozart wrote 
for and praised. (3) Lina, b. Rome, 
Dec. 24, 1874; soprano; won noto- 
riety as beauty and singer in caf 6s 
chantants; studied with Mme. Mari- 
ani-Maesi; succ. d^butin "Pagliacci," 
Lisbon, 1900; sang Naples, Warsaw, 
and 1902, at Dal Verme Th., Milan; 
1906, Met. Op.; 1908-9, Manhattan 
Op.; 1915-16, Chicago Op.; m. 

Lucien Muratore, te: v 

Italy, Feb. 8, 1944. 

Lucien Muratore, tenor; d. (air raid) 

ily, " * 
Caval'U, Fran., Crema, Feb. 3:4, 1602 

ATC4Jk JUk, ATAfiUU**, N^JkbJULLCIt, J,*~\J. A^J 4-WW* 

Venice, Jan. 14, 1676 (rightly Pier 
Francesco, Caletti-Bruni), son of 
Giambatt. Caletti, called Bruni, 
Maestro at Crema. A Venetian 
nobleman, Federigo Cavalli, had 
him taught and he took his name. 
He sang at S. Marco, 1665; first 
organist there; 1668, conductor; he 
was a pupil of Monteverde and 
developed M.'s principles, composing 
41 operas, the most succ. being 
"Giasone" (Venice, 1649); "Serse" 
(1654); "Ercole Amante" (Paris, 
1662); he c. also a notable requiem, 
and other church-music. 

Cavallini (le'-nS), Ernesto, Milan, 1807 
187-1; clarinettist and composer. 

Cavos (ka'-vQs), Catterino, Venice, 



1776 St. Petersburg, 1840; 
court-conductor; c. 13 Russian 
operas; also others. 

Cazzati (kSd-za'-t), Maurizio, Man- 
tua, ca, 1620 1677; composer and 

Cecil'ia (Saint), d* Rome, A.D. 230, in 
Christian martyrdom; her feast-day 
is Nov. sad; legendary inventor of 
the organ, and patron saint of Chris- 
tian music. 

Ceffier (s&'-yer), Alfred, Hackney, 
London, Dec. i, 1844 3Dc- 28, 
1891; conductor in London, etc.; c. 
15 operettas, incl. the very succ. 
"Dorothy" (1886); "The Mounte- 
banks" (London, 1802), etc. 

Cerone (cha-ra'-ne 4 ), Bom* P., b. Ber- 
gamo, ca. 1566; theorist. 

Cerreto (chr-r&'-te), Sdpione, Naples, 
1551 ca. 1652; lutist and theorist. 

Certon (sfcr-t$n), P., i6th cent., con- 
trapuntist; choir m. Sainte Chapeile, 

Cert (cha-rooO, Dom. Ag., b. Lucca, 
Aug. 28, 1817; engineer and writer. 

Cerveny (char'-va-ne"), V* F* (Wes?* 
Ffc*) t Dubec, Bohemia, 18x9 KOaig- 
grfctz, Jan. 19, 1806; maker and 
improver of brass instrs. and inv. 
of the important "roller"- cylinder 
mechanism, also of the contrabass 
(1845), metal contrafagotto ('56), 
althorn obbligato ('59), primhorn 
(*73) and the complete waldhom 
quartet (primhorn, fc> alto, waldhorn 
in F, tenor In Bf>, basso, n in Di>), 
subcontrabass and subcontrafagotto; 
improved the family of cornets, the 
euphonion, the screwdrum, and the 
church-kettledrum, etc. 

Cervetti. Vide CBLXNEK* 

Cervetto (ch$r-vt'-t6), (i) Giacomo 
(rightly Bassevi), Italy, ca, 1682 
London, Jan. 14, 1783; 'cellist, (a) 
Giacomo, London* 1749 (?} Feb. 
$, 1837; son of above; 'cellist and 

Cesi (chft'-ze*), Benlamino, Naples, 
Nov. 6, 1845 Jan. 19, 1907; pupil 
of Naples Cons, under Mercaaante 
.-and Pappalardo, pf.-pupil of Thai- 
berg; i866 t prof, Naples Cons.; c. an 
opera, "Vittor JPisani 9 * (not prod,)* 

Cestif (chas'-ta), Marc A. t Areszo, 
1618 Venice, 1669; Franciscan 
monk; conductor and tenor singer; 
first opera, "Qrontea" succ. at Ven~ 
ice, 1649; wrote xo other operas 

mainly succ.; all lost now except "La 
Dori" (Venice, 1663); his cantatas 
are better preserved; he wrote them 
for the stage, 

Chabran (sh&-brn), or Ciabrano 
(cha-br&'-no), Francesco, b* Pied- 
mont, 1733; violinist and comp.; 
1751, toured Europe with success. 

Chabriex (shJLb-rT-a), Alexis Emm., 
Auvergne, Jan, 18, 1841 Paris, 
Sept. 13, 1894; studied law in Paris, 
then music; 1881, choirm., under 
Lamoureux; c. operettas, rhapsodic 
"Espa&a" for orch., etc. After his 
death in 2894 his unfinished opera, 
"Briseis," was given at the Oplra 
Paris, 1809; his opera "Gwendoline** 
(text by Catulle Mendes), at the Op. 
Com., 3911. C. also opera *'* 
Roi malfrt lui" (1887); scena, "a 
Sulamits'; choral, orch. and piano 
works. Memoirs pub. by Sere and 

Chad 'wick, George "Whitefield, LowelL 
Mass., Nov. 13, 1854 Boston, April 
7, 2931; studied organ, etc., under 
Eugene Thayer at Boston; 1876 
head of mus. dept. of Olivet CoU,, 
Mich.; 1877-78 studied Leipzig 
Cons. (Reinecke, Jadassohn), bis 
graduation piece being an overture to 
*Kip Van W**M**> studied at 
Munich with Rhetnberger; 1880, or- 
ganist Boston and teacher of harm,, 
comp. and instrumentation at the N. 
E. Cons.; 1897-1931, dir.; cond 
the Worcester Mus. Festivals, re- 
signed, 1002; c. 3 symphonies, over* 
tares, "Rip Van WinkW* (> 7 $> 
c *r*alw" ($3), "Mdpomtn*" ('87), 
**r** MW*r*s Daughter" (*88); 3 
symphonic sketches for orch.; comic 
opera "r*fcuw" (New York, '94); 
many choral works; "The Colum- 
bian Ode" (Chicago, '03); overtures 
"AdeneW (XQOO); "EitUrpf* 
(1904); "Cleopatra" (1906); sym- 
phonic sketches ( 1 908); theme, varia- 
tions and fugue for organ and orch. 
^909); "Sittfoaittt*" (1910); * 4 5to 
Symphoniavc" for orch. winning $700 
prite of Nat. Federation of Clubs 
fipto); c. also "Afarf" (1909): 
** JLockimarS* ballad for barytone ana 
orch., 1909. "Juditk" lync drama, 
Worcester Fest., 1900; incid. music 
to ^Ewywoman" don); symph. 
poem "Apkrodfa" (Norfolk, XQIJ), 
*'Tam trSkanttr" (19x7); opera 
"MW** Sacrifice" (i9is) S string 
quartets, trio, piano quintet, 



music, songs, etc.; wrote a text-book 
on "Harmony" (Boston, 1898). 

Chaliapine (shal-yH'-pgn), Fedor 
Ivanovich, Kazan, Feb. n, 1873 
Paris, April 12, 1938. Eminent 
Russian bass; pupil of Oussatov, in 
Tiflis; sang in various cities, finally 
at Moscow, and with immense suc- 
cess in European capitals; 1908, 
New York, at Met. Op. in Italian 
r61es, but on his return in 1921 to 
U. S. he established his full artistic 
stature as a powerfully eloquent 
protagonist in "Boris Godounojf," 
and as Mephistopheles, King Philip 
in "Don Carlos," etc.; also a highly 
individual concert singer, mostly of 
Russian songs. 

Challier (shal'-U-Sr), Ernst, Berlin, 
July 9, 1843 Giessen, Sept, 19, 
1914; music-publisher, Berlin. 

Cham'beilain, Houston Stewart, Ports- 
mouth, England, Sept. 9, 1855 
Bayreuth, Jan. 9, 1927; son-in-law 
of Richard Wagner, whose daughter, 
Eva, he m. 1908; renounced British 
citizenship and became German 
subject; son of a British Admiral, 
took doctor's degree in Germany, and 
lived at Vienna because of his health; 
pub. famous book "Richard Wagner" 
(Leipzig, 1892), followed by others. 

Chambonniferes (shan-btin-yar), 
Jacques Champion (called "Cham- 
pion de Chamb."), d. ca. 1670; first 
chamber cembalist to Louis XIV, 

Chaminade (sh&m'-I-n&dO, CScile 
(Louise Stephanie), Paris, Aug. 8, 
x86i Monte Carlo, April 18, 1944; 
noted composer, pianist; pupil of 
Lecouppey, Savard, Marsick and 
Godard; c. the succ. "ballet-sym- 
phonie" "Callirho't" (Marseilles, 
1888); the "symphonie lyrique'' 
4i Les Amasones" (Anvers, 1888): 
a suites for orch.; "Concert-stlick' 5 
for pf. with orch. and many pop. 
songs and pf. -pieces: opera comique, 
"La Sevillancf* etc. 

Cham lee (chamMe), Mario, b. Los 
Angeles, 1892; tenor; Mus. M., Univ. 
of Calif., 1924; studied with Achille 
Albert! and Ricc&rdo Dellera; debut 
Met. Op. Co., 1920, as Cavaradossi 
in "Tosca"; also sang with Scotti and 
Ravinia Op. Cos., and has made 
appearances in concerts and radio 
programmes; m. Ruth Miller, soprano. 

Champeln, (shn~pn), Stanislas, 
Marseilles^ 1753 Paris, 1830; dram, 

Champion (shanp-y6n), Jacques. Vide 

Chanot (shl-no), Fran., Mirecourt, 
1787 Brest, 1823; retired as a naval 
engineer; designed a violin which 
the Academy pronounced equal to 
Stradivari's; his bro., a Paris luth- 
ier, manufactured it, but found it im- 

Chapi (y Lorente) (cb-pe' e 16 rSn'-t), 
Ruperto, Villena, March 27, 1851 
Madrid, March 25, 1909; pupil 
Madrid Cons.; c. operas and 78 
zarzuelas; also a symph.; oratorio, 

Chap 'man, William Rogers, Hanover, 
Mass., Aug. 4, 1855 Palm Beach, 
Fla., March 27, 1935; composer, 
choral conductor; founded and led 
Apollo Club of New York; after 
1897, the Maine Festivals in Bangor 
and Portland; and the Rubinstein 
Club, a N. Y. women's chorus, 
which had a continuous existence 
under his baton from 1887. 

Chap 'pell & Co., music-publishers, 
London; founded 1812 by (i) Sam- 
uel C., the pianist, Cramer, and F. 
T. Latour (1809 1888). (2) Wm. 
C. became the head of the firm; in 
1:840 he founded the "Antiquarian 
Society," and pub. colls, of old EngL 
music. His brothers, (3) Thomas, 
founded, and (4) Arthur, conducted, 
the Monday and Saturday Pop. Con- 

Chap 'pie, Samuel, Crediton (Devon), 
i?75 Ashburton, 1833; organist and 
pianist, blind from infancy; com- 

Chapuis (sh&p-we 1 ), Aug. Paul J. 
Bap., Dampierre-sur-Sa6ne, France, 
April 20, 1862 Paris, Dec., 1933; 
pupil of Dubois, Massenet, and 
C6sar Franck, Paris Cons., took 
first prize in harm., ist prize for org., 
and the Rossini prize; organist at 
Saint Roch.; from 1894, prof, of 
harm, at the Cons.; 1895, inspector- 
gen, of music instruction in Paris 
schools; c. unsucc. lyric drama 
" Enguerrande" (Op. Com., 1892); 
lyric drama "Tancred" (Op. Com., 
1898 ?); an oratorio; a pf, -suite "on 
the oriental scale/' etc.; pub. a 
treatise on harm. 

Char (khar), Fr. Ernst ("Fritz"), 
Cleves-on-Rhein, May 5, 1865 
Velden, Sept. 21, 1932; pupil of 
C. JCistler, Wullner and Neitzel; 
cond. opera at Zwickau, Stettin, and 



St. Gallen; later at Ulm; wrote book 
and music of succ. opera "Der 
Schelm von Bcrgen" (Zwickau, 1895); 
c. cantata "Spidmann" etc. 

Chard, G. W. 9 ca. 1765 May 23, 
1849; English organist and com- 

Charpentier (sh&r-pant-y5), (i) Marc 
A., Paris, 1634 March, 1704; con- 
ductoi to the Dauphin; c. 16 operas 
for the stage and many "tragedies 
spirituelles" for the Jesuits, masses, 
etc. (2) Gustave, b. Dieuze, Lor- 
raine, June 25, 1860; pupil of Mas- 
sart, Pessard, and Massenet, Paris 
Cons.; 1887, took grand prix de 
Rome; c. orch. suite "Impressions 
d'ltalie"; scene Ivrique "Dido*"i 
symphonic drama (or concert opera) 
< f La Vie du Poete" (Grand Opera, 
1892), and "Italic*" (Hamburg, 
1902): symph* poem ** NapolF 
(1891); book and music of succ, 
opera " Louise^' impressionistic 
stud^r of poet life in Montmartre. 
premiere Op.-Comique, 1900, ana 
heard at Manhattan Op. 7 N. Y., 
1907, with Mary Garden, and with 
Farrar at Met. Op., 1921; he wrote 
a sequel. "Jitlicn** Op.-Com*, 19x3, 
also at Met. Op., with Farrar and 
Caruso, but not succ.; also c* 
"Marie" "Orpk6e>" and "T&c 
Rouge,'* unprod.; and songs, **Le$ 
Fleurs du Mai," "Quin** primes**- 
some of them with chorus and orches- 
tra. He founded Cercle Mimi Pin- 
son and Cons, of same name for 
working girls. 

Chasing (ch&s'-tas), Abram, b. New 
York, Aug. 17, 1903; pianist, com- 
poser; studied piano with Hutcheson, 
Hofmann and others; composition 
with Rubin Gold mark; debut as 
soloist with Phila. Orch., 1929, play- 
ing his own concerto; member of 
piano faculty, Curtis Inst., Phila.; 
has composed numerous piano pieces, 
some of which he has arranged tor 
orch.; his "Parade" and "In a Chines* 
Garden" played by N. Y. Philh. 

Chat'terton, J B., Norwich* x8o$ * 
London, 1871; court-harpist and 

Chauxnet (sha-ma), J. B. Waou, Bor- 
deaux, April 26, 1843 Gajac, 
Gironde, Oct, a8, *0<>3; won the 
Prix Cressent, with the comic opera 
"Baltafo" (prod. 1877), also the 
Prix Rossini; c, comic operas; lyric 
drama "Mauprat" (MS.), etc. 

Chausson (sh5s-s6n), Ernest, Paris, 
June 21, 1855 (killed in bicycle 
accident), Limay n. Mantes, June 
xo, 1899; pupil of Massenet and 
C6sar Franck; c. symph.; symph. 
poems "Vimaae" and'^JLes caprices de 
Marianne"; operas " 8dcnt," "Le roi 
Arthus" (Brussels, 1903; text by 
the composer); songs and piano 
pieces; "jPv&me de I' Amour et de la 
Mcr," and "Chanson PtrpetucUc," 
dram, scenas; lyric scene, "Jeanne 
d'Arc"; "Un Soir de /" and 
"Solitude dans le Bets" for orch.; 
piano and vln. concertos; string 
quartet; piano quartet; string trio; 
and popular "Poime 9 * for via. and 
orch. A highly individual genius. 
Memoir by r& 

Chauvet (sh6-va), Chas. Aleuris, 
Mamies, June 7, 1837 Argentaa, 
Jan. 28, 2871; organist; c. note- 
worthy org.-music. 

Cfcavanne (shfi-vJLn'-n*), Irdne von, 
b- Gratz, 1868; contralto; pupil 
Vienna Cons., 1882-85; 1885 at the 
Dresden Court-opera. 

Chavez (ch&'-vth), Carlos, b. Mexico 
City, June 13, 1899; composer, con- 
ductor; studied with Manuel Ponce 
and Pedro Ogazon, also in Europe; 
founded and led Symph. Orch. of 
Mexico after 4928: same year ap- 
pointed dir. of Nat'l. Cons, of 

extco, resigned 1034; guest cond, 
of Boston and Phil** Ore ha., 1936; 
N* Y, Philh.j 4937; c, modern style 
works of originality, incl, (ballet) 
"B. P." ("Horsepower"), staged by 
Stokowskl in Phila., 2932; (orch.) 
"Sinfonia de Anti&ona** sonatinas 
for various chamber combinations; 
piano sonata, etc. 

Chaath'axn, Kitty, b. Nashville* Tenn., 
merxo-soprano; esp. known for her 
concerts of folk music and children's 
songs; ed two collections of these 
works; res, in New York for some 
years; d. Greenwich, Conn,, 2946. 

Chelard (shtt-l&r), Hippolyte Andr* 
J. Bap,, Paris, Feb. i, 1789 Wei- 
mar, Feb. ia, tS6i; 1815, prod* his 
first opcr&> "La Casa a Vtndcre" 
Naples; entered the Paris Operatic 
orch as violinist: in 1827 Bis opera 
"M acbcik" (text by Rouget de Lisle) 
was prod but failed; he went to 
Munich, and x8aS prod, a revised 
version of "Mat folk" with such 
succ. that he was made court* 
conductor, he returned to Pari*. 



1829, and failed with 3 other operas; 
conducted the German Opera in Lon- 
don, which failed; returned to Mu- 
Aich, and prod, his best work, "Die 
Hermannsschlackt" 1835; ^836, 
court-conductor at Weimar, where 
he prod. 2 comic operas. 

Chelleri (kSl'4-r), Fortunato (rightly 
Keller), Parma, 1686 Cassel, 1757; 
court-conductor and dram, com- 

Chemin-Petit (shu-m3,n-pti-te'), Hans, 
d. Potsdam, 1917; c. operas, including 
"Der Licbc Augustiri" (Brandenburg, 

Che?! (sha-rS), Victor (rightly Cizos), 
Auxerre, 1830 suicide, Paris, 1882; 
cond. and dram, composer. 

Gherkass'ky, Shura, b. Odessa, Oct. 
7, 191 1 ; pianist; studied with Josef 
Hofmann; d6but as youthful pianist 
prodigy; developed into excellent 
performer of mature ability; has 
appeared with leading orchs. and as 
recitalist, in many Eur. and Amer. 
cities, also extensive tours of Russia 
and Far East. 

Cherniav'sky, (i) Jan, b. Odessa, 
Tune , 1802; pianist; pupil of 
Leschetifcky^ Vienna; founded Cher- 
nlavsky Trio with his brothers, (2) 
Leo (b. Odessa, Aug. 30, 1890), 
violinist, who was pupil of Wilhelmj; 
and (3) Michel (b. Odessa, Nov. 2, 
1893), 'cellist, pupil of Popper. 
Tours in U. S. and other countries. 

Chernbini (k-roo-be"-n6) (M.) Ltiigi 
(Carlo Zenobio Salvatore), Flor- 
ence, Sept. 14, 1760 Paris, March 
15, 1842; one of the greatest masters 
of counterpoint; pupil of his father, 
(cembalist, at the Pergola Th.), then 
of B. and A. Felici, Bizarri and Cas- 
trucci; 1779 sent (under patronage of 
the future Emperor Leopold III.) to 
Milan, to study cpt. with Sarti; at 
13, had c. a mass and an intermezzo 
for a society theatre; at i$, another 
intermezzo; 1780, "Quinto Fabio"* 
was prod, without succ. though 
with better results in a revised 
version (1783); he had succ, with 6 
other operas, and was in 1784 invited 
to Lonaon, where he prod, an opera 
buff a, with some success, and another 
with none; he was court composer 
for one year; 1788 he prod. *'Ifigenia 
in Aulide" at Turin; and then lived 
In Paris, where his French opera 
"Dtmophon" (Grand Opra, 1788) 
{ailed; ne then cond. at a small opera 

house, until 1792. His opera 
"Lodoiska"- 1791, showed a new 
style of emotional strength, powerful 
ensemble, and novel orchestral colour 
that founded a school of imitators. 
7 other operas and a ballet followed, 
incl. his masterpiece (1800), "Les 
deux journ$es" (in Germany called 
"Der Wassertr&ger"; in England, 
"The Water-carrier"). *795 be had 
been made one of the inspectors of 
the new Cons., Paris, but was not 
liked by Napoleon, whose musical 
opinion he had not flattered. On 
invitation he wrote for Vienna 
"Faniska," a great succ. (1806); an 
invitation to write a mass for the 
Prince of Chimay resulted in the 
famous 3-part mass in F. He wrote 
4 more operas, but found church- 
music more satisfactory. 1815, 
visited London; wrote a symphony, 
an overture, and a Hymn to Spring, 
for the Philh. Soc. After many 
vicissitudes he became in 1816 prof, 
of comp. at the Cons., Paris, and 
1821-41 dir. His enormous list 
of works includes 15 Italian -and 14 
French operas, 17 cantatas, n sol- 
emn masses, 2 requiems, i oratorio; 
i symphony, i overture; 6 string 
quartets; 6 pf. -sonatas, and a mass 
of smaller works, mus. for pf., etc. 
The best biog. is by Bellasis (Lon- 
don, 1874). 

Chessin (chSs'-s$n), Alexander Boris-* 
sovich, b. St. Petersburg Oct. 19, 
1869; conductor; pupil of the Cons., 
and of Nikisch at Leipzig; 1901, 
cond. at St. Petersburg and 1903 of 
Philharmonic concerts at Moscow; 
c. cantata, etc. 

Chev6 (shu-va), Ernile Jos. Maurice, 
Douarnenez, Finistere, 1804 1864; 
a physician; wrote pamphlets attack- 
ing the methods at the Paris Cons. 
His wife (ne'e Manine, Paris) col- 
laborated with him. 

Chevillard (shu-vS-y&r) , Caanille, Paris, 
Oct. 14, 1859 ^ a y 30, 1923; pupil 
of G. Mathias; took 2d pf. prize at 
Cons.; till 1886, asst.-cond. of the 
Lamoureux Concerts; 1897, cond.; 
after 1907, prof, at Paris Cons.; 1913 
also concert master at the Op6ra; 
1903, won Prix Chartier for chamber 
music; pres., Chamber Mus. Soc.; 
Officier of Public Instruction and 
mem. of the Legion of Honour; c. a 
symph. ballade, "Le Mne ct U 
toseau"; a symph. poem, a symph. 



fantasie; incid. mus. to "La Rous- 
salka, (1903); allegro for horn and 
piano, 1905; piano pieces and songs; 
2 string quartets, trio, piano quintet, 
sonatas for vln. and for 'cello, etc. 

Chiaromonte (kS-ar-e-mdn'-te*), Fran. 
Castrogofovanni, 1809 Brussels. 
1886; tenor; prof, of singing and 
dram, composer. 

Chick 'ering & Sons, American firm of 
pf.-makers, est. 1823, by (i) Jonas 
Cbickering (New Ipswich, K. H., 

1798 Boston, 1853); an< * his sons 
(2) Col. Thos. E. C. (Boston, 1824 
1871), (3) Geo* H. (1830-06), and 
(4) C, Frank (1827-91). Last was 
named Chev. of the Legion of 
Honour, and took first pf.-prize at 
the Paris Exposition, 1867. In 
1908 the firm was merged with tke 
Amer. Piano Co. 

Cfcild, Win-, Bristol, 1606 Windsor, 
1697; organist. 

Chilesotti (ke-la-sot'-te), Oscars, 
Bassano, Italy, July xa, 1848 Jume 
00, 19x6; law graduate Padua Univ.; 
flutist and 'cellist; self-taught in 
harm.; lived in Milan; wrote impor- 
tant historical works* 

Chipp, Edm. Thos. (Mus. Doc.), 
London, 1833 Nice, 1886; organist. 

Chladni (khl&t'-n*), Ernst Florens 
Fr., Wittenberg, Nov. 3o t 2756 
Breslau, April 3, 1827; prof, of law 
and investigator in physics and 
%cou&tics; discovered the sound- 
figures which sand assumes on a 
vibrating plate, and which bear bis 
name; mv the euphonium and 
clavicylinder (v. D.D.). 

Chollet (shol-Ia), T. B. M,, b. Paris, 
May, 1798; violinist and singer in 

Chop (kh6p), Max, Grcuszen, Thu- 
titigia, May 17, 1862 Berlin, Dec. 
20, igso; mus. writer* critic in Berlin, 
under the name "Monsieur Charles": 
c. piano concerto, etc. Was ed. of 
the "5ifM&r," Berlin mus. pub?i- 
^ation, M. Celeste Groenvelt, 

Chopin ( (FrajQpoIs) Frdric, 
Zelazowa Wola (Teliasovaya Volia), 
near Warsaw, Feb. 22, xHto Paris, 
Oct. 17, 1840; eminent composer for 
the piano; son of Nicholas C. (a 
native of Nancy, France, who was 
at first bookkeeper in a cigar factory, 
then teacher in the Warsaw Gym- 
nasium), and a Polish woman (ne'e 
Justine Kryxanowska). C* studied 

at his father's private school, among 
young Polish noblemen; Albert 
Zwyny taught him pf. and Joseph 
Eisner, harm., etc. At 9 he piayed 
in public a pf.-concerto and im- 
provisations; c. polonaises, mazur- 
kas, and waltzes; in 1825, pub. as 
op. i a rondo; op. 2 a fantasie with 
orch. He played in German cities 
and had at xp an individual style 
of comp., having written his 2 pf.- 
concertos, mazurkas, nocturnes, 
rondos, etc. He started for London, 
and played in Vienna, 1820, wixh 
such success that a critic called him 
"one of the most remarkable meteors 
blazing on the musical horizon": and 
at Pans he had such succ. in his first 
concert, 1831, that he settled there 
for life as a teacher of the pi* and 
occasional giver of concerts. His 
pupils were of the most aristocratic. 
ana his friends included Liszt, Ber- 
lioz, Meyerbeer, Bellini, Balzac, and 
Heine. Schumann with typical spon- 
taneity (cf. BRAHMS) was moved in 
183? by Chopin's op, 2 to say, "Hats 
off gentlemen: a genius"; and ia 
1839, in reviewing certain of his 
preludes, mazurkas, and valses, to 
say "He is and remains the keenest 
and staunchest poet-soul of the 
time." C.'s liaison with Mme. 
Dudevant ("George Sand"), begun 
m 1836 and ended IB 1844, has 
caused endless controversy. 111183$ 
an attack of bronchitis drove him to 
Majorca, where she seems tc have 
been a devoted nurse, but the 
peevishness and weakness due to his 
developing consumption caused bit- 
ter quarrels, and she Is believed to 
have caricatured him as Prince Karo! 
in her novel "Lutrcxia Fl&riam***- 
Concert tours and social life in 
England and Scotland in 1841-49 
destroyed his strength. 
His comps. include beside those 
mentioned (74, with opus- number 
xa lacking); "Don Gunanni," fan- 
tasia, op. a; "&ra0wd," rondo, 
op* 14; jb Polonaise, op. 22; and a 
fantasia on Polish airs for pf. with 
orch; duo concertant on themes 
from "Robert le Diablc 1 *', an in trod. 
et Polonaise, op. 3, and a sonata* o. 
65 for pf. and 'cello; pf, trio, op, 
and a rondo for apis. op. 73. F 
PF. SOLO: Allegro dc C(mcrri; 4 
ballades; barcarolle* op, 60; ber- 
ceuse,, op. 57; bolero, op* 19; 3 ecofi- 



saises, op. 72; 12 grandes Etudes, op. 
10; 12 6tudes, op. 25; 3 Etudes; 4 
fantasies; 3 impromptus; marche 
fun&bre, op. 72; 52 mazurkas. "Mor- 
ceau de concert sur la Marche des 
Puritains de Bellini"', 19 nocturnes, 
ii polonaises; 24 preludes, op. 28; 
pr61ude, op. 45; 3 rondos; 4 scherzos; 
3 sonatas; tarantelle, op. 43; 13 
valses; variations on "Je vends des 
scaptdaires" op. 12; "Variation 
dans I* Hexameron"; 16 Polish songs 
op. 74- 

A collection of his letters was pub. 
(Dresden, 1877). A collection by 
Opienski was tr. into English by 
Voynich and pub. 1931. His many 
biographers include Liszt, M. Kara- 
sowski (Dresden, 1877), M. A. Aud- 
ley, Fr. Niecks (Leipzig, 1889). 
Other studies by Iluneker, Finck, 
Bidou, Dry, J. P. Dunn, Hadden, 
Jachimecki, Kelley, Kleczynski, 
Maine, Murdoch, Pourtales, Tar- 
nowski, Niggli, Schucht, Willeby, 
Hoesick (3 vols.), Leichtentritt, 
Opienski, Poire"e, Redenbacher, 
Weissmann, Ganche, Scharlitt, etc. 
(See article, page 490.) 

Chorley, H. Fothergill, Blackley 
Hurst, Lancashire, 1808 London, 
1872; critic and widely travelled 

Choron (sh6-r6n), Alex. Et., Caen, 
Oct. 21, 1772 Paris, June 29, 1834; 
an ardent student of musical theory 
and practice, historian and bene- 
factor who devoted his fortune to 
the advance of the art. 

Chotzinoff (kh6t '-zS-n6f ) , Samuel , pian- 
ist, critic; toured as accompanist with 
Heifetz and Zimbalist; former mus. 
critic., N. Y. "World"; critic, N. Y. 
"Post" after 1934; author "Eroica," 
novel based on life of Beethoven. 

Choudens (shoo-dSLns), A., Paris, 1849 
1902; son of a music publisher; c. 
2 operas, "Graziella" (Paris, 1877), 
and "La Jeunesse de Don Juan" etc. 

Chouquet (shoo-ka), Ad. Gv., Havre, 
1819 Paris, 1886; teacher and 
writer of historical works. 

Chris'tiansen, F. Melius, b. Eidsvold, 
Norway, April t, 1871; choral con- 
ductor and composer; pupil of Oscar 
Hansen, in organ and conducting, at 
Larvik; came to America, 1888; later 
studied at Northwestern Cons, and 
at Leipzig Cons.; after 1903 dir. of 
mus. at St. Olaf Coll., Northfi^ld, 
Minn., where he has led the notable 

St. Olaf Choir; c. and arr. choral 
music; wrote books on theory. 

Chris'tie, Winifred, Scottish pianist; 
studied R. Coll. of Music, London, 
winning Liszt scholarship; also 
studied in Leipzig; and with Harold 
Bauer; toured in Eur. countries; res. 
in America 1915-19; later returned 
here for tours; plays double-keyboard 
piano invented by Emanuel Mo6r 
(1863 1931), whom she married. 

Christ'mann, Jn. Fr., Ludwigsburg, 
Wiirtemberg, 1752 Heutingsheim, 
1817; composer and writer. 

Chrysander (kre"-zant-e"r), Fr., Liib- 
theen, Mecklenburg, July 8, 1826 
Bergedorf, Sept. 3, 1901; editor and 
writer of the standard biography of 
Handel, and with Gervinus of the 
monumental H.-Gesellchaft edition 
of that master's works. 

Chrysan'thos of Madyton; writer i9th 
century; teacher of church singing, 
Constantinople, later Archbishop 
of Durazzo in Albania. 

Chvala (shva'-la), Emanuel, Prague 
Jan. i, 1851 Oct. 31, 1924; pupil 
of F5rster and Fibich; historian and 
c. of chamber music, etc. 

Chwatal (khwa'-tal), Fz. Xaver, Rum- 
burg, Bohemia, 1808 Eimen (Sool- 
bad), 1879; teacher and composer. 

Chybinski (khe-ben'-yS-shkX), Adolf, 
b. Cracow, March 29, 1880; historian 
of Polish music; after 1912 taught 
at Lemberg U.; d. Oct. 31, 1952. 
* Ciaja (cha'-ya), Azzolino Bdo. della, 
b. Siena, 1671; organist, amateur 
org.-builder, and composer. 

Ciampi (cham'-p5), Legrenzio V., b. 
Piacenza, 1719; dram, composer. 

Cianchettini (chan-kSt-tg'-ng), (i) Ver- 
onica (n6e Dussek), Czaslau, Bo- 
hemia, 1779; composer and teacher. 
(2) Pio, London, 1799 1840; son of 
above; composer and pianist; first 
appearance at 5 years; at 10 per- 
formed an original concerto in public. 

Gibber (sflb'-bfcr), Susanna M. (ne'e 
Arne), 1714 1766; great English 
actress and notable singer, sister of 
Dr. Arne. 

Ciconia (ch*-kSn'-ya), Johannes, 
canon at Padua about 1400; theorist 
and comp. 

Cifra (che'-fra), A., Rome, 1584 
Loreto, 1629; important composer 
of the Roman School; pupil of 
Palestrina and B. Nanim; court- 
Cigna (chSn'-ya), Gina; dramatic so- 



prano, of French-Italian ancestry; 
early studied piano, composition 
and theory at Paris Cons.; awarded 
gold medal; later instruction in sing- 
ing; after 1928 active as vocalist; 
from 1930 mem. of La Scala; has 
also sung at Paris Op., Rome Teatro 
Reale and Augusteo, Budapest Op., 
Teatro Colon (Buenos Aires), Teatro 
Municipal (Rio de Janeiro), and in 
many Italian cities; created title 
role in Respighi's "La Fiamma" at 
Milan; sang Norma at centenary 
festival of Bellini in Catania; and 
Gioconcla at La Scala on Ponchielli 
centenary; engaged for Met. Op., 
N. Y., 1936-37- 

Cilfea (ch5M-a), Francesco, b, Palmi, 
July 29, 1866 Vareza&e, Nov. 20, 1950; 
comp.; at 9 had c. a notturno and a 
mazurka; at is entered the Naples 
Cons.; while yet a student he Had 
success with a suite for orch., and 
a 3-act opera "Gina" (1889); 1896- 
1904, professor at Royal Institute, 
Florence; 1913-16, air. Palermo 
Cons,; from 1917 of Naples Cons.; 
c. operas "La Tilda* (1892); 
"UArlcsiana" (Milan. 1896); "Adri- 
an* Ltcouvreur" (MUan, 1902, 
Covent Garden, 1904); "Gloria," 
(La Scala* Milan > 1907); also "JPoema 
Sinfemica"; orch. suite, piano trio, 
'cello sonata, etc. 

Clmarosa (cha-mfc-rS'-sa), Domenico, 
A versa, near Naples, Dec. 17, 1749 
Venice, Jan. n, 1801; the orphan of 
a poor mason; studied at Minorite 
charity-school, his first teacher being 
Polcano, monastery organist; when 
x a years old was given a scholarship 
in the Cons, di S. Maria di Loreto, 
where he studied singing with Manna 
and Sacchini, cpt. with Fenaroli, 
and comp, with Piccinni, 1770 his 
oratorio "Giuditta" was prod, in 
Rome; 1772, his first opera, *** 
Siravaganzo del Conte" at Naples, 
without succ., which was won, how- 
ever, next year by "La Finta Pari- 
gina" Of phenomenal facility, he 
c. 76 operas in 39 years. He lived 
alternately in Rome and Naples* 
1781, he prod, two operas in Naples, 
one in Kome, and two in Turin; 
invited 1789 to be court-composer at 
St. Petersburg (vice Paesxeilo), he 
spent 5 months of triumphal progress 
thither, being lionised at various 
courts; he stayed there 3 years, prod. 
3 operas ana wrote 500 pieces of 

music for the court; but he could not 
tolerate the climate, and was re- 
luctantly released, being engaged 
as cond. to Emperor Leopold at 
Vienna, with a salarv of 12,000 
florins. He prod. 3 operas incl. his 
masterpiece "II Matrimoniv Segrcto" 
(1787), which won an all-effacing 
success. 1793, he returned to 
Naples. 1799, he took part in the 
Neapolitan revolutionary demonstra- 
tion on the entrance of the French 
army, and was condemned to death 
by King Ferdinand, but banished in- 
stead; he died suddenly at Venice, 
It being everywhere claimed that he 
had been poisoned by order of Queen 
Caroline of Naples, the Pope's phy- 
sician made an examination, and 
swore that he died of a gangrenous 
abdominal tumour. Particularly in 
comic, but at times also in serious 
opera, C* almost challenges compari- 
son with Mozart for fluency of 
melody and orchestral richness. His 
best operas are "La Finta" (Naples, 
*773) "L* Italian* in Londra" 
(Rome, 1774), **// Fanatico per g*i 
Aniichi Roman*** (Naples, 1777), 
In which were introduced dra- 
matically vocal-trios and quartets, 
"La Ballerina AmanU" (Naples, 
1782), "Le Trame Ddusc" (Naples, 
1786), "L'Impresario in Angustit" 
(Naples, 1786), "Ciannina e Berxa- 
donS' (Naples, 3788), "La Vergin* 
del Sate" (St, Petersburg, 1791). 
"11 Matrimonio Se^rrln" (Vienna, 
3792), "Le Astusic FtmminW (Na- 
ples, 1794). He also prod, a orato- 
rios, 7 symphonies, several cantatas: 
masses, etc. 

Cimial (ch!'-mt-nC) f Pietro, b. Carpi 
(Modena), Italy* 1876; conductor; 
studied at the Bologna Liceo with 
Sarti. DatTOlio and Marlucci; early 
active as violinist; cond. opera m 
Italy, Warsaw (1910-14), also in 
Russia, at Madrid Keale, Chicago 
Auditorium, Manhattan Op. House, 
New York; later for some years on 
the Pacific Coast. 

Cippllini (ch-p6M*'-n) y Gaetano, 
Tropea, Italy, Feb. S f 1857 Milan, 
Oct. 2, 2935; pupil of Francesco 
Coppa; lived at Milan as dram, 

Cirri (chr'-r). (t) IgaazJo, organist 
and comp.; his son (a) Giovanni 
Baptista, D. Forli, ca. 1740; 'cellist: 
spent many years in London, then 



returned to Italy; c. important 
'cello music. 

Cisneros (sfe-n&'-rSs), Eleanora de 
(ne Broadfoot), New York, Nov. i, 
1880 Feb. 3, 1934; soprano; studied 
with Mme. Murio-Celli, and made 
dbut as Rossweise in "Die Walktire" 
at Met. Op. House, 1900; later 
studied with Jean de Reszke, Maurel, 
Trabadello and Lombardi; after 
1902, sang widely in Europe, South 
and Central America, and Australia; 
1906-08, Manhattan Op. House, 
N. Y.; sang "Clytemnestra*' in "Etek- 
fra" at Milan; after 1910 with Chi- 
cago Op. 

Claassen (klSs'-sSn), Arthur, Stargard, 
Prussia, Feb. 19, 1859 San Fran- 
cisco, March 16, 1920; graduated 
from Danzig Gym.; 1875, studied 
under MuHer-Hartung, Gottschalk 
and Sulze, Weimar Music School; 
1880-84, cond. Gottingen and 
Magdeburg; 1884, cond. "Arion"- 
and other societies of Brooklyn, 
N, Y.; est. the "Claassen Mus. 
Inst."; after 1910 active as choral 
and orch. cond., San Antonio, Tex.: 
c. choruses, incl. "Der Kamerad" 
(prize), and symph, poem " Hohen~ 
friedberg" etc. 

dig 'get, Chas., London, 1755 1820; 
violinist and inventor. 

Clapisson (kl&-pfe-s6n), Antoine L, 
Naples, 1808 Paris, 1866; violinist, 
professor and dram, composer. 

Clapp, Philip Greeley, b. Boston, Aug. 
4, 1888: composer, educator; grad. 
Harvard Univ., magna cum laude; 
cond. Pierian Sodality there; studied 
in Europe as Sheldon Fellow of that 
Univ.; Ph.D.; dir. of music, Dart- 
mouth Coll., 1915-19; after latter 
year prof, of mus., Univ. of Iowa: 
for a time associated with Juilliard 
Foundation, N, Y.; c. symph., 
choral works, etc., two of former 
perf . Boston; d. Apr. 9, 1954- 

Clari (kla'-rS), Giov. M., Pisa, 1669 
Pistoia, ca. 1754; conductor and 

Clar'ibeL Vide MRS. CHAS. BARNARD. 

Clark(e), (x) Jeremiah, London, 1670 
(?), ca. 1707; organist and dram, 
composer; a suicide for love. (2) 
Richard, Datchet (Bucks), 1780 
London, 1856; composer and writer. 

Clarke, (t) Jas. Peyton, Scotland, 
1808 Toronto, Canada, 1877: or- 
ganist and professor. (2) Hugh 

Archibald, Toronto, Aug. 15 1839 
Philadelphia, Dec. 16, 1927; son 
of above; organist in Philadelphia 
churches; 1875, prof, of music in the 
Univ. of Pennsylv.; made Mus. Doc. 
(1886) by the Univ. when his music 
to Aristophanes' "Acharnians" was 
prod.; also c. an oratorio, "Jeru- 
salem" (Phila., 1891), etc. (3) J. 
(Whitfield-Clarke), Gloucester, Eng- 
land, 1770 Holmer, 1836; organist, 
professor and editor. (4) James 
Hamilton Smee, Birmingham, Eng- 
land, Jan. 25, 1840 Banstead, July 
9, 1912; at 12 organist; 1866 at 
Queen's College, Oxford; Mus. Bac,, 
1867; cond. various theatres: 1893, 
cond. Carl Rosa Opera Co.; c. 
operettas, 2 symphonies, etc. (5) 
WHDU Horatio, Newton, Mass., March 
8, 1840 Reading, Mass., 1913; 
1878-87, organist at Tremont Tem- 
ple, Boston, then retired to Reading, 
Mass., where he had an estate and 
a chapel of music, Clarigold Hall, 
containing a large 4-manual orgjan 
with 100 stops; wrote 15 instructive 
works "Outline of the Structure of the 
Pipe-Organ" (1877), et c. (6) Maria 
Victoria (Cowden-Clarke). Vide 
NOVBLLO. (7) Rebecca, b. Harrow, 
England, Aug. 27, 1886; composer 
and 'cellist; studied with Stanford 
at R. Coll. of Music; after 1916 she 
visited New York as performer; c. 
chamber music, her piano trio being 
awarded a Coolidge Prize. 

Clarus (kla'-roos), Max., Mtihlberg- 
on- Elbe, March 31, 1852 Bruns- 
wick, Dec. 12, 1916; pupil of his 
father, the municipal mus. dir. there, 
and of Haupt, Schneider, and 
L5schora, Berlin; cond. in various 
German, Austrian and Hungarian 
theatres; 1890, mus. dir. Bruns- 
wick court; from 1884 cond. the 
"Orpheus," and from 1890 the 
"Chorgesangverein"; c. "Patriotic 
spectacular" opera, "Des Grossen 
KSnigs Rekrut" (Brunswick, 1889); 
succ. romantic opera "Use" (Bruns- 
wick, 1895); *'Der wunschpeter" 
(1910), "Hans Dauinling" (1911), 
"Der Zwerg Nase" (1912), choral 
works, ballets, etc. 

Clasing (kla'-zlng), Jn. H., Hamburg, 
1779 1829; teacher and dram, com- 

Claudin (kl5-dS,n), (i). Vide SERMISY. 
(2) Le Jeune. Vide L&JEUNE. 

Claus'sen, Julia, (ne Ohlson), b. 



Stockholm, 1879-1941; contralto; 
studied R, Acad. in native" city; 
d^but there at R. Op., 1903; mem. 
Chicago Op., 1912-17; after 1917 
sang for some years with Met. Op, 
Co., N. Y., esp. in Wagnerian r61es. 

Clausz-Szarvady (klows'-shar-v&'-ds), 
WUhelmine, Prague, 1834 Paris, 
1907: pianist. 

Clave" (kl&-v5/)r Jos6 Anselxno, Barce- 
lona, April 21, 1824 Feb., 1874; 
founder of male choral societies in 
Spain; c. very popular songs and 

Clavijo Del Castillo (kl^-vS'-hS del 
kas-tel'-yd), Bernardo, d. Madrid, 
Feb. 2626; Spanish organist and 

Clay, Ft. (of English parents), Paris, 
1840 Great Marlow, near London, 
1889; dram, composer. 

CJegg, J., Ireland (probably), *7t4 
Nisane, 1742; remarkable violhiist 
and composer* 

Clem'ens, Jacob (called **CL Won 
Papa ) (i.e., "not the Pope" Clement 
VII.) ; d, ca 1557 (?); played several 
instrs. and composed. 

Clem 'ens, Charles Edwin, b. Deven- 
port, England, March is, *8$8~ 
Cleveland, O. Dec. 27, 1933; organ- 
ist; 1889 1895, organist at the 
English church, ana to Empress 
Frederick in Berlin, and teacher at 
Scharwenka Cons.; then moved to 
Cleveland, Ohio; prof. Western 
Reserve Univ.; author of organ- 

Clement (kl&'-mgnt), FJC., Vienna, 
1780 1842; violinist and dram. 

Citexeat (klft-mftft), (i) F61ix, Paris, 
1823 1885; organist, (a) Edmond, 
France, 1867 Nice, Feb. 33, 1928; 
eminent lyric tenor; early made succ. 
at Paris Op.-Cormque; 1909-10, 
sang at Met. Op. House; 3911-13, 
with Boston Op. Co*; after the war 
returned to U, S. for concert tour. 

Dementi (kla-meV-t), Muzio, Rome, 
*7$a near Evcsham, England, 
March xo, 1832; son of a goldsmith 
and musical amateur who had him 
taught by A- Buroni, then by the 
organist Condicclli. At 9 he was 
chosen as an organist in competition 
with older players; until 14, studied 
under G. Carpani (comp.) and Sar- 
tartelli (voice); 1766, an Englishman 
tamed Beckford secured permission 
\> educate him in England, and till 

1770 he lived and studied in Dorset* 
shire; then made a sensation as 
pianist in London. 1773, pub. pf.- 
sonatas dedicated to Haydn, and 
highly praised by Emmanuel Bach; 
1777-80, cembalist at the Italian 
Opera; 1781 toured the continent, 
meeting Mozart in "f riendly" rivalry, 
without victory for either; lived in 
London, 2783-1802; he amassed a 
fortune as a teacher, pianist and 
composer in spite of losses from the 
failure of Longman and Broderip, 
instr.- makers; he estab. a succ. 
piano-factory and pub. house (now 
Coilard's) * 1 8oa, he made a brilliant 
tour with his pupil Field; he taught 
other famous pupils, incl. Moscheles, 
Kalkbrenner, Meyerbeer, His 
comps* incl. symphonies and over* 
tures; 106 pf, -sonatas (46, with vln^ 
'cello, or flute); fugues, preludes, 
and exercises in canon form, tocca- 
tas, etc. His book of Etudes, the 
u Cradu3 ad Pam&ssum," 18 it 7, is a 
standard; biog. by Giov. Fro jo 
(Milan, 1878); O. Chilesotti (Milan, 
x88a) f and Clement (Paris, 1878). 

Ci&ambault (kla-r*a-bo), Lots!* 
Nicolas, Paris, 16761749; organist 
and comp. 

Ol&ice (klA-rts), Justin, Buenos Aires, 
Oct. *6, 1863 Toulouse, Sept, 1908; 
x88a, pupil of D&ibes and Peseard, 
Paris Cons.; lived in Paris; prod, 
comic operas, etc. 

!*? (k!6v), (0 Johannes De, Cleve 
(?) 1539 Augsburg, isSa; court 
tenor at Vienna and Prague; c. 
church music; (a) Half dan, b, Kong** 
berg, Norway, Oci* 5, 1 879: pianist: 
pupil of his father and of Kaif ana 
the two Scharwenk&s mt Berlin; c. 
pinno-conccrtoa, etc. 

Clicquot (kl*-k6), Fran- BL, Paris, 1728 
1791; organ-builder, 

Cliffe (kllf), Frederick, Lowmoor, 
May 2, 1857^ Dec., 1931; organist; 
pupil of Sullivan, Statner, and at 
K. C. M.; toured Europe with suc- 
cess; after 1901, taught R. A. M.; 
c. a symph.; symph poem "Clouds 
and im*fti**"; alto solo with crch., 
"Tfo Triumph r/ AUtztixJ* etc. 

Clifford, Rev, Jas., Oxford, 1622 
London, 1608; comporcr. 

CUf'toa, Chalmers, b. Jickson, Miss., 
April 30, 1889: conductor, composer, 
grad. Cincinnati Cons, and Harvard 
Univ.; studied with d'Indy and 
G^dalge; condL Cecilia Soc,, 



1915-17; Amer. Orch. Soc., N. Y., 
1922-30; also guest cond. with orch. 
in Boston, New York, Cincinnati, 
Baltimore and Conservatoire Orch., 
Paris; c. orch., piano works and 
songs; orchestrated MacDoweU 
piano works. 

Cfcve, Catherine (ne'e Raftor) (called 
"Kitty Clive"), London, 1711 
Dec. 6, 1785; famous actress, also 

dough-Letter (klttf-ll'-ter) Henry, b. 
Washington, D. C., May 13, 1874; 
composer and musical editor; pupil 
of his mother, Edw. Kimball, H. 
Xande, and Dr. J. H. Anger; org. at 
"Washington and various churches at 
Providence, R. I. c. "Lasca" for tenor 
and orch.; 4 cantatas, "A Day of 
Beauty/' for string quintet; 200 songs. 
u'eTj J., d. London, 1729, English 
publisher, reputed inventor of en- 
graving on tin plates. 

Coates, (i) John, b. Girlington, June 
20, 1865 Northwood, Aug. 16, 1941; 
tenor; sang choir at 5; pupil of 
IJurton and Bridge, later of Shake- 
5,peare; sang in light opera, London 
and America, as barytone, 1893- 
1899; decided he was a tenor; studied 
and made de*but, 1900, at Co vent 
Garden; favourite festival tenor; 
also in opera in Germany and 1910 
chief tenor at Beecham's season. 
(2) Albert, b. St. Petersburg, Russia, 
1882 -Capetown, Dec. u, 1953; 
versatile conductor and composer; 
studied piano with Carreno, con- 
ducting with Nikisch ; after baton ex- 
perience in opera at Elberfeld, Dres- 
den, Mannheim and Covent Garden 
(1914), he became dir. of the St. 
Petersburg Op., 1914-17, and con- 
tinued in this post under the Soviets 
until 1918, subsequently returning 
to Russia for many engagements; 
has also appeared with Beecham 
and British Nat'l. Op. Cos., with 
Covent Garden Op. Syndicate, Royal 
Philh. and London Symph. Orchs.; 
in Paris, Berlin, Vienna, in Spain, 
Italy and Scandinavia; in U. S. with 
N. Y. Symph. (1921), Rochester 
Philh. (1921-22), N. Y. Stadium and 
Hollywood Bowl (1928-30); c. 
(operas) "Sardanapoius" (St. Peters- 
burg, 1916), "Samuel Pepys" (Mu- 
nich, 1930); " Pickwick" \ also a 
"LaunceLot" Symphony (N. Y. Philh. 
Stadium Concerts, 1930). (3) Eric, 
b. Hucknall, England, Aug. 27, 1886; 

composer; studied at R. Coll. of 
Mus., viola with Tertis. comp. with 
Corder; played with Hamburg String 
Quartet and in Queen's Hall Orch.; 
after 1918 devoted himself increas- 
ingly to composition, esp, orch. 
music and songs. 

Cobb, Gerard Francis, Nettlestead, 
Kent, Oct, 15, "1838 Cambridge, 
March 31, 1904; Fellow Trinity 
Coll., Cambridge, 1863; studied 
music, Dresden; '1877-92, chairman 
Board of Music Studies, Cambridge; 
c. Psalm 62, with orch., etc. 

Cob'bett, Walter Willson, Blackheath, 
July n, 1847 London, Jan. 22^ 
1937; music patron, violinist, author; 
organised first Cobbett Competition, 
1905; had given many prizes, par- 
ticularly for chamber music works; 
also annual prizes for chamber music 
performances at R. Coll. and Acad. 
of Mus.; particularly known as 
editor of monumental "International 
Encyclopedia of Chamber Music" 

Cocchi (k6k'-ke), Gioacchino, Padua* 
1715? Venice, 1804; dram, com- 

Coccia (k6t'-cha), Carlo, Naple., 1782 
Novara, 1873; cond. and dram, 

Coccon (k6k-k5n), Nicole", Venice, 
Aug. 10, 1826 Aug. 4, 1903; pupil 
of E. Fabio; 1856 organist, 1873 
conductor at San Marco; c. over 450 
numbers, an oratorio, "Saul" 8 
requiem masses, 30 "messe da 
gloria," 2 operas, etc. 

Cachiaus (k6kh'4S-oos), Jus. (rightly 
Jns. Dobnek, pseud. **Wendel- 
stein") j 1479 Breslau, 1552; writer; 
opponent of Luther. 

Cocks, Robt., & Co. y firm of London 
mus. publishers, founded, 1827, by 
(i^ Robt. C., succeeded by his sons, 
(2) Arthur Lincoln C., and (3) 
Stroud Lincoln C., d. 1868; (4) 
Robt. Macfarlajae C. in charge until 
1908 ; on his retirement it was bought 
by Augener & Co. 

Coclico (k6'-kl5-ko) (Co'clicus), Adrian 
Petit, b. in the Hennegau (Hainaut), 
ca. 1500; singer and composer. 

Coenen (koo'-nSn), (i) Jns. Meinar- 
dus, The Hague, Jan. 28, 1824 
Amsterdam, Jan. 9, 1899; bassoonist, 
pupil of Liibeck Cons. 1864, cond. at 
Amsterdam; later municipal mus. 
dir.; c. ballet- mus., 2 symphonies^ 
cantatas, etc. (2) Fz., Rotterdam 



Dec. 26, 1826 Leyden, Jan. 24, 
1904; violinist; pupil of Vieuxtemps 
and Molique; lived in Amsterdam, 
1895, dir. of the Cons, and prof, of 
vln. and comp.; solo violinist to the 
Queen; leader of a quartet; and 
composer of a notable symphony, 
cantatas, etc. (3) Wfflem, Rotter- 
dam, Nov. 17, 1837 Lugano, March 
1 8, 1918; bro. of above; pianist, 
toured S. America, and W. Indies; 
1862, concert-giver in London; c. 
oratorio, "Lazarus" (1878), etc. 
(4) Cornelius, The Hague, 1838 
Arnhem, March, 1913; violinist; 
1859, cond. at Amsterdam; 1860 
bandm. Garde Nationale, Utrecht; 
c. overtures, etc. 

Coerne (kfcr'-nfc), Louis Adolphe, 
Newark, N- J-, 1870 New London, 
Conn., Sept. n, 192 2; 1876-80 
studied at Stuttgart and Paris, then 
entered Harvard College and studied 
with Paine and Kneisel, Boston, 
XT. S. A.; 1890 studied with Rhein- 
berger and Hieber, Munich; 1893 
organist at Boston, also at the 
Columbian Exposition; 1 893-96 dir. 
Liedertafel, Buffalo; 1897, in Colum- 
bus, O.; 1902-03, taught Harvard; 
1003-04, Smith Coll.; 1907-09, dir. 
of mus., Troy, N. Y.; 1909-20, dir. 
Olivet ColL; 1910, prof, at Univ. of 
Wis.; 1915, Conn. Coll.; his opera, 
"Zenobia" was prod, at Bremen, 
1905; author of "The Evolution of 
Modern Orchestration"*, c* great va- 
riety of chamber, orch., vocal music: 
an opera "The Maid of Marbleheadfl 
symph, poem "Hiawatha," etc. 

Co'gan, P&illip, b. Cork, 1750; organist, 
teacher and composer. 

Cohen (kow'-n or k5'-n), (t) H. 
Amsterdam, 1808 Brie-sur-Marne, 
1880; writer, (a) Jules Exnile David, 
Marseilles, Nov. 2, 1830 Paris, 
Jan. 14, looi; pupil of Zimmerman, 
Marmonfcei, Benoist, and Hal6vy, 
Paris Cons.; won. first prize for t>f., 
organ* cpt. and fugue; 1870, teacher 
of ensemble singing at the Cons.; 
since 1877 Chef de Chant, and 
chorusmaster Gr Opra; prod. 4 
operas; c. 3 cantatas, several sym- 
phonies, masses, oratorios, etc. (3) 
1C Hubert, b. Laurenzkirg (near 
Aix) Oct. 18, 3851; a priest, studied 
at Aix and Raliston, 1879-87 cond. 
Bamberg; 1887-19x0 at Cologne 
Cath.; c. masses, etc. ($) Hamet, 
b. London, England; pianist; her 

father a composer, mother a pianist; 
studied with them and with Mat- 
thay; won Ada Lewis Scholarship, 
R. Acad. of Mas.; d6but, London, 
at 13; has appeared widely in Bach 
programs and works of modern 
school, incl Salzburg Fest.; soloist 
with orch., London, Vienna, Barce- 
lona, Warsaw, New York; also in 
sonata recitals with Joseph Szigeti, 
Beatrice Harrison, Lionel Tertis; 
Amer. dbut, 1930, Dame Com- 

Colasse (k6-ls), Pascal, Rheims, Jan. 
22, 1649 Versailles, 1709; cond. and 
dram, composer. 

Col 'bran, (i) Gianni, court- musician 
to King of Spain, i8th century, (a) 
Isabella A*, Madrid, 1785 Bou- 
logne, 1845, daughter of above; 
singer and composer. 

Cole, Rossetter G., b. near Clyde, 
Mich,, Feb. 5, 1866 Chicago May 
x8 t 1952; grad. of Michigan Univ., 
taking musical courses also; at his 
graduation the Univ. Mus. Soc. 
performed his cantata with orch. 
**Tke Passing of Summer"; 1888-00, 
he taught English and Latin in high 
schools; 2890*92 in Berlin, winning 
competitive scholarship at Royal 
Master-school, and studying with 
Max Bruch; 1892-94, prof, of music 
Ripon College; 1894 igoi, Iowa 
College; from 1902 In Chicago as 
teacher, and from 1908 also in charge 
of summer music classes of Columbia 
Univ.. N. Y. c. "Kin* Robert of 
Sicily*' and " Hiawatha^ Wooing 
as musical backgrounds for recita- 
tion, ballade for 'cello and orch.; 
sonata for violin, songs, etc. 

Coleridge-Taylor, Samuel, London, 
Aug. 15, 1875^ Thornton Heath, 
Sept. i, 19x2 (of African descent; 
his father a native of Sierra Leone, 
his mother, English); composer; 
pupil (vln.) of the R. A. M., 1890; 
won composition-scholarship in 1893; 
until 1896 pupil of V. Stanford; *3ga 
pub. an anthem; c. a nonet for pf., 
strings, and wind (1894); a sym- 
phony (1896); a quintet for clar. and 
strings (1897), a string-Quartet, and a 
Horning and Evening Service; pub. 
a ballade for viola and orch., operetta 
"Dream Lovers," 4 walUes for orch.; 
be was made cond* Handel Society., 
2904; his " Hiawatha" was developed 
as a trilogy, 4 * H iawa*ha*s Wedding 
Feast," (R. C- M. # Londoa, 1898), 



"The Death of Mlnnehaha" (North 
Staffordshire Fest., 1899); "Hia- 
watha's Departure" (London, 1900), 
the overture the same year; c. also 
for voices and orch., "The Blind 
Girl of Castel-Cuille" (Leeds Fest., 
1901), "Meg Blane" (Sheffield Fest., 
1902), "The Atonement' 9 ' (Hereford 
Fest., 1903), "Kubla Khan"- (Han- 
del Society, 1906); incid. music to 
Stephen Phillips's plays, "Herod, 9 * 
"Ulysses," "Nero* and "Faust"- 
(1908); concert march, "Ethiopia 
Saluting the Colours"; 5 ballads by 
Longfellow, with orch. (Norwich 
Fest., 1905); "A Tale of Old Japan,"- 
voices and orch. (London, 1912;, etc. 

Colin (k6-&n), P. Gilbert (Colinus, 
Colinaus, Chamault), singer and 
notable composer, Paris, 1532. 

Colla, Giuseppe, cond. at Parma, 1780, 
m. Agujari. 

Collard (kai-l&rO, a London family of 
pf.-makers. (i) Fr. W. Collard 
(1772 1860), in partnership with 
Clementi, bought out Longman & 
Broderip, 1798, then C. bought out 
dementi; he inv. various devices; 
the firm name now Collard & Collard, 
(2) Chas. Lukey C. being the head 
until his death, 1891; then (3) J. C. 
(Collard) was dir. 

Colles (c&l'-tes), Henry Cope, London, 
April 20, 1879 March 4, 1943; critic, 
editor; educated R. Coll. of Mus., 
Worcester CoU. ^ Oxford; M. A.Oxon.; 
asst. music critic, "London Times," 
after 1906, and critic since 1911; 
prof., R. Coll, of Mus.; ed. new edi- 
tion Grove's Dictionary, 1928; served 
as guest critic, New York "Times," 
1923; author, "Brahms," "The 
Growth of Music." 

Colombani (k5-16m-ba r -n6), Orazio, 
monk, conductor, and cptist. at 
Verona, 1576-92. 

Colonna (k5-16n'-n2=Q, Gioy. Paolo, 
Bologna (or Brescia), 1637 Bologna, 
1693; organist, conductor, and dram, 

Colonne (k6-lttnO> Edouard (rightly 
Judas), Bordeaux, July 23, 1838 
Paris, March 28, ipio; pupil of 
Girard and Sauzay (vln.), El wart, 
and A. Thomas (comp.), Paris Cons.; 
1874, founded the famous "Concerts 
du Chatelet"; 1878, cond. official 
Exposition concerts; 1892 cond. at 
the Gr. Op6ra; cond. often in Lon- 
don, and 1902, Vienna and 1905, 
New York, 

Colyns (ks-l&ns), Jean Baptiste, Brus- 
sels, B Nov. 25, 1834 Oct. 31, 1902; 
violinist and comp. 

Combs, Gilbert Raynolds, Philadel- 
phia, Jan. 5, 1863 Mt. Airy, Pa., 
June 14, 1934; son and pupil of a 
pianist, organist and composer; 
organist and conductor in Philadel- 
phia; 1885 founded the Broad St. 
Cons, of Mus., of which he was for 
many years the enterprising dir. 

Comes (k6'-m&s), Juan Baptista, Va- 
lencia, ca. 1560; conductor and com- 

Comettant (k6m-St-tSn), (J. P.) Oscar, 
Bordeaux, Gironde, 1819 Mont- 
villiers, 1898; writer and composer. 

Commer (k6m'-mer), Fz., Cologne, 
1813 Berlin, 1887; editor and com- 

Compere (k6n-par), Louis (diminutive, 
Loyset), Flanders, isth cent. St. 
Quentin, Aug. 16, 1518; famous con- 

Concone (k6n-k5'-ne"), Giu., Turin, 
1810 June, 1861; organist, famous 
singing-teacher in Paris, 1832-48, 
later court-organist Turin; c. 2 operas 
and famous vocal exercises. 

Co'ninck, Jacques FSlix de, Antwerp, 
1791 Schaerbeck-les-Bruxelles, 
1866; conductor at Berlin, and com- 

Conradi (kSn-rS.'-de'), (i) Jn. G., i7th 
cent.; conductor; one of the first 
composers of German opera, his 
works prod, at Hamburg. (2) Johan 
G., TSnsberg, Norway, 1820 
Christiania ? 1896; composer. (3) 
Aug., Berlin, 1821 1873; organist 
and dram, composer. 

Conned (kan'-r6d), He'nrich, Bielitz. 
Silesia, Sej>t. 13, 1855 Meran, April 
27, 1909; impresario; came to New 
York 1878; ipoi, succeeded Grau aa 
manager of the Metropolitan Opera 
House, where in 1903 he made the 
first production outside Bayreuth of 
"Parsifal"; 1905, Franz Leopold 
decorated him and gave him the 
privilege of the prefix "von"; ill 
health forced his retirement in 1908. 

Con 'solo, (i) Frederigo, Ancona, 1841 
Florence, Dec. 14, 1906; violinist and 
comp. (2) Ernesto, London, Sept. 
15, 1864 Florence, March 21, 1931; 
noted pianist; pupil of Sgambati and 
Reinecke: toured widely; 1906-09, 
taught Chicago Mus. Coll.; later at 
Geneva and Florence Cons.; ed 
Beethoven sonatas for pL 



Constantin (kdn-stS6-t&n), Titus Chas., 
Marseilles, Jan. 7, 1835 Pau, Oct., 
1891; pupil of Thomas, Paris Cons., 
1860; cond. of the "Fantasies Parisi- 
ennes'*; 1875, Op. Com,: c. a <x>mic- 
opera, "Dans la For&*' (1872)* etc. 

Conti (k6n'-t), (i) Fran. Bart*, Flor- 
ence, 16812 1732; court-theorbist 
and dram, composer. (2) ("Conti- 
ni") Ignazio, Florence, 1699 Vien- 
na, 3:759; son anc * successor of above: 
composer* (3) Gioacchino (named 
Gizziello, after his teacher Dom. 
Gizzi), Arpino, Naples, 1714 Rome, 
176*; famous male soprano; 1739, in 
London with Hfcndel; retired to 
Arpino in 1753. (4) Carlo, Arpino, 
Naples, 1796 Naples, 1868; prof. 
ana dram, composer. 

Contino (k6n-t'-no), Giov., d. Mantua, 
1565; conductor and contrapuntist. 

Co'nus (or Conius or Konius), (i) 
George Edwardovich, composer; 
Moscow, Get* i. 1862 Aug., 1933; 
theorist; pupil of the Cons.; 1891-00 
teacher of theory there; looa prof. 
at the Gpera School; c. syrnph. poem 
"From the Realm of Illusions," orch* 
suite, "Child- Life," cantata, etc. 
His brother, (2) Julius, b, Moscow, 
1869; gold medallist at the Cons, and 
later teacher of violin there; c. violin 
concerto* etc. (3) Leo, pianist; pu- 
pil at the Cons.; later founded a 
school; d. Cincinnati, Jan* 18, 1944. 

Converse, ^Frederick Shepherd, b. New- 
ton, Mass., Jan, x, x&yx Westwood, 
Mass., June 8, T 04o; grad. Harvard 
and studied music with Bahrmann 
and G. W. Chadwick; 1896-98 with 
Rhemberger, then taught theory and 
comp* at the New England Cons.; 
1903; -07, Harvard Univ.: c. operas 
"The Pipe of Desire" (in concert 
form, Boston, 1906, as an opera, 
Met. Op., N. Y,, 19x0, Boston Op,, 
1911); symph. (1907); overtures, 
"Youth* and "Euphro$ve\ orch* 
romance, "The Festival of Pan"\ 
orch. fantasie, "The Mystic Trum- 
peter"** symph. poem "OrmasdS* 
{Boston Symph, Orch,, 191:2); violin 
concerto and sonata, a string quar- 
tets, etc. 

Conver'sl, Girolamo, b. Correggio, 
1 6th cent*; c* madrigals, etc. 

Cooke, (i) H., d. July 13, 1672; buried 
Westminster Abbey; court-composer 
and teacher* (2) Nathaniel, b. Bos- 

ham, 1773; organist. (3) 
London, 17341793; conductor and 

composer. (4) Titos, Simpson, Dub* 
Un, 1782 London, 1848; conductor, 
later tenor, then prof, at the R. A. 
M.; prod, nearly 20 operas at Drury 
Lane. (5) H. Angelo Michael 
(called Grattan), son of above; oboist 
and bandmaster. (6) James Kan- 
cis, b. Bay City, Mich., Nov. 14, 
2875; pianist, composer, editor, 
teacher; studied in New York with 
W. H. Hall, Woodman, Eberhard 
and Medorn; also at Wiirzburg R. 
Cons, with Meyer-Olbersleben and 
Hermann Ritter; for some years 
active as piano teacher in New York, 
also org. and vocal teacher; begin- 
ning 1907 ed. "The Jtvde**i pres. 
Presser Foundation, Phila., after 
1917; Mus. B., Ohio Northwestern 
Univ., 1919; c. piano pieces and 
songs; author, "Great Pianists upon 
Piano jP/ays"; "Standard History 
of Music" - y "Mastering the Scales a*2 
Art*tgi*g"i "Musical P/tfWfo w ; 
"Muw-Af asters Old and New" etc. 

Coolidge, Elizabeth Sprague (Mrs* 
Frederick ShurtlefF Coolidge), noted 
music patron, composer, pianist; 
founder and sponsor for many years 
of the Pittsfieid, Mass., Music Fests., 
on her estate, where invited audiences 
attended these events; in recent 
years transferred to auditorium in 
Library of Congress, Washington, 
which she donated and endowed by 
means of trust fund; commissioned 
works from many leading contem- 
porary composers; has established a 
Coolidge Chamber Music Prixe for 
such awards, and has sponsored fes- 
tivals in Chicago (1930) and in many 
European cities, in which eminent 
solo artists and chamber music groups 
have participated; c. chamber mu&ic; 
d. Cambridge, Mass., Nov. 4, 1953. 

Coombs, Chas. Whitney, b. Bucksport, 
Me. ? Dec, 25, 1859 Montclair, Sf.I 
Jan. 24, IQIO; pupil of Speide! 
(pf.) ami Max Seifri*, Draeaeke 
(comp,), ih'rmunn John, P. jansseu, 
and Lamperti; 1^7-91, organist 
Amer. <,'h,, in Dresden; 1892, as 
organist Church of the Holy Com- 
ftanunion, New York, 1908. St* Luke*s; 
pub, "The Vision n/ 51. JvknJ 9 can- 
tata with orch. and org, songs, etc. 

Coo 'per, (x) G., Lambeth, London. 
3820 London, tft?6; organist ana 
composer, (j) Emil, Russian con- 
ductor; pupil of Taneyeff; cond, at 
Moscow Imp. Op* and Imp Mus, 



Soc. of Cons, in that city before the 
world war; led soth anniversary con- 
certs of latter organization, present- 
ing works of Scriabin, Taneyeff and 
Rachmaninoff in presence of com- 
posers; 1909-14, led seasons of Rus- 
sian opera in London and Paris; after 
1917 lived in Paris, cond. of opera 
in Champs- Elyses Theat.; also guest 
appearances in other European coun- 
tries; cond. of Chicago Op. Co., 
1929-31, presenting American pre- 
mieres of Moret's *' Lorenzaccio" and 
Hamilton Forrest's "Camille." 

Coperario (k6-pSr-S/-r*-6) (rightly J. 
Cooper), famous English lutenist and 
viola-da-gambist, i7th century. 

Copland (c5p'-l&nd), Aaron, b. Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., Nov. 14, ipoo; composer; 
studied with Rubin Goldmark, also 
with Nadia Bpulanger, Fontaine- 
bleau; piano with Victor Wittgen- 
stein and Clarence Adler; lecturer on 
modern music, New School for Social 
Research, N. Y,; organized and pro- 
moted Copland-Sessions Concerts of 
Contemporary Music, N. Y. (with 
Roger Sessions); mem. board of di- 
rectors, League of Composers; c. 
ballets, "Bitty the Kid," "Rodeo," 
"Appalachian Spring"; "A Lincoln 
Portrait 3 * (with speaker); "Music for 
Theatre"-, orch., Piano Concerto; "El 
Salon Mexico"', opera, "Tender Land." 

Coppet (k5-p&), Edward J. de, New 
York, May 28, 1855 April 30, 1916; 
of Swiss descent; music patron; 
founded series of chamber music 
programmes at his home, 1886, more 
than a thousand being given before 
his death; in 1902, the Flonzaley 
Quartet (Adolfo Betti, Alfred Po- 
chon. Ugo Ara and Iwan d'Archam- 
beau; was organised to play at these 
events, being named after his sum- 
mer home in Switzerland; this group 
became one of world's leading en- 
sembles and made many Amer. and 
Eur. tours, first under his patronage 
and later as a public concert-giving 
enterprise: after 1917 Ara being suc- 
ceeded as violist by Louis Bailly. 

Cop'pola, (i) Giu., singer in London, 
1777* (2) P. A. (Pierantonio), Cas- 
trogiovanni, Sicily, 1793 Catania, 
1877; dram, composer and con- 
ductor. (3) Piero, b. Milan, Oct. n, 
1888; conductor and composer; grad. 
Cons. Verdi, in native city; has 
appeared as cond. in Turin, Milan 
(La Scala), Modena, Florence, Bo- 

logna, Brussels (La Monnaie), Lon- 
don, Oslo, Gothenberg, Copenhagen, 
Palermo, etc.; after 1923 res. in Paris 
as artistic dir. of French Gramophone 
Co. and as cond. of concerts; c. of 
stage and orch. music. 

Coquard (k6-kar), Arthur, Paris, May 
26, 1846 Noirmoutier, Aug. 20, 
1910; pupil of Csar Franck; mus. 
prof. Nat. Inst. of the Young Blind; 
critic for "Le Monde"; c. operas 
"L> Epee du Roi" (Angers, 1884); 
"Le Mari d'un Jour" (Paris, 1886); 
lyric dramas, "Voiseau bleu" (Paris, 
1894); "La Jacquerie" (Monte Carlo 
and Paris, 1895), "Jahel" (Lyons, 
1900), "La troupe Jolicoeur" (1902), 
etc. Won prize from French Acad. 
for his study, "De la Musique en 
France depuis Rameau" (1892). 

Cor'bett, Wm. f 1669 (?) London (?), 
1748; Engl. violinist and composer. 

Cordans (k6r-dans), Bart., Venice, 1700 
TJdine, 1757; Franciscan monk, 
then conductor and dram, composer. 

Cordelia, Giacomo, Naples, 1783 
1847; dram, composer. 

Cor'der, Fr., Hackney, London, Tan. 
26, 1852 Sept. 21, 1932; pupil of 
R. A. M.; 1875, won lie Mendels- 
sohn Scholarship; 1875-78, pupil of 
Ferd. Hiller; 1880, cond. of Aqua- 
rium Concerts at Brighton where he 
lived as a transl. and critic, and 
composer of operas, cantatas, etc.; 
after 1886 prof, at R. A. M., London; 
1889, curator there; wrote "The 
Orchestra and How to Write for It" 
etc., ed. a musical encyclopedia 

Corel li, Arcangelo, Fusignano, near 
Imola, Italy, Feb. 17, 1653 Rome, 
Jan. 8, 1713; pupil of Bessani and 
Simonelli; toured Germany, then 
lived under patronage of Cardinal 
Ollobone; one of the founders of 
vln.-style, systematiser of bowing 
and shifting, introducer of chord- 
playing; a composer for the vln. 
whose works still hold favour. On 
invitation from the King of Naples 
he gave a succ. court-concert, but at 
a second made various blunders and 
returned to Rome, in chagrin, in- 
creased with fatal results on finding 
or imagining himself supplanted 
there by a poor violinist named 
Valentini. His masterpieces "Con- 
certi grossi" were pub. just before 
his death. Many spurious comps. 
were issued under his name, 



Corfe, (i) Jos., Salisbury, 1740 1820; 
organist and composer. (2) Arthur 
T. Salisbury, 1773 1863; son of 
above; pianist, organist and writer. 

(3) Chas. W., son of above; organist 
Christ Church, Oxford. 

Cornelius (k6r-na'-II-oos), Peter, Ma- 
yence, Dec. 24, 1824 Oct. 26, 1874, 
unsuc^. actor; then studied cpt. with 
Dehn at Berlin, and joined the Wag- 
nerian coterie at Weimar. His opera 
'*Der Bar bier von Bagdad" was a 
failure through organised opposition 
which led Liszt to the town, 
but in 1886-87 it succeeded. C. 
wrote his own libretti and transl. 
others. 1886-87, at Dresden, and 
oiher cities; 1859, with Wagner at 
Vienna, and Munich, where he be- 
came reader to King Ludwig, and 
prof.; prod, the opera "Dcr Cid>** 
Weimar, x86$; he left "Gunltid" un- 
finished; Lassen completed it, and 
it was prod., Strassburg, 1892; he 
pub. many songs. Biog. by Sand- 
berger (Leipzig, 1887). 

Cornell', J. Hi, New York, 1828 1894; 
organist, composer and writer. 

Cornet (kor'-nat), (i) Julius, S. Can- 
dido, Tyrol, 1793 Berlin, 1860; 
tenor and din His wife, (a) Franz- 
iska (x 806 -1870), was also a singer. 

Coronaro (k5-r6-na'-r5), (i) Gaetano, 
Vicenza, Italy, Dec. x8> 1852 
Milan, April 5, 1908: violinist; till 
1873, pupil, Milan Cons., then In 
Germany: prod, the succ. opera " Un 
Tramonto** (Milan Cons, Th., 1873); 
3-act ** Creole," (Bologna, 1878); 
r< /l MalacarnJ* (Brescia. 1804); for 
several years prof, of harm., and 
1894, prof, of comp., Milan Cons* 
(2) Antonio, Vicenza, 1851 March 
24, 1933; brother of Gaetano C., and 
co nip, of operas; his son was (3) 
Axrigo* Vicensa, 1880 October, 1906; 
c. opera "Turiddu" (Turin, 1905), 

(4) Gellio Bv., Vicenza, Nov. 30, 
1863 Milan, July 26. 1916; pianist 
(prote"g6 of Sonzogno); d6but at 8; 
at 9, organist in Viccnza; at 13, th. 
cond. Marosteca; at x$, chorusm,; 
at 1 6, pupil Bologna Cons., gradual* 
ing with first prizes: c, a symphony; 
opera, "Jolanda" (1880 ?); unsucc* 
"Claudia" (Milan, 1895). 

Cord (kto'-rft), Dom., Korae, 1744 
London, 1825; dram* composer and 

Cor 'si, Jacopo, ca, 1560 1604; Floren- 
tine nobleman, in whose house and 

in Bardi's, Peri, Caccini, Emilio del 
Cavaliere, Galilei, Rmuccini, and 
others met and inaugurated modern 
opera (v. PERI)J C. was a skilful 

Corteccia (kdr-tfit'-cha), Fran. Bdo. di, 
Arezzp, i6th cent., Florence, 1571; 
organist, conductor and composer. 

Corteilini (k6r-tdl-te'-n$), Camillo, 
called **Ii violino" from his skill; at 
Bologna, 1583, as municipal musician 
and comp. 

Cortesi (k6r-ta'-z5), Francesco, Flor- 
ence, 1820 Jan. 3, 1904; conductor, 
composer of operas, and teacher of 

Cortot (c6r-t6')> Alfred, b. Nyon, 
Switzerland, Sept. 26, 1877; pianist; 
studied at Paris Cons., with De- 
combes and Dimmer; dlbut, Colonne 
Coucerts, Paris, 1896; served as 
r&petitcur at Bayreuth; founder and 
leader of Assoc. des Concerts Cortot 
in Pans (1902-04) and led perform- 
ances of Wagnerian operas; prof.. 
Paris Cons., 1907; after 1904 toured 
as pianist in many Eur. cities and 
in America with great succ.; also 
has been associated with Thibaud 
and Casals in trio of exemplary 
merit, and with these musicians has 
been leading factor in the ficole 
Normale de Musique, Park; mem. 
of the Legion of Honor. 

Coss'ma&n, B. Dessau, May 17, 1822 
Frankfort, May 7, 1910; 'cellist; 
pupil of E&penhahn, Dreehsler* Theo. 
MUller ana Kummerj 1840, member 
of Gr. Qpe*ra Orch,, Paris; 1847-48, 
solo 'cellist at Gewandh&us, Leipzig; 
then studied comp, under Haupt- 
mann; 1850, at Weimar^ with Liszt; 
2866, proK Moscow Cons.; 1870-78 
at Baden-Baden; then prof, of 'cello, 
Frankfort Cons.; composer. 

Cossoul (k^s'-sooi), Guilherma An-* 
tonio, Lisbon, April 22, 1828 
May 26, 1880; Vellmt and comp. 

Cos'ta, (2) Sir Michael (rightly Mi- 
cbele), Naples* Feb. 4, 1808 
Brighton, England, April 29, 1884; 
son and pupil of (2) Vaaquale C* 
(composer ch.-mus.); pupil also of 
TrittOt Zingarelli (cornp.), and Cres- 
centini (singing) at the Naples Cons.; 
prod* 4 succ* operas at Naples* was 
aent to Birmingham, England, to 
cond. a psalm of Zingarclli's, but 
through a misunderstanding, had to 
ding the tenor part; he thereafter 
lived in England as dir. and cond* 



of King's Th., London, where he 
prod, three ballets; 1846, cond, of 
the Philh. and the new Ital. Opera; 

1848, Sacred Harmonic Society; from 

1849, cond. Birmingham festivals; 
from 1857, the Handel festivals; 
knighted in 1869; 1871 dir. of the 
music and cond. at H. M.'s Opera; 
c. 3 oratorios, 6 operas, 3 symphonies, 
etc. (3) Andrea, b, Brescia, settled 
London, 1825; composer and teacher. 
(4) Carlo, Naples, 1826 1888; 
teacher Naples Cons. (5) P. Mario, 
Tarento, July 26, 1858 San Remo, 
Sept. 27, 1933; nephew of above; 
c. chamber-music and pop. songs in 
Neapolitan dialect; also 2 panto- 
mimes, "Le Modele Reve" and the 
succ. "L'Histoire d'un Pierrot?* 
(Paris, 1894 ?) 

Costantini (t5'-n5), Fabio, b. Rome 
ca. 1570; composer and teacher. 

Costanzi (kS-stHn'-tsX), Juan (or Gio- 
annino), Rome, 1754 1778; con- 

Cotes (kd'-tSs), Ambrosio de, d. Seville, 
Sept. 9, 1603; Spanish composer and 

Cottlow, Augusta, b. Shelbyville, HI., 
April 2, 1878; pianist; pupil in 
Chicago of Wolfsohn and Gleason; 
orch. d6but there, 1889; N. Y., under 
Seidl, 1891; later studied in Berlin 
with Busoni and Boise; toured Eur. 
countries and after 1900 in TL S. 

Cot'to (Cotto'nius), Jus., nth to lath 
cent.; writer. 

Cottrau (k6t-tr5, or k6t-trS'-oo), (i) 
Guillaume (Guglielmo), Paris, 1797 
Naples, 1847: composer. His sons 

(2) Teodoro (pen-name Eutalindo 
MartelU) (Naples, 1827 1879) and 

(3) Giulio (Jules), (Naples, 1831 
Rome, 1916) also song-composers; 
the latter c, operas. 

Coucy (dtt koo-se), Regnault, Chate- 
lain, de, d. Palestine, 1192; trouba- 
dour to Richard Coeur de Lion; his 
songs are in MSS. in the Paris 
Library, and have been re-published. 

Couperin (koo-pu-rn), a family of 
French musicians, famous for two 
centuries. The first known were 
three brothers: (i) Louis, 1626 
1661; organist of St. Gervais and 
composer. (2) Fran. (Sieur de 
Crouilly), 1631 1698; organist and 
composer. (3) Chas., 1638 1669; 
organist; his son, (4) Fran, (called 
Le Grand), Paris, 1668 1733; the 

composer of choral and chamber wks . , 
much music for harpsichord (clave- 
cin);* pupil of Thomelin, and suc- 
cessor of his uncle Francois, at 
St. G., 1698; 1701, clavecinist and 
organist to the King; c. brilliant and 
fascinating music pub. at Paris, and 
wrote "U Art de toucher du Clavecin" 
(1711). (5) His son Nicholas, Paris, 
1680 1748, was organist. (6) Ar- 
mand Louis, Paris, 1725 1789, son 
of (5), a remarkable org.-virtuoso. 
His wife (7) filisabeth Antoinette 
(n6e Blancnet), b. 1721, was an 
organist and clavecinist, and played 
in public at 81. They had 2 sons 
(8) P. Louis (d. 1789), his father's 
asst. organist, and (9) Gervais Fran., 
his father's successor. 
Courboin (koor'-bwan), Charles-Marie, 

b. Antwerp, April 2, 1886; organist; 
pupil of Blockx at Cons, in native 
city; also at Brussels Cons, of Mailly, 
Gilson, Huberti and Tin el; won 
prizes in several fields, also internat'L 
competition; after 1902, org. Ant- 
werp Cathedral; appeared widely 
as recitalist; after 1904 in U. S., 
at Syracuse, Springfield, Mass., etc.; 

c. choral and organ music. 
Courtois (koor-twa), Jean, i6th cent., 

French contrapuntist; conductor and 

Courvoisier (koor-vws-yS, or koor'- 
foi-sSr), (x) K., Basel, Nov. 12, 1864 
1908; violinist; pupil of David, 
R6ntgen and Joachim; 1871, a mem- 
ber of the Thalia Th., orch., Frank- 
fort; then, till 1875, cond. of singing 
with Gustav Barth; '76, cond. 
Dtisseldorf Th., orch., and choral 
societies; 1885, singing- teacher at 
Liverpool; c. a symphony, 2 concert- 
overtures, a vln.-concertp (MS.), 
etc.; wrote "Die Violintechnik" 
(transl. by H. E. Krehbiel; N. Y., 
1896); an "cole de la velocitt" 
and a "Methode" (London, 1892). 
(2) Walter, near Basel, Feb. 7, 1875 
Locarno, Dec, 27, 1931; pupil of 
Bagge and Thuille; after 1910, prof, 
of theory, Munich Akad. 

Coussemaker (koos-m-k&r'), Chas, Ed. 
H., Bailleul, Nord, April 19, 1805 
Boubourg, Jan. 10, 1876; a remark- 
able sight-reader, studied cpt. with 
V. Lefbvre; while serving as a judge 
he made musical research his avoca- 
tion, and pub. important works on 
Hucbald and mediaeval instruments, 
theory and composers, incL his 



"Scriptores de musica medii evi, nova 
series" (1864-76, 4 vols,), a. great 
collection intended as supplement to 

Cousser. Vide KXJSSER. 

Cow'ard, (i) Jas., London, 1834 
1880: organist, conductor, composer. 
(2) Sir Henry, Liverpool, Nov. 26, 
1849 Sheffield, 1944; noted choral 
Oxon; Univ. -teacher and cond. at 
Sheffield; after 1904, docent in music; 
knighted, 1019. (3) Noel, Engl. com- 
poser for stage; c. "Bitter Sweet" etc, 

Cow'ell, Henry, b. Menlo Park, CaL, 
March u, 1897; composer, pianist; 
studied Univ, of Calif, and in 
Europe; dbut, Munich, 2023; toured 
in Europe and America; his composi- 
tions early attracted attention be- 
cause of use of "tone-clusters," 
groups of notes which might be per- 
formed on the piano keyboard with 
forearm or fist; in recent years has 
also c. orchestral and chamber music; 
carried on research under Guggen- 
heim Fellowship In European folk 
music; dir. New Mus. Soc* of Calif., 
which issued contemporary Ainer* 
music in quarterly form and record- 

Cow 7 en, Sir Frederic Hymen, Kings* 
ton, Jamaica, Jan. 29, 1852 Lon- 
don, Oct. 6, 1935; at 4 brought to 
London to study, pupil of Benedict 
and Goss, then of Hauptmann, 
Moscheles, Reinecke. Richter, and 
Plaidy, Leipzig; and Kiel, Berlin; 
*88a, dir* Edinburgh Acad. of Music; 
11887, cond. London PhUh.; 3888-89, 
mus,-dir, Melbourne Centennial Ex- 
hibition; 1896-1914, cond. Liverpool 
PhiL, and the Manchester Concerts: 
icoo, of Scottish Orch.; knighted 
1; prod, four operas: two orato- 

, - 

rios, Ti The Deluge" 6878), and 

(1887); 7 cantatas: 6 sym- 
phonies (No* 3 "Scandinavian** 
(1880), 4 "WdskP 6 "Idyllic"); four 
orchestral suites, "27ia Language of 
Flowers*" "/ the Olden Time, 9 * "/ 
Fairyland," "Suite de Ballet," Sin- 
fonietta in A for orch.; 2 overtures; 
pf. -concerto; pf.-trio; pf~quartet; 
pf-pcs.; over 250 songs. 
Crabb (krab-a), Artnand, b* Brussels, 
1884; barytone; pupil of Cons, in 
native city; x 004-08, sang at La 
Monnaie, Brussels; 1908-10, Man- 
hattan Op, House, New York: after 
T oio for several seasons with Chicago 

Op* Co., also at Covent Garden, 
Berlin: d. Buenos Aires, Jan,, 1048. 

Craft, Marcelia, b. Indianapolis, Aug. 
ii, 2880; soprano; studied with 
Charles Adams, also 1901 in Milan 
with Guagni and Mottino; op. d6but, 
Morbegno, 7902; sang in Italy, at 
Mainz, Kiel, and at Munich Op., 
1900-14; in America, 191 7-18; after 
2993 lived in Germany as singer and 

Cramer (kFft'-nie> or krfc'-znSr), (i) 
Wm*, Mannheim, 1745 (1743?) 
London, 1799 (1800?); violinist and 
conductor, (a) 1C Jfr., Quediinburg^ 
175^ PEis f Bee. 1807; professor. 
(3) Jn. Bap., Mannheim, Feb. 24, 
1771 London, April 16, 1858; eldest 
son and pupil of (i). Brought tc 
London when a year old; pupil oi 
Bans**, Schroeter, then of dementi: 
in comp-> chiefly self -taught; toured 
as concert-pianifit at 17; xn 1828 est. 
a mus.-pub. firm (now Cramer & 
Co.) in partnership with Addison- 
managed it till 1842: 1832-45. lived 
In Paris, pub. "a Method for pf. 
("&OSM prakiiscke PJte.-SckM"), in 
5 parts/ the last containing the 
celebrated "84 Studies" (op. 50), 
still a standard; c. 7 concertos, 105 
sonatas, quartet, quintet, and many 

Crmnz (krAnts), Augost. Hamburg, 
rnus.-pub. firm, founded 18x3 by A. 
H. Cxmxiz (1789-1870). His son AI- 
wm (b* 1834) succeeded him, and in 
2896 his grandson Oscar became 

Cmywinckel (krf'-vlnk^l), Fd. Manuel 
Martin Ixmia Barth6iemy de, Ma 
drid, Aug. 24, 1820?; pupil of 
Bellon; cond, St. Bruno, at Bor- 
deaux, where he lived from 1835; c. 
excellent masses and other church* 

Cre(c)qmllon (krfk-we.ydft), Thos., 
. Ghent (?) H^lhunc, 1557; ca. 
1544-47 conductor and composer. 

Creacentkd (krft-shdn-l*'-nC), Giro- 
lajoio, Urbania, near Urbino, Feb. j, 
1766 Naples, April 34, 1846; fa- 
mous male soprano and composer. 

Cre'ser, William, York. Sept, 9, 1844 
1933] organ Ut, composer; pupil of 
Macfarren; 1880, Mus. Doc, Ox- 
ford; 1881, i^qt-iQO^, org. Chapel 
Royal: St. Jamc?, and cornp, to 
Chapel Royal; married Amelia 
Clarke rocsxo-soprano; c. oratorio, 



(Leeds, 1882); "The Sacrifice of 
Freia" (Leeds, 1889), etc. 

Cressent (krs-san), Anatole, Argen- 
teuil, 1824 Paris, xSyo; lawyer and 
founder of the triennial prijae **prix 
Cressent," endowed with, * 20,000 
francs, to be equally divided between 
the librettist and composer. 

Creston, Paul, b. N. Y., 1906; comp.; 
1938 Guggen. fellow; c. symph., etc. 

Creyghton (kra'-ttin), Rev. Robt., b. ca. 
1639; English composer. 

Crist, Bainbridge, b. Lawrenceburg, 
Ind., 1883; composer; pupil of Juori, 
Emerich and Shakespeare; after 1914 
was active as teacher in Boston; c. 
dance-drama, "Le Pied de la Momie," 
orch. and chamber music, and songs. 

Cristofo'ri, Bart, (wrongly Cristofali 
and Cristofani), Padua, May 4, 1^655 
Florence, Jan. 27, 1731; inv. the 
first practical hammeivaction to 
which he gave the name * 'piano- 
forte" (v, D. B.); in 1711 he substi- 
tuted for the plucking quills "a row 
of little hammers striking the strings 
from below," the principle adopted 
by Broad wood, and called the "Eng- 
Msh action." 

Crivel'H, (i) Arcangelo, Bergamo, 1546 
1617; tenor and composer. (2) 
Giov. Bat., Scandiano, Modena (?) - 
Modena, 1682; organist and con- 
ductor. (3) Gaetano, Bergamo, 1774 
Brescia, 1836; famous tenor. (4) 
J>om., b. Brescia, 1793; son of above, 
dram, composer. 

Croce (krd'-chS), Giov. della (caUed 
**!! Chiozzotto"), Chioggia, ca. 1557 
Venice, 1609; conductor and com- 

Croes (kroos), H. Jas. de, Antwerp, 
*7o$ Brussels, 1786; violinist and 

Croft(s), Win,, Nether- Eatington, War- 
wickshire, Engl., 1678 Bath, 1727 
(buried Westm. Abbey); 1704, joint 
organist, 1707, sole organist Westm. 
Abbey; pub. "Musica, sacra 11 (the 
first English church-music engraved 
in. score on plates). 

Crooks, Richard, b, Trenton, N. J.; 
tenor; sang as boy soprano in church 
choir at S; pupil of Sydney H. 
Bourne; concert appearances at 12; 
following war service, was soloist at 
First Presbyterian Church, N. Y.; 
first came into prominence as soloist 
with N. Y. Symph., 1922; made 
U. S. concert tours, also of England r 

Scandinavia and Central Europe, 
1927; as Cavaradossi, Hamburg Op,, 
same year; also at Berlin Op.; soloist 
with leading Amer. orchs.; mem. 
Met. Op, Co., after 1933, singing 
leading French and Italian r^les* 

Cr os 'dill, J., London, 1751 Escrick, 
Yorkshire^ 5825; 'cellist. 

Cross, Michael Hurley, Philadelphia, 
*&33^ 1897; composer and director. 

Cvossl-ey, Ada, near Bairnsdale, Aus- 
tralia, March 3, 1874 London, 
Oct. 17, 1929; noted mezzo-soprano; 
dSbut, Melbourne as a girl; after 
i8'94 lived in London,; studied with 
Santley and later with Marchesi; 
sang at many English festivals; 1904 
toured Australia; later also U. S.; m. 
F. E. Muecke. 

Crotch, Wm., Norwich, Engl., July 5, 
1775 Taunton, Dec, 29, 1847; at 
the a$e of 2i he played on a small 
organ, built by his father, a master- 
carpenter; at 10 played in public at 
London; at the age of n asst. organ- 
ist of Trinity and King's Colleges 
Cambridge; at 14 c. on oratorio, 
"The Captivity of Judah" (perf. 
1 789) , became organist of Christ Ch., 

Crouch, (i) Mrs. Anna M. (n6e Phil- 
lips), 1763 Brighton, 1805; Engl. 
operatic singer. (2) Fr. Nicholls, 
London, July 31, 1808 Portland, 
Me., Aug. 1 8, 1896; basso, 'cellist 
and singing-teacher; c. 2 operas, and 
songs, incl. "Kathleen Mavourneen." 

Cro'west, Fr. J.^ London, Nov. 30, 1850 
Birmingham, June 14, 1927; emi- 
nent organist, writer and composer. 

Criiger (kru / -ge'r), Jns., Gross-Breese, 
near Guben, 1598 Berlin, 1662; or- 

Crusell (kroos '-sel), Bernhard, Fin- 
land, 1775 Stockholm, 1838; com- 

Cruvel'li (rightly CrtiweU) (krti'-vel), 

(1) Friederifce M., Bielefeld, West- 
phalia, 18^4 1868; noted contralto 
in London, but lost her voice. 

(2) Jne. Sophie Charlotte, Bielefeld, 
Mar, 12, 1826 Nice, Nov. 6, 1907; 
sister of above; also contralto, ill- 
trained, but had enormous success at 
Paris. Gr. Op6ra, 1854, at a salary of 
100,000 francs; in 1856 m. Comte 
Vigier, and left the stage. 

Cui (kwS), CSsar Antonovitch, Vttna* 



Russia, Jan. 18, 1835 d* at Vilna, 
September 14, 1918; one of the most 
important of Russian composers; 
pupil of Moniuszko and Balakirev; 
a military engineer; Prof, of fortifica- 
tion at the St. Petersburg Engineer- 
ing AcadL; from 1864-68, critic of the 
St. P. "Gazette"; 1878-79, pub. arti- 
cles in Paris, on "La musique en 
Russie"; c. operas, "William Rat- 
dijfe" (St. P., 1869); "The Prisoner 
in the Caucasus" (1873); "Angela" 
(1876); "The Mandarin's Son"- 
(1878); lyric comedy, "Le Filibus- 
ter* (Paris, 1894); the very succ. 
"The Saracen" (1899); "A Feast in 
Time of Plague" (1901); "Mam'tettt 
Fiji" (1903); "MaUeo Falcone" 
(1908); "The Captain's Daughter"*, 
some thirty mixed choruses; string 
quartet, many vln. works, 2 scherzos 
and a tarantella for orch.; suite for 
pf. and vln.; pf.-pcs.; some 200 
songs. "Esquisse critique" on Cul 
and his works by the Comtesse de 
Mercy- Argenteau; also studies by 
Koptmev, Weimarn, etc. 

Cul / bertson > Sasha, b. Russia, Dec. 
29, 1893; violinist; pupil of Suchoru- 
koff; at 9 entered Cons, at Rostoflf; 
in 1905 pupil of Sevcik, Prague; 
d6but, Vienna 1908; toured Europe 
and Amer,: d. N. Y., Apr. 16, 1944. 

Gulp (koolp), Julia, b, Groningea, 
Get* i, 1881; mezzo-soprano; well- 
known Liedersinger; pupil of Amster- 
dam Cons, and of Etelka Gerster; 
has toured Europe with great suc- 
cess; after 19x2, America* 

Culwick (kulMXk), James a. West 
Bromwich, April 38, 1845 Dublin- 
Oct. 5, 1907; organist, theorist and 
comp. Prof. Alexandria College* 
Dublin; cond. Dublin Philharmonic 
Soc., etc. 1903, Mus. Doc. Univ. of 

Cura'mings, *Wm. Hayman, Sudbury, 
Devon, Isng., Aug. a a, 1831 Lon- 
don, August, 1915; organist Waltham 
Abbey: prof, of singing R. Coll. for 
the Blind, Norwood; 1896, principal 
of Guildhall Sch. of Mus.; founded 
the Purcell Society, ed. its pubs,; 
wrote biog. of Purcell (London, 
1882); had also pub* a music 
"Primer," 1877; and a "***. Dic- 
tionary of Musicians" (1893;; c, a 
cantata, *<Tk* Fairy Ring," etc. 

Cord (koor'-che*), Giu. Barletta, 1808 
1877; singing teacher and dram, 

Cur'ry, Arthur Mansfield, b. Chelsea. 
Mass., Jan. 27, 1866; violin pupil of 
Franz Kneisel and Edward MacDowell 
in harmony; teacher and cond. in 
Boston; c, overture "Blomidon" 
(Worcester, Mass., Fest. 1902); 
syniph. poem *M*oJa" (Boston 
Symph., igi i); "The Winning of 
A marac" ; Keltic legend for a reader, 
chorus and orch., etc. 

Cursc&mann (koorsh'-m&n), K. Ft., 
Berlin, 1805 JLangfuhr, near Dan- 
zig, 1841 ; singer, dram, composer and 
pop. song- writer, 

Curti (koor'-tfi), Fz. (or Francesco), 
Cassel, 1854 Dresden, 1898; dram, 

Curtis, (i) H. Holbrook, New York, 
Dec. 15, 1856 1920; grad, Yale, 
1877; 1880, M,D.; vice-pres. Am, 
Social Science Assn., prominent 
throat specialist and writer on the 
voice, pub. " Voitc Building and Tone 
Plating" (2) Natalie, New York- 
Paris, Oct. 23, 1925; writer on Indian 
and Negro music; studied with 
Friedheim, Busoni, Giraudet, Wolff 
and Kniesc; early active as pianist; 
made collection of 200 songs of Am. 
Indians, also Negro folk-songs; m. 
Paul Burlin, painter. 

Ctir'wen, (i) Rev. J-, Heckmondwike, 
Yorkshire, Engi., 1816 near Man* 
cheater, 1880; 1862, resigned his pas- 
torate, and founded a college, also a 
pub. -house, to exploit Tonic-sol-fa, 
Plaistow, 1847 
son and pupil of 

(2) J. Spencer^ Plaistow, 1847 
London, 1916; son and pupil of 
above; pupil also of G, Oakey and 

R.A.M.; writer, and 1880 pres. 
Tonic-sol-fa ColL 

Cur'zon, Clifford, b. 1007; Briliih pinnist. 

Cusins (kQz'-Tns) T Sir Wm. G., London, 
1833 Remonchampa (Ardennes). 
1893; pf.-prof. R.A.M,; knighted 
1892; conductor and composer. 

Cuzzoai (kood-x6'-ne), Fran., Parma, 
1700 Bologna, 1770; debut 27x9; 
m. the pianist Samioni; very success- 
ful contralto till her latter days, when 
it is said she earned a pittance by 
covering silk buttons. 

Czeraohorsky (chr-na-h&r'-shkf) T Bo- 
huslav, Nimburg, Bohemia, Feb. 26, 
$684 Grax, July 2, 1 740, Frandft- 
can monk, organist and comp. 

Czenay (Corny) (char'-nft), Kiri, Vi- 

enna, Feb. ao, 1791 July 15, x 
pupil o! his father WeoMi C*, later 
of Beethoven; and bad advice from 



Clemcnti and Hummel; made an 
early reputation as pianist and was 
an eminent teacher from his i6th 
year; Liszt, DQhler, and Thalberg 
were among his pupils; pub. over 
1,000 works, his pf.-studies, still 
standard, incl. many such works as 
"Die Schtde der Geltiufigkei?>> (School 
of Velocity) (op. 299); c. also masses, 
symphonies, overtures, etc. 

Czersky (char'-shk!). Vide TSCHTRCH. 

Czerwonky (chSr'-vo'n-ke'), Richard, b. 
Birnbaum, Germany, May 23, 1886; 
violinist, conductor; studied at 
Klindworth-Scharwenka Cons, and 
Hochsch., Berlin; pupil of Zajic, 
Moser and Joachim; d6but with 
Berlin Philh., 1906; later concertm. 
of Boston and Minneapolis Symphs.; 
head of Bush Cons., Chicago, vln. 
dept., after 1910- 

Czibulka (ch6-bool'-ka), Alphons, 
Szepes-Vdrallya, Hungary, May 14, 
1842 Vienna, Oct. 27, 1894; pianist 
and conductor; c. 5 operettas, incl. 
"Der Bajazzo" (Vienna, 1892), waltzes, 

Dachs (dakhs), Jos., Ratisbon, 1825 
Vienna, 1896; teacher and pianist. 

Daff'ner, Hugo, b. Munich, May 2, 
1882: author and comp.; pupil of 
Thuille, Schmid-Lindner and Max 
Reger; 1904, Ph.D.; c. symph., 
sonatas, etc. 

0alayrac (or D'Alayrac) (dl-S-rk), 
Nicolas, Muret, Haute- Garonne, 
June 13, 1753 Paris, Nov. 27, 1809; 
prod, about 60 operas, 

Dalberg (dal'-b&rkh), Jn. FT. Hugo, 
Reichsf reiherr von, Herrnsheim, 1760 
1812; writer and composer. 

D'Albert, Eugen. Vide ALBERT, d'. 

Dalcroze (dSl-kr6z), Emile Jaques, b. 
Vienna, July 6, 1865, of Swiss parent- 
age d. Geneva, July 2, 19 50; founder 
system of rhythmic exercises known 
as "Eurhythmies"; 1910-15, founded 
school at Hellerau, near Dresden; 
pupil of Fuchs, Bruchner and D6- 
Hbes; teacher, lecturer and critic at 
Geneva Cons.; c. lyric comedies 
"Janie" (Geneva, 1893), nd "San- 
cho Panza" (1897); "Po&m* Alpestre" 
for voices and orch. (1896, London, 
1897); a violin concerto played by 
Marteau on his tours, and Swiss 
songs of popularity and national 
teeung; his theories of bodily move- 

ment have had deep influence on 
the internat'l. world of music and 
dance; author of many works on the 

Dale, Benjamin James, b. Crouch Hill, 
London, July 17, 1885; organist; 
prof, of R. A. M.; c. symph., 2 over- 
tures, successful piano sonata in I) 
Min., etc., d. London, July 30, 1943* 

Dal lam, Engl. family of organ-builders 
1 7th cent, (also spelled Dallans* 
Dallum, Dalham). 

Dalmores (dal-ma'-rSs), Charles, b. 
Nancy, France, Dec. 31, 1871; tenor; 
pupil Paris and Lyons Cons.; sang in 
France; 1896, at Manhattan Opera, 
N. Y.; 1910, Chicago Op.; also widely 
in Europe, incl. Bayreuth; later res. 
in Los Angeles as vocal teacher. 

D'Alvarez (dal-v2,r'-th), Marguerite, 
b. England; contralto; of Peruvian 
and French ancestry; daughter of 
nobleman and diplomat; studied at 
Brussels Cons., winning ist prizes in 
.singing and declamation, also Prix 
de la Reine; appointed Court Singer 
to King of Belgians; studied opera 
in Milan; d6but at Rouen; also with 
succ. at La Scala; Amer. d6but 
with Manhattan Op. Co., 1909; with 
Boston Op. Co., 1913; later at Co- 
vent Garden; 1920, Chicago Op.j 
d. Alassio, Italy, Oct. 18, 1953- 

Dalvimare (dal-vS-ma'-re 1 ) or d'Alvi- 
mare (d&l-vX-m&r), Martin P^ Dreux 
Eure-et-Loire, 1772 Paris, 1839, 

Dambois (dam-bwS/), Maurice, b. 
Li6ge, Belgium, 1889; 'cellist; pupil 
of Cons, in native city; ist public 
appearance at 12; later toured ex- 
tensively; dir. Li6ge Acadmie, 1910- 
14; first visited the U. S. in 1917 in 
company with Ysaye, where he later 
lived; c. orch., chamber music, songs, 

Damcke (dam'-ke"), Berthold, Hanover, 
1812 Paris, 1875; conductor. 

Damoreau (d&m-6-rQ) , Laure-Cinthie 
(ne Montalant, first known as 
"MUe. Cinti"), Paris, 1801 Chan- 
tilly, 1863; soprano, later prof, of 
singing, Paris Cons,; wrote "Mithodc 
de chant."- 

Da Mot'ta, Jos6 Vianna, b. Isle St. 
Thomas , April 22,1 868 Lisbon , June 
i, 1948; noted pianist; studied Lis- 
bon; d6but there 1881, then studied 
Scharwenka Cons., with Liszt and 
Von Biilow; toured widely; lived in 



Berlin for some years; 
taught at Geneva Cons.; late* in 
Lisbon as dir. of Cons, and eond. of 
symph. orch.; c. symph. "JLn das 
V&terl&nd," 5 Portuguese ihapsodBtes 
*>n native nielodies, etfc.; also cdtic 
and author. 

Damrosch (dam'-xr6sh), (i) Dr. Leo- 
pold, Bosen, Prussia, Oct. 22, 3:832 
<New York, Feb. 15, 1885; ?&54 
M.D.; took up music as solo*-violin- 
ist; then as cond. at minor theatres: 
1855, solo violinist Grand Ducal 
Orch., at Weimar; here he m. Helene 
von Heimburg, a singer,; 1859-60 
cond*. tBreslau Phil- Soc.> etc.; 87 i, 
invited to New York to conduct the 
Arion Society* xhade his first appear- 
ance as conductor and <x>riaposfer and 
violinist; 1873, founded \the Oratorio 
Society, 1878 the Symphony Society; 
1880 Mus. Boc. Columbia Coll.; 
1,884, cond. Gertnan opera at Met. 
Op.; <:. 7 cantatas; symphony; music 
to Schiller's "Jo<m of Arc," etc. 
(*) Frank, Breslau, June 22, 859 
New York, Oct. ax, 1937; son and 
pupil of above; pupil of Pruckner, 
Jean Vogt, and von Inten (pf.)> 
Moszkowaki (comp.); 1882-85, cond. 
Denver (Col.) Chorus Club; 1884-85 
supervisor of music in public schools, 
also organist in various churches: 
1885^91, chorusm. Met. Op.; till 
1887 cond. the Newark Harmonic 
Society; 1892 organized the People's 
Singing Classes; 1897, supervisor of 
music, N, Y. City pubhc schools; 
cond. 1898-1912, Oratorio Society, 
and 1893-1920, Mus. Art Soc. 
JN. YO, Oratorio Soc v Bridgeport 
(Conn.), "Orpheus" and "Ewyfcce" 
Jrhila,, etc*; for nearly 30 years 
from 1905 he was the first and sole 
dir. of the Inst, of Music. Art, noted 
New York school, which was later 
merged with the Juilliard School of 
Music but still functions; he wrote 
treatises; Mus. B,, Yale Univ., 1904; 
pub. songs and choruses, and a 
method of sight-singing. (3) Walter 
Breslau, Jan. 30, x8o~s 1ST. Y., 
Dec, 22, 1950; son of (i): pupil 
of "Rischbieter and Draesefce (harm.), 
von Inten, Boekelman, and Max 
Pinner, (pf.)> von Bulow (con- 
ducting); 1885-09 cond. N. Y. Ora- 
torio and Symphony Societies; 1892 
founded the N. Y. Symphony Orch.; 
1894, organized and cond. the Dam- 
rosch Opera Co.; 1899, cond. at 

Philadelphia; *O2 ond. N, Y. 
Philh. (vice Paur)$.he Soured Europe 
With the N, Y. Symphony, 1920, and 
remained its permanent cond. for 
more than 40 years; during this tame 
he developed esp. popularity as a 
cond. and lecturer at child* e&'s orch. 
concerts; he resigned this post in 
1926 to become musical counsel of 
the Nat'l. Broadcasting Ckx, and 
annually led a notable series of 
"music appreciation" concerts fdr 
die school children .of the country 
over this radio chain. He is the re- 
cipient of many honours, incl. the 
L&giom of Honour and a half-dozen 
doctorates from American univs. 
Fab. his rnemoirs, "Ify Musical 
Jtefe" (1930); prod, opera, "The 
Scwfot L&ter" OBoston, 1896), text 
by Geo. Parsons Lathrop; c. also 
"Tfo Dove of P&tce" (ipia), "Gyr**o 
de Bergerac* (teiact by W. J. Hender- 
son after Rostand play, Met. Op., 
5913); "The Man WUkm* a Country?* 
(libretto by Arthur Guitennan}, 
Met. Op. 1937; choruses, songs, etc, 

Da 7 na, Chas. Henshaw, West Newton, 
Mass., 1846 Worcester, 1883; pian- 
ist, organist and composer. 

Danb (dfin-bS,), Jules, Caen, France, 
Nov. 15, 1840 Vidby, Kov, 10, 
1905; violinist; pupil of Paris COBS.; 
till 1892 2nd dir. of the Coos* Con- 
certs; 1895, cond. Op. Com., Paris; 

Ban 'by, J,, 1757 London. May 16, 
1798; English organist and composer. 

Dttcla (dto-fela), (i) J. Ba|>. Cfaas,, 
Bagr^res-de-Bigorre, J>ec. 19, 1818 
Tunis, Nov* 9, 1907: 1828 pupil of 
Baillot, Hal^vy, and Berton, Paris 
Cons*; 1834, 2n d solo via. Op.-Com.; 
2 ?57y P^of. of via. at the Cons., 
giving famous quartet soirees; c. 
four symphonies, over 130 works for 
vln., etc.; wrote $ technical books. 
"Les compostieurs chefs d* orchestra, 
etc. (2) Arnaud, Bagn^res-de-Bi- 
gorre, 18201862, bro. of above; 
'cellist and writer. (3) Leopold, 
Bagn^res-de-Bigorre, 1823 Paris, 
1895, ^> r <>- of above; composer* 

Dan'do, Jos. H. B. f b. Somers Town, 
London, 1806; violinist. 

Danhauser (dan-how '-z^r or 

zft), Ad. Ld., Paris, 1835 2896; prof. 
of solfeggio at Cons, and dram, com- 

Danicaou V. PBXLXDO&* 



Daniel, Salvador, b. Bourges, 1850 (?) ; 
for a few days dir. Paris Cons., under 
the Commune; killed in battle, 
May 23, 1871; writer. 

Danise (da-n6'-za), Giuseppe, b. Na- 
ples, Jan. n, 1883; opera barytone; 
ist studied law, then singing with 
Colonnese and Petillo; debut, Na- 
ples, 1906; has sung in leading 
Italian theatres, also Russia, South 
and Central America and XJ. $,; 
Met. Op. Co., N. Y., for some years 
after 1920; also in America with 
Ravinia Op. Co. 

Danjou (dan'-zhop), J. L. F., Paris, 
1812 Montpellier, 1866; 1840, or- 
ganist and erudite historian. 

Dan'kers (or Danckerts), Ghiselin, b. 
Tholen, Zealand; chorister in Papal 
chapel, 1538-65; composer and 

Dann, Hollis, b. Canton, Pa., May *, 
1861 N. Y., Jan. 3, 1939; Mus. D., 
Alfred Univ., 1906; dir, public 
school music, Ithaca, N. Y- 1887- 
1903; 1906-21, headed dept. of music, 
Cornell Univ., leading Glee Club and 
Music Fest.; began work in training 
music supervisors which he con- 
tinued at Penna. State Coll., 1921- 
25; head dept. of music education, 
N. Y. Univ., 1925-35; author of 
j^orks on school music; ed. collec- 
tions, of school songs, hymns, etc. 

Dannreuther (dfin'-roi-tgr), (i) Jg<J- 
ward, Strassburg, Nov. 4, 1844-^- 
Pimlico, London, Feb. 12^ 1905; 
at 5 taken to Cincinnati, where he 
studied with F. L. Ritter; later, pupil 
of Richter, Moscheles, Hauptmann, 
Leipzig Cons.; 1863, London, as 
pianist; 1872 founded and cond. 
London Wagner Society; wrote 
"Richard Wagner, His Tendencies 
and Theories" (London, 1873); also 
composer. (2) Gustav, Cincinnati, 
July ax, i853-*-New York, Dec. 19, 
1923: pupil of de Ahna and Joachim 
(vln.) and Heitel (theory), Berlin; 
lived in London till 1877; joined 
Mendelssohn Quintet Club of Bos- 
ton, where in 1880 he settled as a 
member of the newly formed Sym- 
phony Orch.; 1882-84 dir. Philh. 
Soc,, Buffalo, N. Y.; founded the 
"Beethoven String-Quartet" of N. Y. 
(called "Dannr. Q*" from 1894); for 
3 years leader Symphony and Ora- 
torio Societies, N. Y.; 1907, taught 
Vassar Coll.; wrote musical treatises. 

Danzi (dJtn'-tse), (i) Fz,, Mannheim, 

May 15, 1763 Carlsruhe, April 13, 
1826; dram, composer. 

Da Ponte (da pdnMLe 1 ), Lorenzo, Cen- 
eda, near Venice, March 10, 1749^ 
New York, Aug. 17, 1838; of Jewish 
race; poet-laureate to Joseph II. at 
Vienna, until 1792; wrote text of 
Mozart's "Don Giovanni" and "Cost 
Fan Tutte"; London, 1803, teacher 
of Italian and poet to the Italian 
Opera; made a failure of different 
pursuits in the U. S. A., and was 
finally teacher of Italian at Columbia 
College, N. Y.; pub. "Memorie" 
(Memoirs). There is a sketch of his 
fife in Krehbiel's "Music and. Man- 
ners" (N. Y., 1899). 

Daquin (d&-kn), L. Claude, Paris, 
1694 1772; notable organist, clave- 
cinist and composer. 

D'Aranyi, Yelly (yel'-5 dtL-rSn'-ye), b 
Budapest, May 30, 18*95 (grand- 
niece of Joachim); violinist;, studied 
piano at 6; later vln. with Hubay; 
made debut at 13; has toured Ger- 
many, Austria, France^, Ijtaly, Eng- 
land, U. S.; appeared in sonata re- 
citals with Myra Hess; res. in Lon- 
don since 1913; among composers 
who have created works for her are 
Bartok, Ravel and Vaughan Williams. 

Dargomyzsky (dS,r-g6-mSsh'-shke), 
Alex. Sergievitch, Toula, Feb. 14 ^813 
St. Petersburg, Jan>, 1:7, 1869; 
pianist and composer; pupil of Scho- 
berlechner; his opera " Esmeralda?' 
(c. 1839) was prod, 1847 with succ,; 
his best opera "Russdtka" followed 
in 1856; in 1867, at Moscow, an 
opera-ballet, "The Triumph of Bae- 
chus" (written 1847), was instru- 
mented; left an unfinished opera. 
" Kammennoi Cost" ("The Marble 
Guest") (finished by Rimsky-Isorsa- 
kov). "Rogdana " a fantasy-opera, 
was only sketched; c. also pop. orch. 

Da(s)ser (da'iser), (Dasserus) Ludwig, 
until 1562 conductor and composer 
at Munich, predecessor of Lassus, 

Daube (dow'-be*), Fr., Cassel (Augs- 
burg ?), 1730 Augsburg, 1797; com- 
poser and writer. 

Dau'ney, Wm., Aberdeen, 1800 De 
merara, 1843; writer. 

Dauprat (d6-pra), L. Fr., Paris, 1781 
July 1 6, 1868; notable horn-player 
and composer. 

Daussoigne-Mehul (do &'-s wS,n-mSL '-01) ^ 
L. Jos., Givet, Ardennes, 1790 
Lige, 1875; dram, composer. 



Dauvergne (dQ-vrn), Ant. C*, Ferrand. 
1713 Lyons, 1797; violinist and 
dram, composer. 

Davaux (da-v6), Jean Baptiste, C6te- 
St-Andr6, 1737 Paris, Feb. 22, 
1822; c. many symphonies, chamber 
music, etc. 

Davenport, Francis W., Wilderslowe, 
near Derby, England, 1847 Con- 
don, Nov., 1925; pupil of Macfarren, 
whose daughter he m.; 1879, prof. 
R. A. M., and 1882 Guildhall Sch. 
of Music; c. two symphonies (the ist 
winning ist prize at Alexandra Pal- 
ace, 1876), and other comps.; wrote 

Davico (da-vfi'-k6), Vincenzo, b. Mona- 
co, Jan. 14, 1889; pupil of Reger; c. 
operas, orch., chamber music, songs, 

David (d&'-fSt),Fd., Hamburg, June 10, 
1 8 10 near Klosters, Switzerland, 
July 19, 1873; pupil of Spohr and 
Hauptmann; at 15 played in the 

Gewandhaus, Leipzig; 1827, * 
nigstadt Tfcu orch M Berlin; at 10 
vln. in the private quartet of the 

wealthy Baron von Liphardt, at 
Dorpat, whose daughter he m.; gave 
concerts till 1835 m Russia; at 26 
leader of the Gewandhaus Orch. at 
Mendelssohn's invitation; his rigor- 
ous precision of drill is still a terrify- 
ing tradition* In the composition of 
Mendelssohn's vln.-concerto he was 
almost a collaborator (cf. Joachim 
and Brahms). The Cons, was estab. 
in 1843, and D, y s unsurpassed gifts 
as a teacher had a large influence in 
making its reputation, among his 
pupils oeing wilhelmj and Joachim; 
as a leader he had a wonderful faculty 
of inspiring the players with his own 
enthusiasm. His student editions of 
classical works embrace nearly all 
compositions of standard vln. litera- 
ture; edited many classics, including 
the "ffoke Sckul* dts Violinspiels* 
His comp. include an opera, ** Hctns 
Wackt" (Leipzig, 1852); a sympho- 
nies; 5 vln.-concertos, etc.; wrote a 
standard meth* for vln* 
David (da-vad), (i) FSUcien CSsar, 
Cadenet, yaucluse, April 13, 1810 
St. Germain-en- Laye, Aug. 20, 1876; 
at 7 a pupil and chorister in the 
maitrise of Saint-Sauveur at AIx; c. 
hymns, motets, etc.; x 8*5-28 studied 
in the Jesuit college, but ran away to 
continue his music, and became asst.- 
cond, in the theatre at Aix, and at 

19 cond. at Saint-Sauveur; 1830 
Paris Cons., under Bnoist (org.), 
Reber and Millot (harm.), F6tis 
(cpt. and fugue). 1831, his rich 
uncle withdrew his allowance of 50 
francs a month, and he took up 
Saint-Simonism, composing hymns 
for this socialistic sect, which coming 
under ban of the law in 1833, he went 
with other members on a tour 
through Turkey, Egypt, etc.; he re- 
turned in 1835 with a fund of 
Oriental musical impressions, re- 
sulting in an unsucc, volume of 
"M&odies Orien*alcs." He retired 
to the country home of a friend and 
c. 2 symphonies, 24 string-quintets, 
etc. 1838 his first symphony was 
prod.; and 2844, his ode-symphonic 
r 'Le Dtserf had a "delirious succ."; 
the oratorio, "Afoise au Ss'ttaf," 1846; 
a second symphonic-ode ^ 
Colombe" and "L'Eden* 

tery n in a parts (Grand Opra, 1848) 
had no succ.; his opera "La Pcrfa du 
at 10, tst Brtett*' (Th. Lyrique, 1851) is stiO 

popular; the opera "a Fin du 
Monde" was rejected by the Gr. 
Op^ra, and put in rehearsal, but not 
produced, by the Th. Lyrique. and 
in 1850 produced at the Gr. Opr& 
as " Herculaneum" the great state 
prize of 20,000 francs being awarded 
it in 1867; "Latt* Rookk" (1862) 
was a decided succ., but tl Lc Sapkir," 
(1865) also at the Op. Com., failed, 
and he now abandoned dram. comp.,. 
withdrawing Li La Captive," 1869, 
Academician and librarian of the 
Cons. Biog. by Azevedo (Paris, 
1863). (2) Samuel, Paris, 1836 
2895; professor, director and dram, 
composer. (3) Ad. Isaac, Nantes, 
1842 Paris, 1897; dram, composer, 
(4) Ernst, Nancy, 1824 Paris, 1886; 

David* (da-v6'-d*), (z) GUcomo (called 
le pere), Presezzo, near Bergamo, 
1750 Bergamo, 1830; famous tenor. 
(2) Giovanni, 1789, St. Petersburg, 
ca. 2851; son of above; tenor of 
remarkable range Bb-b" 1 , 

Davidov (d*'-v!-d*f), Kar! f Goldinge n, 
Kurland 1838 Moscow, 1880; solo 
'cellist to the Czar; 1876-87^ dir, St. 
Petersburg Cons.; c, symph. poem, 
"The Gifts of Perck," etc. 

I>avies (da'-vls), (i) Ben, PonUirdaroe, 
near Swansea, \Valea, Jan. 6, 1858 
Ashwick, Eng, f Mar. *o, ^043; tenor; 
1880-83 pupil of Randcgger at K. A. 



M.; won bronze?, silver, and gold 
medals, and the Evill prize for de- 
clamatory Engl. singing; 3 years with 
Carl Rosa Opera-troupe; most promi- 
nent in oratorio: after 1893 often 
sang in U. S. (2) David Ffrangcon, 
Bethesda, Carnarvonshire, Dec. n, 
1860 Hampstead, April 5, 1918; 
barytone; M. A. Oxford; pupil 
of Shakespeare; d6but Manchester, 
1890; sang with Carl Rosa Opera 
Co., then oratorio; toured U. S. 
(3) Fanny, Guernsey, July 27, 1861 
London, Sept. i, 1934; eminent 
pianist; pupil of Reinecke, Paul and 
Jadassohn, Leipzig Cons.; later of 
Frau Schumann and Dr. Scholz; 
d6but Crystal Palace, London, 1885; 
toured in England, Germany and 
Italy. (4) Sir Henry Walford, b. 
Oswestry, 1869 Wrington, March 
u, 1941; pupil of Sir Walter Par- 
ratt; 1898, organist of the Temple 
Church; 1898, Mus. Doc., Cantab.; 
1895, prof, of cpt. R. C. M.; knighted 
1922; 1923, national mus. dir. for 
Wales; 1934 made Master of King's 
Music (vice Elgar) . C. 2 symphonies, 
many notable oratorios and other 
choral works; 2 string quartets, 3 
violin sonatas, part-songs, etc. 

Da r vis, John David, Edgbaston, Oct. 
22, 1869 June 21, 1926; pupil Raff 
and Brussels Cons.; 1889, teacher at 
Birmingham; c. opera "The Cos- 
sacks" (Antwerp, 1903), also symph. 
variations (London, 1905), symph. 
ballade "The Cenci"*, symph. poem 
"The Maid of Astolat"', chamber 
music; prize "Coronation March'* 
(1902), etc. 

Da'vison, (i) Arabella. Vide GODDARJD. 
(2) J. W., London, 1813 Margate, 
1885; pianist, critic and composer. 

Da'vy, (i) Richard, Engl., comp. i6th 
century. (2) John, Upton-Helion, 
Exeter, 1763 London, 1824; vio- 

Day, Charles Russell, Horstead, Nor- 
folk, 1860 killed Feb. 18, 1900, in 
the battle of Paardeberg; major in 
British army and writer of books on 
musical instruments. 

Dayas (dl'-as), W. Humphries, b. New 
York, Sept. 12, 1863 Manchester, 
May 3, 1903; pupil of S. Jackson, 
Warren, S. B. Mills and Joseffy; 
organist of various churches; then 
studied with Kullak, Haupt, Erlich, 
TJrban, and Liszt; made concert-tour 
1888; 1890 pf.-teacher Helsingfors 

Cons.; in Dusseldorf (1894), Wies- 
baden Cons., and Cologne Cons.; c. 
organ and piano sonatas, etc. 

De Anna (da-H'-na), (i) H. K. Her- 
mann, Vienna, 1835 Berlin, 1892; 
violinist, teacher and composer. His 
sister (2) Eleonore, Vienna, 1838 
Berlin, 1865; mezzo-scfprano. 

De Angelis (da an / -j&-lgs), Girolamo, 
Civita Vecchia, Jan. i, 1858 Calol- 
zio, Feb. 9, 1935; pupil of Bazzini, 
Milan Cons.; 1881, prof, there, qf 
vln. and via.; 1879-97, solo violinist 
at La Scala; 1897 teacher Royal 
Irish Acad. of Music, Dublin; c. (text 
and music) " V Innocente* (Novi 
Ligure, 1896). 

Debain (dii-ban), Alex. Fran,, Paris, 
1809 Dec. 3, 1877; 1834 made 
pianos and organs in Paris; inv. the 
harmonium 1840, also "antiphonel** 
and "harmonichorde" ; improved the 

Debefve (dii-buV), Jules, b. LiSge, 
Jan. 1 6, 1863; pianist; pupil and later 
teacher at the Cons.; c. opera, rhap- 
sody for orch., etc.; d. Paris, 1932. 

DebiUemont (dti-bs'-ytt-m6n), J. Jac. 
ques, Dijon, 1824 Paris, 1879; 
dram, composer. 

De Boeck (dS-book), Auguste, Merch- 
tern, Belgium, May 9, 1865 Merch- 
tem, Belgium, Oct. 9, 1937; organist, 
son of an organist; pupil of Brussels 
Cons., later a teacher there; c. 
symph., Rhapsodie Dahomienne for 
orch., organ music, etc. 

Debussy (dtt-btt'-s6), Claude Achilla, 
St. Germain-en-Laye, Aug. 22, 1862 
Paris, March 26, 1918; one of the 
most important composers of recent 
times, and the instigator of the entire 
/'modern" movement in music; al- 
ready acknowledged to be a classic, 
D. has had a profound influence on 
creative musicians of every country. 
He came from a family of trades- 
people with no musical background. 
At ii he entered the Paris Cons. 
where he won several prizes for piano 
and studied with Massenet, winning 
the Prix de Rome with his cantata., 
"L 9 Enfant Prodigue." During his 
sojourn in Italy, his originality began 
to assert itself, so much so that his 
orch. suite, "Printemps," shocked the 
conservatives by its harmonic audac- 
ities; he also c, a work for two women 
soloists and female chorus, "La 
Demoiselle j/," at this time. 
Returning to Paris, he was attracted 



by the school of the poetic Symbol- 
ists and frequented their circle, com- 
posing meanwhile his "Arabesques" 
lor piano, "Suite Bergamasque" (do.)> 
"Ariettes Qublites," etc. 
His early works were influenced by 
the French school of Massenet, Cha- 
brier, Lalo, Faur, and by "Wagner, 
but he soon developed an original 
style which came to be known as 
. "impressionism" and consisted in 
painting with brilliant but rare and 
elusive tonal colours, applied in little* 
independent units, as the painters 
of the "pointillist" school were doing. 
His Prelude to "UApres-widi d'un 
Faune" based on Mallarm's cryptic 
nature poem, was completed 1804 
and created a deep impression, en- 
tirely revising the possibilities con- 
tained in orchestral tone-colour, D*s- 
use of distantly related overtones 
widened harmonic boundaries, and 
his use of chords not as a part of a 
continuous structure, but as in- 
dividual entities introduced a new 
principle into modern music. 
He carried on this revolutionary 
work with a string quartet (2803), 
"Proses Lyriqucs" for voice to his 
own text, the "Chansons de Bilttis*"* 
and the 3 "Nocturnes" for orch. 
("Clouds" "Festivals" and "Sirens?* 
the last employing a wordless 
women's chorus.) 

XXs. masterpiece is commonly ac- 
knowledged to be his music drama. 
"PeUeas e$ MelisandeS* a setting of 
Maeterlinck's symbolic play, which 
had its premiere at the Paris Op.- 
Comique in 1902 before a somewhat 
irreverent audience. Here, as in 
most of his works, D. creates an 
atmosphere of half-lights, mystery 
and poetry by the use of an original 
harmonic system in which dissonance 
takes the place of consonance; old 
church modes are used or suggested; 
as are the whole- tone scale and other 
eacotic progressions. The voices em- 
ploy a form of recitative; all climaxes 
are rijjidly restrained. The popular 
following developed by this singular 
but highly artistic work came a few 
years later. 

The most important productions of 
I>'s. final period include music for 
D'Annunaio's "mystery " " The Mar- 
tyrdom of Si. Sebastian*'; the ballet 
**Jeux t n written for Diaghileff's com- 
pany; and the notable ordbu works, 

"La Mer," "Rondes de Printemps** 
and "Iberia" in which his original 
art of novel form, orchestration and 
objectivity of impression reach their 
climax. His final period saw the 
production of many works for cham- 
ber combinations, piano, etc., but 
with a slight growth of austerity in 
his manner. 

His compositions include also: (voice 
and orch.) "Le Jet d'Eau"; (vocal 
quartet) "Trois Chansons"*, (orch.) 
"Images"; (Harp and orch.) "Danse 
Sacree ft Danse Profane"; (voice) 
"Cinq Posmes"; "Mandoline"; "F&tes 
Galanies"; "Trois Chansons de 
France"; "Trois Ballades de Franqois 
Vilfan"; "Le Promenoir des Deux 
Aman&'i "Trois Poemes"; "Noel 
des Enfanfs qui n'oni plus de Mai- 
son"; (piano) "L'lJe Joyeuse"; 
"Esiampes"; "Masques"; "/wow** 
(a series); "ChiJ4t>**$ Corner"; ft La 
Plus que Lente"; a series of 13 pre- 
ludes each; "La 8oit* d Jovjovx"; 
Btroiqw"; 12 etujies; 

(piano, four hands) "March* &c*s- 

works have been orchestrated* 
The Debussy literature is a large onci 
with the composer's own critkr 
writings appearing under the titJT 
"M. Croche, Anti- Dilettante" (1925), 

D.-studies have been pub. by 6aly 
Liebig, Laurencie, Laloy, Sartofi* 

tuido, Caillard and De B6rys r 
eUccioli, Riviere. S^r6, Holland^ 
Checneviere, Pagjia, Jean-Aubry 
Cortot, Boucher, Dumesnil, Gil man, 
Shera, etc. Lion Vallas has issued 
a thematic catalogue, and countless 
magazine articles exist on his music. 
(See article, page 402.) 

Dechart (deW-rt), Httgo, Potscbap- 
pel near Dresden, Sept. *6, 1860 
Nov. 28, 1023; 'cellist; studied with 
his father, then with II. Tiets, and 
at the Berlin Hochschule; toured; 
1894 soloist court-chapel, Berlin; 
mem. of Halir and Hess Quartets. 

Deck'er, Konst., FUrstenau, Branden- 
burg, 3810 Stolp, Pomerania, 3878; 
pianist and dram, composer. 

Dedekinci (dflL'-dfi-klnt), (i) Henning, 
ca. 1500 cantor, theorist and com- 
poser at Langensalxa, Thuringia. 
(a) Konst. Chr., Reinsdorf, Anhalt- 
kothen, 1628 ca, 1697^ comp, 

Dedler (dat'-ifir), Rochus, Oberam- 



mergau, Jan. 15, 1779 Muiuch^ Oct. 
15, 1822; c. music still used in the 

De(e)r'ing, Richard, h. Kent, d. Lon- 
don (?), 1630; studied in Italy; court- 
organist; pub. the oldest extant 
comp. with basso continuo, etc. 

De Falla, Manuel (da fa'-ya), Cadiz, 
Nov. 23, 1877 Alta Gracia, Argen- 
tina, Nov. 14, 1946; pupil of Trago, 
Pedrell, Dukas and Debussy; passed 
student years in Paris but retired 
to Granada, 1914, where he has made 
his home regularly since; one of most 
original and characteristic modern 
Spanish comps., esp, noted for his 
ballets and orchestral works in im- 
pressionistic style; c. (opera) "La 
Vida Breva" (Paris Op.-Comique, 
19 14, has also been given at Met. 
Op. House, N. Y.); (ballets) "El 
Amor Brujo" and "Sombrero de Tres 
Picos"\ (puppet opera) "El Retablo 
de Maese Pedro"; 3 symphonic noc- 
turnes, " Nockes en los Jar dines de 
Espatia" (with piano), "En el Gene- 
raltfe" and "Danza Lejana" (the first 
esp. popular); concerto for harpsi- 
chord and small ensemble; "Don 
Quixote," fantasy for 3 voices and 
orch., and numerous songs and piano 
works; one of the outstanding mod- 
ern comps., with folk-music ingred- 
ients especially prominent in his 
works; a master of orchestration, and 
influenced by the music of Debussy 
and atonalists such as SchSnberg; a 
vivid imagination, colorful and pas- 
sionate romantic subjects and an 
ingredient of mysticism are features 
of his work. He was reported in 
*935 to be at work on " U AtlantideJ* 
later in S, Amer. (Article, P. 495). 

JDefauw (dti-fo'), DSsire, b. Ghent, 
1865: cond. Chicago Symphony , 1943 . 

Defesch (dS-fSsh'), Wm., d. ca. 1758; 
Flemish organist and violinist. 

Defies (dttf-fes), L. P., Toulouse, 
July 25, 1819 June 10, 1900; pupil 
of Hal6vy and Barbereau, Paris 
Cons,, took Grand prix de Rome for 
cantata "L'Ange et Tobie"* his i-act 
com.-op. "I'Anneau d 9 argent" was 
prod. Paris, 1855; 14 others since, 
the last very succ., "Jessica" (Tou- 
louse, 1898); dir. of the Toulouse 
branch of the Cons.; c. also masses, 

Degele (d&'-gg-le*), Eugen, Munich, 
1834 Dresden, 1886; barytone and 

De Gogorza, Emilio (s.-m'-yo da 

go-gor'-tha), b. Brooklyn, N, Y., 
May 29, 1874; barytone; studied 
with Moderate and Agramonte, 
N. Y.; boy soloist in English 
churches; res. as youth in Spain and 
France; concert d6but with Sem- 
brich, 1897; toured widely in concert 
incl. appearances with Emma Eames, 
whom he married in IQXI; member 
of faculty, Curtis Inst., Phila., during 
later years; d. N. Y., May 10, 1949. 

De Greef, Arthur, b. Lowen, Belgium, 
Oct. TO, 1862; composer and pianist; 
studied with Brassin at Brussels 
Cons, and with Liszt; taught piano 
at Brussels Cons., 1885; toured 
throughout Europe as virtuoso; has 
also cond., and c. chamber and piano 

Degtarev (dSkh'-ta-r$v), Stepoan An- 
kiewitsch, 1766-1813; Russian di- 
rector in St. Petersburg and Italy; 
c. 6p concertos, and church choral 

DeHaan, Willem, Rotterdam, Sept. 24, 
1849 Berlin, Sept. 26, 1930; pupil 
of Nicolai, de Lange, and Bargiel, 
also at Leipzig Cons.; 1873. dir. at 
Bingen; cond. "Mozartverein" at 
Darmstadt, 1876; 1895 court-con- 
ductor there; c. 2 operas "Die 
Kaiserstochter" and the succ. "Die 
Inkasb'hne" (Darmstadt, 1895); 3 

Dehn (dan), Siegfried Wm., Altona, 
Feb. '25, 1799 Berlin, April 12, 
1858; noteworthy theorist and teach- 
er; among his pupils Rubinstein, 
Kullak, Glinka. Kiel, Hofmann, etc. 

Deiters (dS'-tSrs), Hermann, Bonn, 
June 27, 1833 Coblentz, May x*, 
1907; 1858, Dr. jur., and Dr. Phil., 
at Bonn', dir. of gymnasia at Bonn, 
1858, and other cities; 1885 of the 
"Provincial Schulrath" at Coblentz; 
writer and translator. 

De KoVen, (Henry Louis) Reginald, 
Middletown, Conn., April 3, 1859 
Chicago, Jan. 16, 1920; composer; 
educated in Europe, took degree at 
Oxford, EngL, 1879; pupil of W. 
Speidel (pf.) at Stuttgart, Lebert 
(pf.), and Pruckner (harm.), Dr. 
Hauff (comp.), Vanuccini (singing), 
Gene'e (operatic comp.); after 1889, 
critic in Chicago and 1891, New 
York, incl. period on the "World"; 
1902-05, organised and cond. Phil- 
harmonic Orch. at Washington, D. 
C.: c. about a score of succ. comi* 



peras, mcl. "Robin Hood"- (Chicago, 
1890); "The Fencing Master" (Bos- 
ton, 1802); "The Highwayman" 
(New Haven, 1897); "Mold Marian" 
(1901); and two grand operas, "The 
Canterbury Pilgrims" (Met. Op., 
1917) and "Rip Van Winkle" 
(Chicago Op. 1920), neither a succ.; 
also many songs; an orch. suite, a 
pf .J-sonata, etc. 

Deiaborde (du-la-b6rd), (i) J. Benj., 
Paris, 1734 guillotined, 1704; dram, 
composer and writer. (2) Elie Mir- 
iam, Chaillot, France, Feb. 8, 1839 
Paris, Dec., 1913; pupil of Alkan, 
Liszt, and Moscheles; pf.-prof. at 
Paris Cons, and dram, composer. 

DeLamar'ter, Eric, b. Lansing, Mich., 
Feb. rS, 1880; conductor, composer, 
organist; studied with Middelscnulte, 
Widor and Guilmant; org, in various 
Chicago churches; asst. cond., Chi- 
cago Symph., 1918-1936; taught at 
mvet Coll., Mich., and Chicago 
Mus. Coll.; d. Orlando, Fla., X953- 

De Lara. Vide LARA. 

Be Lange. Vide LANGE. 

DeUtre (dfc-l&t'r), (i) Olivier, Bel- 
gian music-pub. Antwerp, (1539-55). 
(2) Claude tetit Jan., conductor and 
composer at Liege, 2555* 

Deldevez (dul-du-ves), Ed* Ernest, 
Paris. 1817 1897; 1859* asst.-cond. 
Gr. Opera and Paris Cons., dram, 
composer and writer. 

Delezenne (du-lu-zn), Chas* Ed. Jos., 
Lille, 1776 1 806; writer* 

DelhaBse (del-fcO, Fix y Spaa, Jan. 5. 
1800 Brussels, 1898; founder and 
ed, of "Guide Musicatc"; writer, 

Delibes (du-IeV), Clement PbiUbert 
Mo, St. Germain-du-Val, Sartfae, 
Feb* ax, 3:836 Paris, Jan. 16, 1891; 
composer of graceful and polished 
operatic and ballet scores; entered 
the Paris Cons. In 1848, Le Couppey, 
Bazin, Adam, and B6noist being his 
chief teachers, 1853 organist at the 
Ch, of St.~Jean et $t.~Franco!s: his 
first operetta* "Deux Sacs de Char- 
kon"* was followed by nearly a score 
more; 3:865, and chorus-master Gr, 
Opera; his first ballet "La Source" 
was prod, here 1866 with striking 
succ*, later in Vienna as "Naila"* 
the second, "Coppelia" (Gr. Opra 
1870). is still popular* as is "Sylvia" 
(3876); x88x, prof, of comp. at the 
Cons.; c. also the succ. opera 
fv, STORIER o 

"Le Roi Va dit" (1873); "Jean de 
Nivellc" (1880) and an unfinished 
stage work, "Kassy*," which was 
completed by Massenet and piod. 
1893; also songs, etc. 

Deliotn: (Be Savignac) (diil-yoo da 
s&v-Sn-yak), Chas., Lorien^ Mor- 
bihan, April, 1830 Paris, ca. 1880; 
self-taught as pianist; studied har- 
mony with Barbereau, and comp. 
with Halvy; 1846 took Grand Pnx 
for cpt.; prod, i-act comic opera 
** Yvonne et L&ie" (Gymnase, 1854); 
c. pf ,-pcs. and wrote technical works. 

Deltas (dS'-lS-sas), Frederick, Brad- 
ford, England, Jan. 29, 2863 
Grez-sur-Loing, France, June xo, 
1934; highly original and important 
composer; son of a naturalised Ger- 
man, a wool merchant; 1876-79 
educated in Bradford schools and at 
laternat'L Coll., Spring Grove; re- 
fusing to enter the family business, 
he was sent by his father to an orange 
plantation in Florida, where he had 
lessons In music from an Amer. 
musician, Thomas F. Ward; 1885, 
he taught music in Danville, Vir- 
ginia, and the following year per- 
suaded his parents to send Mm to 
Leipzig, where he made little progress 
at the Cons, but learned much from 
Grieg, who lived there; in 1888 he 
moved to Paris, where he worked as 
a solitary comp.; his first public 
perf- was in 1809, when a concert of 
nis music was given in London at 
St. James's Hall; after an interval of 
8 years his works began to have 
hearings in Germany; his "Appala- 
ckia" for orch. with choral finale 
given at the Lower Rhenish Fest,, 
1905; his "Sta-Drift" for orch,. 
barytone and chorus at the fest. of 
the Allgemeine Deutscher Musik- 
verein in 1906; In England his 
recognition was slower* but owing to 
the championship of Beecham, who 
gave many of works, and organised 
a fest. of] 6 programmes in 1929, D* 
came into his own as one of the most 
Important comps. of the day. After 
2890 he lived on a small estate at 
Grez-sur-Loing; he m. Jelka Rosen, 
painter. In 2897; his latter years were 
clouded by the affliction of blindness 
and paralysis, but he continued his 
work in composition by dictating 
his music. His style !& original, par- 
taking somewhat of French im- 
pressionism, and also showing the 



influence of Scandinavian comps. 
His work is marked by an almost 
complete absence of polyphony, but 
achieved a markedly personal force 
and beauty through his sensitiveness 
to moods of Nature. His chief 
works include: fantasy overture, 
"Over the Hills"' (Elberfeld, 1897); 
"Norwegian Suite" for orch.; piano 
concerto in C minor; the music 
dramas, " Koanga" (Elberfeld, 1904); 
"Romeo und Julia auf dem Dorfe 99 - 
(Berlin, 1907); "Mar got la Rouge 99 ', 
"Fennimore und Gerda" (Frankfort, 
1919); music for Flecker's "Hassan"' 
(Darmstadt, 1923); "Paris, 99 a Night 
Piece for orch.; "Dance of Life 9 ' for 
orch.; "Legende 99 for vln. and orch.; 
"A Mass of Life 99 for soloists, chorus 
and orch.; orch. rhapsody, "Brigg 
Fair 99 "Songs of Sunset 99 for soloists, 
chorus and orch.; "Song of the High 
Hills 99 ' for orch. with concluding 
chorus; the orch. works, "In a 
Summer Garden, 99 "Dance Rhap- 
sody,* 9 "On Hearing the First Cuckoo 
in Spring, 99 - " North Country Sketches, 99 - 
"Eventyr," "Summer Night on the 
River 9 *; vln. concerto, 'cello con- 
certo; double concerto for vln. and 
'cello; songs and choral pieces. 
Studies of his music were pub. by 
Chop and Heseltine. 

Delia Maria (dSl'-la raa-r5'~a), Dp- 
mSnique, Marseilles, 1769 Paris, 
March 9, 1800; son of an Italian 
mandolinist; played mandolin and 
'cello; at 18 prod, a grand opera; 
studied comp. in Italy, and c. 7 
operas, incl. the very succ. "Le 
Prisonnier 99 (1798). 

Delle Sedie (d&-lS sad'-yfc), Enrico, 
Leghorn, June 17, 1826 Paris, 
Nov. 28, 1907; pupil of Galem, 
Persanola, and Domeniconi; 1848, 
imprisoned as a Revolutionist; then 
studied singing; dbut, Florence, 
1851; later prof, of singing Paris 
Cons.; lived in Paris as singing 

Dellinger (del'-lIng-Sr), Rudolf, Gras- 
litz, Bohemia, July 8, 1857 Dres- 
den, Sept. 24, 1910; 1883, conductor 
at Hamburg; 1893, Dresden Ct. 
Opera; c. operettas, incl. succ. 
"CapitanFracasse" (Hamburg, 1889), 
"Don Cesar, 99 etc. 

Dell* Orefice (del 6-r-f5'-ch8), Gm., 
Fara, Abruzzio, Chietino, 1848 
Naples, 1889; cond. and dram, com- 

Delmas (dSl-mas), Jean Fr., Lyons, 
France, April 14, 1861 Paris, Sept. 
29, 1933; bass; pupil Paris Cons.; 
1886, joined the Op6ra where he 
created many rdles with great suc- 
cess. (2) Marc, St. Quentin, March 
28, 1885 Paris, Nov. 30, 193,1; 
composer of operas, orch. and cham- 
ber music. 

Delmotte (d51-m6t), Henri Floreat, 

Mons, Belgium, 1799 1836; writer. 

Delprat (diil-pra'), Chas., 1803 Pau, 

Pyrenees, 1888; singing-teacher and 

writer there. 

Delsarte (dul-s&rt), Fran. Ale*. Ni- 
cholas Cheri, Solesmes, Nord, 1811 
Paris, 1871; tenor; teacher of a well- 
known physical culture; 1855 inv. 
the Guide-Accord, or Sonotype, to 
facilitate piano-tuning. 
De Lu'ca, Giuseppe, b. Rome, Dec. 25* 
1876 N. Y., Aug. 26, 1950; grad. 
St. Cecilia Acad.; d6but, Valentin, 
Piacenza, 1897; sang as regular mem. 
of La Scala, Milan, for 8 years, prior 
to engagement for Met. Op., N. Y., 
1915; sang with latter company until 
1935, in great variety of Italian and 
French barytone r61es; also promi- 
nent in concert; commander, Order 
of the Crown of Italy. 
Delune (dti-lun), Loufe, b. Charleroi, 
March 15, 1876 Jan. 1940; Belgiam 
cond. and pupil at Brussels Cons., 
winning prize, 1900, and Prix de 
Rome, 1903; c. sonatas and songs. 
Del Valle de Paz (del vSl'-l& da pats), 
Edgardo, Alexandria, Egypt, Oct. 18, 
1861 Florence, April 5, 1920; pf.- 
pupil at Naples Cons., of Cesi (pf.), 
and Serrao (comp.); at 16 toured in 
Italy and Egypt, 1890, prof, ia 
Florence Cons.; pub. pf. -method, 
etc.; c. orchestral suites, etc.; dir. of 
"La Nuova Musica," 1896-1914. 
Demantius (da-man '-ts*-oos), Chr., 
Reichenberg, 1567 Freiburg, Sax- 
ony, 1643; prolific composer of 
church-music and songs; wrote a 
vocal method. 

Demeur (du-mur'), (*) Anne Arsene 
(n6e Charton), Sanjon, Charente, 
1827 Paris, 1892; soprano; m, 
(2) J. A. Demeur, flutist and com- 

Demol (du-m6l), (i) Pierre, Brussels, 
1825 Alost, Belgium, 1899; dir. and 

composer. '(2) Fran.' Ml, Brussels, 
1844 Ostend, 1883; nephew of 
above; cond., prof., and dram, com- 



Denmnck', (i) Francois, Brussels. 1815 
1854; 'cellist and prof. (2) Er- 
nest, Brussels, Dec. 21, 1840 Lon- 
doB, Feb. 6, 19*5; sou and pupil of 
above; pupil of Setrvais; 1870, 'cellist 
Weimar Court orch.; 1870 m. Car- 
lotta Patti; 1893, prof. K. A. M-, 

Denefve (dti-nttf), Jules> Chiraay, 
1814 Mons, 1877; 'cellist and dram, 

Dengrenxont (dan-gru-mdn), Maurice, 
b. of French parents, Rio de Janeiro, 
1866 Buenos Aires, 1893; violinist; 
at i x played with succ. in Europe. 
Denude (dn-na), Cfaas,, b. Oswego, 
N. Y., Sept. i, 1863; studied with 
Emery, Boston; teacher and com- 
poser; d. April 29, *Q4#- 
Den'ner, Jn. Chp,, Leipzig, 1655 
Nthrnberg, 1707; maker of wind- 
insts.; inv. 1690 or 1700 the clarinet, 
perhaps also the Stockfagott and the 

Dent, Edward Joseph, b. Ribston, 
England, July, 28, 18765 educator 
and writer on music; pupil of Wood 
and Stanford at Cambridge Univ.. 
fellow of King's Coll.; an ed. of 
Encyclopedia Britannica; ed. second 
edition of Grove's Musical Diction- 
ary; pres* of Internat'L Soc. for 
Contemp* Music; after 1926 |&*oL 
f musical science, Cambridge XJoaiv.: 
author of life of A, Scarlatti; *M 
at tk* Optra in *68o"i "Italian 
Cantatas," **Mo*a*?s 
> "Foundations of English 
a" "Busoni," etc,; has also tr. 
librettos of Mozart operas into 

Benza (dn'~tsa), Luigi, CasteUam- 
mare di Stabia, Feb. 24* *&4 
London, Feb. 13, xoaa; pupil of 
Naples Cons.; c. opera "WaSensttfn" 
(Naples, 1876), many pop. songs 
(some in Neapolitan dialect), inch 
"Funiculi-FunKiila"! after 1898, 
prof. K. A. M., Loadon, 
Deppe (dfcp'-pe 1 ), LudwJg, Alverdissen* 
Lfppe, 1828 Pyrmont, Sept. 5-6* 
18^0; notable pf.-teacher and con- 

Slepre* (or Despr6s) (dQ-prd' or da- 
pra), Joss6 (known as Joaquis), 
Cond^ (?) int Haiaault, Burgundy, 
ca, 1450 Cond6> Aug, 27* x$2^ 
[His epitaph reads "Joss 6 I>eapr<*a"; 
otherspelhngsare Despr^s, P($)pr2, 
Depret, De(s)pret(s), Dupr^, and by 
the Italians, JDel Prato, Latinised as 

a Prato, a Pratis, Pratems^ etc^ 
Josquia appears as Josse*, Jossien, 
Jusquin^ Giosquin, Josquinus, Jaco- 
bo, Jodocus, Jodoculus^ etc.] One 
of the most eooanent of musicians and 
the chief contrapuntist of his day; 
pupil of OJkeghem; 1471-84 a singer 
in the Sistine Chapel, and about 
1488 in Ferrara; he was already now 
accepted as "princeps musicorum," 
and nad international vogue. He was 
received with honour by various 
princes, and was court-musician to 
Louis XII. , many amusing anecdotes 
of his musical humour being told. He 
finally returned to Cond as Provost 
of the Cathedral Chapter, Burney 
called him "the father of modern 
harmony.** The florid and restless 
cpt. of his church-works and the sec- 
ular canius jirmus (v. D. B.) that was 
the basis of most of them, brought 
his school irxto disfavour and disuse 
when the revolutionary Palestrina ap- 
peared. But he was at least the cul- 
mination of his style, and his erudition 
was moulded into suave and emo- 
tional effects, so that Ambros says 
that he was the "first musician who 
impresses us as being a genius. '* His 
period coinciding with the use of 
movable types for music, his works 
are preserved in large quantities xa 
volumes and in the collections of Pe~ 
trucci and Peu linger. His French 
chansons were pub. by T. Su&ato, 
1545, P. Attaignant, 1549* *&<! Du 
Chamm, i$53> excerpts IB modem 
notation are in the **BMiettok /tfr 
kS' 1844; *n Commer's 

Choroa'a "Colltdio*," and in te 
histories of Ambroft, Burney, Haw- 
kins, etc. 

Do R&sxk* (di r*sh*-k&), d) Jawo. 
Warsaw, Jan, 14, #$o Ntee April 
3 i<)2i; perhaps the chief tenor of 
his generation, great in opera of all 
schools; pupil of Ciftffei, Cotogni, 
etc.; 1874, dbut as barytone at 
Venice, as Alfonso in **a fawrita,"- 
under the name "De Reschi"; alter 
gingt&g in Italy and Paris and study- 
ing with Sbriglia, he made his dbut 
as tcaor in *<806rt I* DiaMc" 
(Madrid, 1870); x84 Th. des 
Nations; 1885 at the Gr. Op*ra, 
Pans, creating Massenet's "* CiW"; 
from 1887 he sang constantly In Lon~ 
don, and xSpx-XQor at th* Met. 



Op., N. Y., where he was an un- 
forgettable "Tristan," etc.; retired 
from stage 1902 and taught singing 
in Paris. (2) Edouard, Warsaw, 
Dec. 23, 1855 near Piotrkow, May 
25, 1917; bro. of above; pupil of his 
brother, of Ciaffei, Steller, and 
Coletti; d6but, Paris, April 22, 1876, 
as the Jing in "AUa" (Th. des 
Italiens), sang there two seasons, 
then at Turin and Milan; 1880-84 
at the Italian Opera, London; then 
in Paris, London, America; a magni- 
ficent basso of enormous repertory 
and astonishing versatility as an 
actor; a master in tragic, comic, 
or buffa opera. His sister, (3) 
Josephine, was a soprano of greatest 
promise, but left the stage on her 

Dering, v. DEERING. 
De Sabata (da sa-ba'-ta), Victor, b. 
Trieste, 1892; composer, conductor; 
studied Milan Cons, (gold medal) 
with Orefice and Saladino; has led 
symph. concerts at La Scala, Augusteo 
(Rome), Turin, Bologna, Palermo, 
Trieste; guest cond., Cincinnati 
Symph., 1927-28; and with much 
succ. at Berlin and Vienna both as 
op. and symph. cond.; c. (opera) 
"// Macigno" (La Scala, 19*7); 
(orch.) "Juventus," Andante and 
Scherzo; Orch. Suite; "La Notte 
di Platon," "Getsemane" (N. Y. 
Philh. under Toscaniui, 1926); cham- 
ber music, etc. 

De Sanctis (da sank'-t5s), Cesare, b. 

Rome, 1830 ca. 1900; 1876, prof, of 

harm, in the Liceo; c. overture, 

Requiem Mass, "100 fugues,'/ a 

cappeUa in strict style; pub. treatises. 

Dsat^iers (d-s6-zha), Marc Ant., 

FrSjus, 1742 Paris, 17935 prod. 

numerous succ. short operas. 

Deshayes (dttz-Sz), Prosper Didier, 

prod., 1780, oratorio "Les Macka- 

fees"; c. operettas and ballets, etc. 

Deslandres (d5-l&n'-dru), Adolphe 

Eduard Marie, Paris, Jan. 22, 1840 

July 30, 1911; pupil Paris Cons.; 

argankt at St. Marie at BatignoUes, 

where his father was director; c. 

operettas and church music. 

Desmarets (da-m&-ra), H., Paris, 1:662 

Luneville, 1741; dram, composer. 
Dessau (dSs'-sow), BoL, Hamburg, 
March i, 1861 Berlin, 1923; P^PM 
of Schradieck, Joachim, and Wieni- 
awski; leader at various theatres; 

1898 Konzertmeister at the court- 
opera, Berlin, and teacher Stern Cons. 
Dessauer (dSs'-sow-er), Jos., Prague, 
May 28, 1798 Modling, near Vi- 
enna, July 8, 1876; c. 5 operas and 
many pop. songs. 

Dessoff WSs'-sof), (i) Felix Otto, Leip- 
zig, 1835 Frankfort, 1892; conrt- 
cond. at^Carlsruhe. (2) Margarete, 
b. Vienna, June 11, 1874; conductor; 
daughter of (i); studied at Hoch 
Cons, in Frankfort; founded women s 
chorus which made d6but at Wies- 
baden Brahms Fest. in 1912; later 
a madrigal chorus; was choral cond. 
at Hoch Cons., 1912-17; of Bach 
Soc., in Frankfort, 1917-20; after 
1020 res. for fifteen years in N. Y., 
where she led the Adesdi Chorus and 
A Cappella Singers in programmes 
inci. rare old and mod. mus.; gave 
Amer. premiere of Vecchi's "UAmfi- 
parnaso"', d. Locarno, Nov. 27, 1944- 
Destinn (da'-shtln), Emmy, Prague, 
Feb. 26, 1878 Budweis, Bohemia, 
Jan. 28, 1930; soprano; studied with 
Loewe-Destinn; her real name was 
jQ tt l she chose "Destinn" in 
honour of her teacher; she sang at 
Bayreuth, 1891; from 1908 she 
had great success at the Met. Op., 
N Y., also at Covent Garden and 
Berlin Royal Op.; she created the 
role of "Minnie" in Puccini's "Fan- 
tiuila del West"', during the war she 
was interned in her estate in Bo- 
hemia on the ground of enemy 
sympathies; and after 1918 toured 
again in the U. S., and sang for one 
season at the Met. Op.; her voice 
was of rare purity; her repertoire 
embraced 80 r61es; also a poet and 
writer. A -j. 

Destouches (da-toosh), (i) Andre 
Cardinal, Paris, 1672 1749; dram, 
composer. (2) Franz Seraph von, 
Munich, 17721844; dram, com- 

Desvignes (da-vSn'-yii), Fran., Trier, 
1805 Metz, 1853; violinist; founded 
conservatory at Metz; dram, com- 

D^swert (da-var), (i) J. Caspar -Isi- 
dore, Louvain, 18,30 Schaerbecfc, 
near Brussels, 1806; 'cellist; prot. 
Brussels Cons. (2) Jules, Louvain. 
1843 Ostend, i8t>jr, brother of 
above; conductor and dram, com- 

D^thier (<la'-t5-a), ,(i) Gaston Marie, 
b. LiSge, April 19* *87<5; 



and teacher; pupil of LiSge Cons., 
grad. at 17 with gold medals in 
piano, organ and ist prize for fugue; 
early active as concert org.; after 
1804 at St. Xavier's Ch., N. Y.; 
beginning' 1907 excl. in concert 
work and as teacher at Inst. of Mus. 
Art. (2) Edouard, b. LiSge, 1885; 
violinist; pupil of Lige and Brus- 
sels Cons,; taught at latter; dbut 
in concert, 100^; after igo6 taught at 
Inst. of Mus. Art, N. Y., and toured 
as soloist; with his bro. Gaston 
gave series of sonata recitals in N. Y- 

Dett, Robert Nathaniel, b, Drum- 
mondsville, Quebec, Oct. xx, 1882; 
Negro composer; studied at Oberlin, 
Ohio and Columbia Umvs.; taught 
at Lane Coll., Lincoln Inst., and 
after 1913 at the Hampton (Va.) 
Inst., where he led a choral group; 
won Bowdoin prize, Harvard Univ., 
for essay on * f Tke Emancipation of 
Negro Music"*, c. choral _ works, 
pf. music and spiritual settings; d* 
Battle Creek, Mich., Oct. a, J943- 

Dett'xner, Wxn^ Breinum, near Hildes- 
heim, *8o8 Frankfort, 1876: oper- 
atic bass; 1842 engaged for leading 
r6les Dresden; retired 1874. 

Detitz (doits). Vide MAGNUS. 

Devienne (dtiv-yn), Firan., Joinville, 
Haute-Marne, Jan. 31, 1759 (in- 
sane), Charenton, Sept. 5, 180^; 
flutist and bassoonist; important in 
improving wind instr,; prof., com- 
poser and writer* 

Denies (dtt~vr') Herman, b. New 
York* Dec* 25, 1858; sang Paris Op, 
and Op.-Comlque; Met. Op., Covent 
Garden, etc.; after 2900 m Chicago 
as teacher and critic of the " * 

aee* near Salzburg, Sept. 6, 2782 
Vienna^ April 7, 1858: pL-and 
guitar-teacher; partner of Cappi, the 
music-publisher; c. opera and pop* 
sonatinas, etc. 

Diagfaiieff (dWi'-gS-lySf), Serge, govt. 
of Novgorod, Russia, March 19, 
3872 Venice, Aug, xo io; ballet 
director; studied law in St, Peters- 
burg, also music theory with Cotognl, 
Sokoloff and Liadoff; served as 
critic of the newspaper "Le* Ntnt- 
*e#$"; in 1809 founded periodical 
and promoted art exhibitions; after 
1907, arranged concerts of Russian 
music in Paris; prod. 4 'Bori Godo&* 
nojf" at the Qp there yith ChaHapf,n 

and chorus of Petersburg imp. Op- 
in 1908; in 1909 the first season of 
the Russian ballets was organized by 
him in Paris, incl. Nijinsky, Pavlowa, 
Karsayina, Fokine, etc.; this group 
established world-wide fame, and 
toured in Europe and America with 
brilliant succ. (N. Y., 1916); D. gave 
the impetus to a notable renaissance 
of ballet art, and was responsible 
for the development of many com- 
posers who later became famous, 
fndL Stravinsky; the Diaghileff Ballet 
Russe commissioned and prod, new 
scores of more advanced creators 
than any other organisation of its 

Diaz (de la Pefia) (da'-ftth d&~l-p&n'- 
ya), Eug&ne firnile, Paris, Feb. 27, 
28^7 Sept. i a, x^oz; son of the 
painter; pupil of Paris Cons. (HaI6vy, 
Riber); prod, the com. opera "Le 
Roi Candattle" (1865, Th. Lyrique); 
2867 won the prize for opera, "La 
Coup* du Roi d* TkultF' (Grand 
Opra); 1890 prod* lyric drama 
"Benvenuio" (Op.-Com.); pub. many 

ican"i d* Chicago. Aug. 23, x$49* *99> 

abelH (d-*-belMe), Antonio* Matt- Presb; 

(i) Chas^ Dibdin, near 
Southampton, 1745 London, 18x4 
composer, singer, accompanist, actoi, 
manager and writer. (2) Henry Ed- 
ward, Sadlers WeUs. 18131866; 
harpist, organist, violinist and com- 
poser; youngest son of above. 

Dlck'inson, Clarence, b. Lafayette, 
Ind., May 7, 2873; organist and 
composer; studied with Singer, 
Relmann, Ouilmanty Mo&zkowski, 
and Vierne; founded Mus. Art Ass*n., 
Chicago; res. in New Vork since 
. where he is organist at Brick 
^Jbytezian Church, teacher of 
church music at Gea'i, Theological 
Seminary; also active as composer 
and writer on music, 

Didur (d*'>d5or) T Adamo, b. Sanok. 
Gaikia. Dec. 34, 1874: biss; studied 
with Wyfiocki in Lemberg and 
Emerich in Milan; dbut, Rio de 
Janeiro, 1894; sang at La Scala, 
38^0-1003; also in England, Russia, 
Spain, South America, and for a num- 
ber of years at the Met. Op. House, 
N* Y.; d. Katowice, Jan. 15, 1946. 

Did'ymus, b. Alexandria, Egypt, 63 
B. ; wrote 4,000 works in all, incL 
a treatise on harmony. Vide TETJKA 
CHORDS and COI***A (o D,)- 

(d'yA-mA), Lotria, JP&n*. Feb. 



14, 1843 Dec. 21, 1919; pianist; 
pupil at Cons, of Marmontel; took 
ist pf. -prize at 13, later ist harm., 
and org. and ist cpt.-prizes; pupil 
&mbr. Thomas and Bazin; after 
1887 pf.-prof. at the Cons, (vice 
Marmontel); besides brilliant con- 
certs of modern music, he presented 
programmes of old keyboard works 
played on ancient instrs.; c. pf.- 
concerto, chamber-music, etc., ed. 

Diener (dg'-n&r), JTz., Dessau, 1849 
1879; tenor. 

Diepenbrock (de'-pn-brok), A. J. M., 
Amsterdam, Sept. 2, 1862 April 5, 
1921; teacher and comp. of church 

Dierich (de'-rXkh), Carl, b. Heinrichau, 
March 31, 1852; tenor in concert, 
opera and oratorio; studied with 
Grab en-Hoffman . 

Dies (de'-es), Albert K., Hanover, 
1755 Vienna, 1822; writer. 

Diet (dS-), Edmond M., Paris, Sept. 
25, 1854 Oct., 1924; pupil of C6sar 
Franck, and Guiraud; officier of the 
Academy; prod. 3 comic operas, incl. 
"StratonicJ* (1887), many ballets 
and pantomimes, etc. 

Diet(t)er (ds'-ter), Chr. L., Ludwigs- 
burg, 1757 Stuttgart, 1822; dram, 

Dietrich (de'-trfkh) for Dieterich), (i) 
SLctus, Augsburg (?) 1490 (95) St. 
Gallen, Switzerland, 1548; composer. 
(2) Albert Hn., Golk, near Meissen, 
Aug. 28, 1829 Berlin, Nov. 20, 
1908; composer; pupil of J. Otto, 
Moscheles, Reitz and Schumann; 
1855-61, concert-cond., 1859, princi- 
pal mus.-dir. at Bonn; 1861, court- 
cond. at Oldenburg; 1894 Leipzig; 
c. succ. opera "Robin Hood 9 ' (Frank- 
fort, 1879); " symphony; overture, 
" Normannenfahrt"; cantates with 
orch., 'cello- and vln.-concertos, etc. 

Dietsch (detsh), Pierre L. Ph., Dijon, 
1808 1865; composer and conduc- 

Dieupart (d'ytf-p&r), Chas., i8th cent., 
violinist and harpsichordist. 

DiTliger, Jn., Eisfeld, 1593 Coburg, 
1647, Cantor and composer. 

Dippel (dip'-pSl), Andreas, Cassel, 
Nov. 30, 1866 Hollywood, CaL, 
May 12, 1932; notable tenor; studied 
with Hey, Leoni and Rau; 1887-92, 
Bremen opera, then in New York 
for several seasons, also in Breslau, 
Vienna; 1889 at Bayreuth, from 

1897 at Co vent Garden; associated 
with Gatti-Casazza in management 
of Met. Op. House, N. Y., 1908; then 
directed opera seasons in Chicago 
and Philadelphia, 1910-13; later 
organised his own Wagnerian op. 
company, with financial fiasco; 
taught singing on Pacific Coast in 
latter years. 

Diruta (de-roo'-ta), (i) Gin, b. Perugia, 
ca. 1560; organist; pub. technical 
books on org., cpt., etc. (2) Ag., b. 
Perugia, 1622; Augustine monk; 

DH'son, (i) Oliver, 1811 1888; 
founder of the music-pub, firm O. 
Ditson Co., at Boston, Mass.; 1867, 
his eldest son, (2) Chas., took charge 
of N. Y. branch (C. H. Ditson & 
Co.). After 1875 (3) J. Edward 
Ditson cond. Philadelphia branch 
(J. E. D. & Co.), but this was dis- 
continued in 1910. A branch for the 
importation of instrs., etc., was est. 
at Boston in 1860 as John C. Haynes 
& Co.; and 1864 a Chicago branch, 
Lyon & Healy. In 1932 the publish- 
ing activities were taken over by the 
Theodore Presser Co. 

Ditters (dXt'-tSrs) (von Dittersdori), 
Karl, Vienna, Nov. 2, 1739 Neu- 
hof, Bohemia, Oct. 24, 1799; note- 
worthy as forerunner of Mozart, and 
early writer of programme-music (v. 
D. r>,); pupil of Konig and Ziegler, 
of Trani (yln.), and Bono (comp.); 
he played in the orch. of his patron 
Prince Joseph of Hildburghausen, 
1759, and then in the ct.-Th. at 
Vienna (1761); toured Italy with 
Gluck, and made great succ. as 
violinist; 1764-69 conductor to the 
Bishop of Gross- Wardein, Hungary, 
Prod, his first opera, "Amore in 
Musica" 1767; followed by various 
oratorios, and much orchestral and 
chamber-music. Later conductor to 
the Prince-Bishop of Breslau; built 
a small theatre and prod, several 
pieces. 1770 the Pope bestowed OB 
him the Order of the Golden Spur; 
1773 the Emperor ennobled him as 
"von Dittersdorf." Prod. 28 operas; 
"Doktor und Apotheker" (Vienna, 
1786), still pop.; several oratorios 
and cantatas, 12 symphonies on 
Ovid's "Metamorphoses" (Vienna, 
1785) (noteworthy as early attempts 
at programme-music) ; 41 other sym- 
phonies; a "Concerto grosso" for 
ii concerted instrs. with orch.; 12 



vln.-concertos. etc. Autobiography 
(Leipzig, iSoi). Studies by Arnold, 
KLrebs, Klob and Riedinger. Krebs 
also issued a thematic catalogue, 
with additions later by Istel. 

Divitis (d'-vX~t6s), Antonius (rightly 
Antoine Le Riche), French contra- 
puntist and singer, i6th century. 

Diad (de-z6), Fran. J., Namur, France, 
Jan. 14, 1780 Paris, Nov., 1847; 
composer and harpist. 

Dlabacz (dl&'-b&ch), Gottf. J., B6h- 
misch-Brod, Bohemia, 1758 
Prague, 1820; pub. a biog. diet,, etc. 

Oobrowen (d6-brd-vn'}, Issay, b. 
Nishni-Novgorod, Russia, Feb. 27, 
1893; conductor, composer; pupil of 
Moscow Cons., where won gold 
medal, 1911; also studied piano with 
Godowsky in Vienna; prof, at Mos- 
cow Philharmonic, 19 17-2%, and 
after 1919 cond. at the Great Theatre 
there; beginning 1923 he was cond* 
and scenic director at the Dresden 
Op.; 1924-25, Berlin Volksoper; 
1931-32, Museum Concerts, Frank- 
fort: until 195* he was the regular 
cond. of the Oslo Philh. Orch., and 
the San Francisco Symph. Orch, 
at93*~<53J c. chamber and orch. music 
and piano wks.; d. Oslo, Dec. 9, 1953. 

Dobrzynski (do-brfi-tsn'-shkX), Jgnacy 
FSIix, Romanoff, Volhynia, Feb* 
a<, 1807 Get, 9, 1867; pupil of 
Eisner, pianist and dram, composer. 

Doebber (dSp'-bSr), J*,, Berlin, March 
a8, 1866 Jan. 26, 1921; pupil of 
Radecke, Bussler and Agghazy, 
Stem Cons.; taught the ist pi. -class 
in Kullak*s Cons.; then conductor 
at KrolTs Th.; at Darmstadt ct.~Th.; 
189*, cond. at the ct.-Th. in Coburg- 
Gptha, and tutor to Princess Bea- 
trice; later in Hanover, and after 
1908 in Berlin as critic and voice 
teacher; c, succ. operas, "Die 
$tra$$4ns#ng*ri**' (Got ha, 1800): 
"Dtr Sckmied van Gretn&^Green* 
(Berlin, 1893); burlesque-opera 
"Dolcetta" (Brandenburg, 1894); 
"Die Rose von Gcnzant (Gothi, 
1895); "D* Grillt" (Leipzig, 3:897), 
a symphony, son^s, etc. 
Dhler (dft'-Itfr), Th*, Naples, 18x4 
Florence, 1856; pianist and dram, 

Dohnanyl (deSkh-n^n'-yC), Ernst von, b. 
Pressburg, Hungary, July 27, 1877; 
notable pianist and composer; first 
lessons from his father, an amateur 
^cellist; later studied with Foerster, 

Koessler, Thonian, and Eugeix 
D'Albert; d^but, Vienna; 1898, 
won prize there with his pf .-concerto. 
1900 and 1901 toured in America 
with great succ.; after 1907 taught 
at Berlin Hochsch,; 2919, air. 
Budapest Acad. of jMus.; he cond. 
State Symph. in New York 1925-6 
season; c. operas "Ta*te Stmona" 
"Tte Tenor" "The VoycvodSs 
Tower" $ also pantomimes; 2 sym- 
phonies, 2 pf.-concertos, 4 rhap- 
sodies, string sextet, piano quintet, 
2 string quartets, 3 *ceUo sonatas, 
2 piano sonatas, songs, etc. 
Doles (dd'-les), J. &., Steinbach, 
Saxe-Meiningen, 171 5 Leipzig* 
2797; director and composer* 
Dol'raetsch, Arnold, b. Le Mans, 
France, Feb. 24, 1858 London^ Feb. 
29, 1940; of mixed French and Swiss 
parentage; studied with Vieux temps 
in Brussels and at R. Coil, of Mus., 
London; taught at Dulwich ColL, in 
Utter city; began collecting and play- 
ing ancient instruments; was active 
in Chickering*s workshop, Boston, 
2903-09; and in that of Gaveau. 
Paris, 19x0-24; ia latter year settled 
at Haslemere, Surrey, where he in 
x$35 began a series of notable An- 
nual chamber music feats.. In which 
he has restored rare old music and 
dances, his entire family participat- 
ing in programmes: also has con- 
structed his own instruments for 
these events. 

Domaxxievski (dd-mtn-yif'-thkl), 

Bolealaua, b* Gronowek, Poland, 
xB$7 1925; Polish piano teacher; 
pupil of JOB. Wieniawski and Rubin- 
stein; 1890-2000, prof. Kt Cracow 
Cons., xooa, director Warsaw Music 
School; author of piano methods; 
from xoo6, dir. of Warsaw Musik- 

Dominiceti (d6-m-n^h&^t*) t Cesare, 
Desenzano, Lago dl Garda, i^ai 
Sesto di Monra, 1888; prof, of comp. 
at Milan Cons., and dram, composer. 

Bom'mexy Aixey TOO, DanxiK, Feb. 9. 
*8a8 Treysa, Feb* 18, 1005; pupil 
of Rlchter and Lobe (comp.), and 
Schallenburg (org.); 1863 Hamburg 
as a lecturer, critic, and (1873-70; 
sec. to the Town Library; xo* Dr. 
phiL hon, causa (Marburg Univ.); 
writer and composer. 

Jamaica <ddm'-nlkh) t Heinrich, Want- 
burg, May 13, 1767 Paris, June 19, 
2844; born virtuoso; first teacher 



of the horn at Paris Cons., 1795; 
author of methods. 

DonaTda, Pauline (rightly Lightstone), 
b. Montreal, March 5, 1884; soprano; 
studied at Victoria Cons., and with 
Duvernoy at Paris Cons.; d6but as 
Manon, Nice, 1904; sang at La 
Monnaie, Brussels, Covent Garden, 
Manhattan Op. House, N. Y. 
(1905); at Paris Op., 1907, etc. 
Donati (do-neL'-te), (i) Ignazio, Casal- 
maggiore, near Cremona, i6th cent., 
composer and conductor. (2) Bal- 
dassaro, d. Venice, 1603; cond. and 

Donaudy (d5-n'-oo-d5), Stefano, 
Palermo, Feb. 21, 1879 Naples, 
May 30, 1925; c. operas "Folchetto" 
(Palermo, 1892): "Theodor Kih-ner" 
(Hamburg, 1902^, and "Sperduti nel 
Buio" (Palermo, 1907), songs, etc. 
Done (d5n), Win., Worcester, 1815 
1895; Engl. organist and conductor. 
Doni (d5'-ne), (i) A. Fran., Florence, 
15^9 Monselice, near Padua, 1574; 
pub. a "Dialogue on Music" (2) 
Giov. Bat., 1594 1647; Florentine 
nobleman of great learning and re- 
search in ancient music; inv. the 
Lyra Barberina or Amphichord. 
Donizetti (dS-ne-tsSt'-tS), (i) Gaetano, 
Bergamo, Nov. 25, 1797 April 8, 
1848; son of a weaver; pupil of Sa- 
iari (voice), Gonzales (pf. and ac- 
compO, and Mayr (harm,); Pilotti 
and Padre Mattel (cpt.); his father 
opposing his making mus. a profes- 
sion, he entered the army, was posted 
at Venice, where he c. and prod, with 
succ. "Enrico di Borgogna" (1819); 
"II Falegname di Livonia" (Venice, 
1820), first given as "Pietro il 
Grande" also succeeded: "Le Nozze 
in Villa" (Mantua, 1820) failed; 
"Zoraide di Granata" (1822) suc- 
ceeded and he left the army; 1823 he 
m. Virginie Vasselli (d. 1837); 1822- 
29 he c. 23 operas, none of them of 
great originality or importance. 
With "Anna Bolena" (Milan, 1830), 
he began a better period, incl. the 
great successes "L'Elisir d' A more" 
(Milan, 1832), "Lucrezia Borgia" 
(La Scala, Milan, 1833), "Lucia di 
Lammermoor" (Naples, 1835). 1835 
at Paris he prod. "Marino Faliero." 
1837 dir. Naples Cons. The censor 
forbade his "Poliuto" (it was prod, 
at Naples after his death, 1848), and 
in wrath he left for Paris, where he 
prod, with much succ. "La Fille du 

Regiment" (Op.-Com., 1840), "Les 
Martyrs" (a new version of "Poliuto") 
(Op6ra, 1840?) and "La Fawrita" 
(Op&ra, 1840). Returned to Italy, 
and succ. prod. "Adelasia" (Rome, 
1841), and "Maria Padilla" (Milan, 
1841). At Vienna, 1842, c. and prod, 
with great succ. "Linda di Chamou- 
nix." The Emperor made him Court 
Composer and Master of the Imperial 
Chapel; c. a Miserere and an Ave 
Maria in strict styie. "Don Pas- 
quale" was prod, in Paris, 1843. 
Violent headaches and mental depres- 
sion now assailed him, but he con- 
tinued to write and prod. "Caterino 
Cornaro" (Naples, 1844), his last 
work; he was found stricken with 
paralysis, never recover ed* and died 
in 1848 at Bergamo. Besides 67 
operas, all of them produced, he c. 6 
masses, a requiem; cantatas; 12 
string-quartets; pf.-pcs* and songs. 
Biog. by Cicconetti (Rome, 1864). 
(2) Alfredo (rightly Citunmei), b. 
Smyrna, Sept. 2, 1867 Rosario de 
Santa Fe, Argentina; Feb. 4, 1921; 
pupil of Ponchielli and Dominiceti, 
Milan Cons., graduating with a note- 
worthy "Stabat Mater" with orch.; 
lived at Milan as cond. and teacher 
of cpt.; c. i-act operas " Nana" 
(Milan, 1889), and "Dopo VAve 
Maria" (Milan, 1897), "La Loean- 
diera" etc. 

Dont (d6nt), (i) Jos. VaL, Georgenthal, 
Bohemia, 1 776 Vienna, 1 833 ; 'cellist. 

(2) Jakob, Vienna, 1815 1888; son 
of above; violinist and composer, 

Donzelli (d6n-jl'-le), Dom., Bergamo, 
1790 Bologna, 1873; tenor. 

Door (d5r), Anton, Vienna, June 
20, 1833 Nov. 7, 1919; puijil of 
Czerny and Sechter; court pianist 
at Stockholm; 1859 teacher at the 
Imp. Inst*, Moscow; 1864 prof, at 
the Cons.; 1869 ist prof. Vienna 
Cons., resigned 1901; edited classical 
and pedagogic works. 

Dopp'ler, (i) Albert Fr, Lemberg, 
1821 Baden, near Vienna, 1883; 
flutist, conductor, professor, and 
dram, composer. (2) Karl, Lem- 
berg, 1825 Stuttgart, March 10, 
1900; bro. of above; flutist, and 
conductor; c. operas, inch "Erzebeth" 
in collab. with his bro. and Erkel. 

(3) Arpad, Pesth, June 5, 1857 
Stuttgart, Aug. 13, 1927; son and 
pupil of (2); pupil of Stuttgart Cons., 
later pf .-teacher; 1880-83 New York; 



returned to Stuttgart Cons., 1889. 

Dorati (d6-ra'-t), Antal, b. Budapest; 
stu died Mus.Acad. there; cond. Ballet 
Russe on tours; Dallas Symph., 1945- 

Doret (do-ra), Gustave, b. Aigle, 
Switzerland, Sept. 20, 1866; studied 
violin with Joachim and Marsick, 
and composition at Paris Cons.; 
lived at Paris as cond.; c. operas 
"Le$ Armailles" (Op. Com., 1906), 
" Le nain de ttassli" (Geneva, 1908), 
etc.; d. Lausanne, April XQ, 1044. 

DSrtfel (dSrf'-fSl), Alfred, Waldcnburg, 
Saxony, Jan. 24, 1821 Leipzig, 
Jan. 22, 1905; pupil at Leipzig of 
Fink, Muller, Mendelssohn, etc.; 
mus.-libr. Leipzig City Library; 
critic and editor; 1885 Dr. phiL h. c. 

Do'ria, Clara, v. i*&s. c. K. ROGERS. 

DCring (da'-r*ng), (i) G, Pomeren- 
dorf, near Elbing, 1801 1869; can- 
tor; pub. choral books and historical 
essays, (a) Karl, Dresden, July 
4, 1834 March 26, 1916; pupil 
Leipzig Cons.; 1858, Dresden Cons.; 

* prof,; c. suites for string-orch., 
Grano Mass.. etc. 

Dora, (x) H* (L. Edm-X KSnigsberg, 
Nov. 14, 1804 Berlin, Jan. 10, 1892; 
pupil of Berger, Zelter, and Klein, 
Berlin; ct.-cond. at Kdnigsberg; 
cond. Cologne; founded the "Khein- 
ische Musikschule," which, 1850, 
became the Cologne Cons.; cond. 
Royal Opera, Berlin; teacher and 
critic: notable composer of * 3 operas, 
symphonies, etc* (a) Julius Paul, 
Riga, June 8, 1833 Berlin, Nov. 
37, 1001; son and pupil of above; 
pianist; teacher in Poland, Cairo, 
and Alexandria; 1865-68 cond. the 
Crefeld "Liedertafel"; then pf.- 
teacher at the R. Hochschule, Berlin, 
with title "Royal Prof."; c. over 
400 works, incl. 3 masses with orciu 
te) Otto, Cologne, Sept. 7, 1848 
Wiesbaden. Nov. 8 ? 103*; son and 
pupil of (x); studied at Stern Cons., 
took the Meyerbeer scholarship 
(xst prize), 2:873; lived in Wies- 
baden; c. succ. opera "A/raja" 
(Gotha, 1891); symphonv, "Promt- 
ikeus"i overtures, "Hermanns- 
tchlackt," and "Sappho," etc. (4) 
Edward, Pen-name of J* L. Rtickel. 

Dorus-Gras (d&-rti-grs), Julia Aime 
Jos^phe (rightly Van Steenkiste) 
(Dorus, stage-narae); Valenciennes, 
1805- jParis, 1896; otieratic soprano; 
created important roiea. 

Doss <d6s), Adolf von, Pfairkirchen, 
Lower Bavaria 1825 Rome, 1886; 
Jesuit priest and dram, composer. 

Dotzauer (d6t'~tsow-r) t (i) Justus J. 
Fr,, Hasselrieth, near Hildburghau- 
sen, 1783 Dresden, 1860; 'cellist, 
and dram, composer. (2) Justus B. 
Fi-., Leipzig, 1808 Hamburg, 1874; 
son of above; teacher. (3) 1C L. 
("Louis"), Dresden, Dec. 7, 1811 
1897; son and pupil of (x); 'cellist. 

Dourlen (door-Ian), Victor Chas. Paul, 
Dunkirk, 1780 Batignolies, near 
Paris, 1864; prof, and dram, com- 

Dow 'land, (x) John, Westminster, 
London, 1562^ London, April, 1626; 
famed for polyphonic vocal music; 
lutenist and composer to Christian 
IV. of Denmark. (2) Robert, 1641; 
son of above; lutenist and editor. 

Downey Olio, b. Evanston, III., Jan. 
27, 1886; music critic, pianist; 
studied piano with Carl Baermann. 
harmony with Homer Morris and 
Clifford Heilman, mus. hist, and 
analysis with Dr. Louis Kelterborn 
and John P. Marshall; mus. critic, 
Boston " Pa$t 1906-24; music critic, 
New York "Times," after 1924; has 
appeared widely as a lecturer on 
music and has written works on 
symphonic analysis; also bas partici- 
pated as pianist in chamber music 

DraeaeJte (drft'-zft-ke), Felte Aug. 
Bfcd., Coburg, Oct. 7 f 1835 Dres- 
den, Feb. 26, 2013; important com- 
poser; pupil of RJetx, Leipzig Cons,* 
and of Liszt at Weimar; 1864-74 
Lausanne Cons., except 1868-60, 
in the R. M. S. at Munich; 1875 
Geneva* then Dresden ** teacher; 
1884 prof, of comp, at the Cons,; 
c. 4 operas; "SitttraS* "Gvdrun* 
(Hanover, 1884), "Bertram de Born' 9 
(book and music), and the succ. 
* 4 #rmrf" (Dresden, i Boa): 3 sym- 
phonies (op. 40 "Tragic*,** in C), 
Grand Mass with orch,; "Ahadt- 
miscfc FfstouixrtUrc"', symphonic 

preludes to Calderon's "Li/9 a 
Dream," Kleist's "Ptntketilta" (both 
MS.), etc; wrote treatises and a 
41 Harmony" in verse. 

J>x*h! <drr-g*>, (i) Aatoaio* Rimini, 
2635 Vienna, 1700; c, $j operas, 
87 festival plays, etc, (a) Gio. Bat., 
1667 3:706, harpsichordist, organist 
and composer, London, 

Dragonet'd, >om^ Venice, April i, 



1763 London, April 16, 1846; called 
"the Paganini of the contra-basso"; 
composed, played and taught. 

Drago'ni, Giovanni Andrea, Mendola, 
ca. 1540 Rome, 1598; composer; 
pupil of Palestrina; cond. at the 

Draud (drowt) (Drau'dius), Georg, 
Da vernheim, Hesse, 1573 Butzbach, 
ca. 1636; pub. "Bibliotheca Classica" 
and other musical works of great 
informational value. 

Drdla, Franz, Saar, Moravia, Nov. 28, 
1868; violinist and composer; pupil 
of Prague and Vienna Cons.; c. over 
200 smaller instrumental works, 
among which his "Souvenir" had 
world- wide popularity; also two stage 
works; 1923-25, lived in New York. 

Drechsler (drSkhs'-lSr), (i) Jos., Wall- 
isch-Birken (Vlachovo Brezi), Bo- 
hemia, 1782 Vienna, 1852; organist, 
conductor and dram, composer. 
(2) Karl, Kamenz, 1800 Dresden, 
1873; 'cellist teacher. 

Dregert (dra'-gSrt), Alfred, Frankfort- 
on-Oder, 1836 Elberfeld, 1893; 
conductor, dir. and composer. 

Drese (dra'-zS), Adam, Thiiringen, 
Dec., 1620 Arnstadt, Feb. 15, 1701; 
director and comp. 

Dresel (drS/-zel), Otto, Andernach, 
1826 Beverly, Mass., 1890; com- 

Dreszer (drsh'-er), Anastasius W., 
Kalisch, Poland, April 28, 1845 
Halle, June 2, 1907; a brilliant 
pianist at 12; studied with During, 
Krebs, and Frtih, Dresden Cons.; 
lived in Leipzig; 1868, Halle; founded 
a music-school of which he was dir.; 
c. 2 symphonies, opera "ValmodaJ* 

Dreyschock (dri'-sh6k), (i) Alex., 
Zack, Bohemia, Oct. 15, 1818 
Venice, April i, 1869; onc f the 
most dextrous of pf.- virtuosi; c. an 
opera, etc. (2) Raimund, Zack, 
1824 Leipzig, 1869, br. of above; 
leader. His wife (3) Elisabeth (nee 
Nose), Cologne, 1832, a contralto. 
(4) Felix, Leipzig, Dec, 27, 1860 
Berlin, Aug. i, 1906; son of (i); 
pianist; student under Grabau, Ehr- 
Hch, Taubert, and Kiel at the Berlin 
Royal Hochschule; prof. Stern Cons., 
Berlin; c. a vm.-sonata (op. 16), etc. 

Drieberg (drS'-bfcrkh), Fr. J. von, 
Charlottenburg, 17801856; writer 
on Greek music; dram, composer. 

00; pt 

hr- (i 

Drigo (dre'-g5), Riccardo, Padua, 
1846 -Oct. i, 1930; composer; active 
as conductor a.t St. Petersburg Imp^ 
Op. and piano teacher there for 
many years; after 1919 again lived 
in Padua; c. operas, and ballets; 
among the latter "II Flauto Magico"* 
and "Les Millions dJArlequin" have 
had wide popularity; also salon 
works for piano. 

Drobisch (dro'-blsh), (i) Moritz W., 
Leipzig, Aug. 16, 1802 Sept. 30, 
1896; from 1842 prof, of phil., Leip- 
zig Univ.; pub. important treatises 
on the mathematical determination 
of relative pitches. (2) Karl L., 
Leipzig, 1803 Augsburg, 1854; bro. 
of above; c. 3 oratorios. 

Drouet (droo-a), L. Franc. Ph., Am- 
sterdam, 1792 Bern, Sept. 30, 1873; 
flutist and composer. 

Duben'sky, Arcady, b. Russia, 1890; 
composer, violinist; pupil of Moscow 
Cons.; played vln. in Phila. Orch.; 
guest cond. of his works in America; 
c. (opera) "Romance with Double 
Bass 39 (Moscow Imp. Op., 1916); 
"The Raven," a melo-declamation 
to text by Poe; prch. works, incl. 
symphony, "Russian Bells" (N. Y. 
Symph., 1927); Fugue for 18 violins, 

Dubois (dii-bwa) (i) (Clement Fran.) 
Th., Rosnay, Marne, Aug. 24, 1837 
Paris, June n, 1924; studied at 
Rheims, then under Marmontel, 
Bnoist, Bazin, and Thomas (fugue 
and cpt.) at Paris Cons.; took 
Grand prix de Rome with the 
cantata "Atala"', also first prizes in 
all departments; sent from Rome a 
Solemn Mass (perf . at the Madeleine 
in 1870), a dram, work, "La Prova 
d'un Opera Seria" and 2 overtures; 
returned to Paris as a teacher; cond. 
at Saint-Clotilde; organist at the 
Madeleine; 1871 prof, of harm, at 
the Cons.; 1891 prof, of comp.; 1894, 
elected to Acad.; 1896, dir. of the 
Cons., and officier of the Legion of 
Honour; c. operas; oratorios: "Les 
Septs Paroles du Christ" (1867), "Le 
Paradis Perdu" (1878) (city of Paris 
rize), and " Ndtre Dame de la Mer" 
1897); cantatas; masses, etc.; 3 
overtures, incl. "Frithiof." (2) 
L6on, Brussels, Jan. 9, 1859 1935* 
pupil of Cons., took Grand prix de 
Rome; 1890 second cond., Th. de 
la Monnaie, Brussels, 1912-25, dir. 
of Brussels Cons, (vice Tinel); c. 



operas, ballet, 
A t*r~ " e t c< 

symphonic poem, 

Matthew, London, 1703 
1767; violinist and conductor. 

Ducaoge* Vide CANGE, DU. 

Ducasse (dil-kis), Roger, b* Bordeaux, 
April 1 8, 1873; pupil Paris Cons., 
with Gabriel Faure 4 , winning Prix 
de Rome, 1902; from 1009 inspector 
in elementary schools; c. suite 
frans&tee for orch* (Colonne con- 
certs, 1909, twice. Boston Synjph., 
1:910); "Variations flaisanUs sur un 
thlme grave" for harp and orch. 
(Colonne concerts, 1909), "Sara- 
bande"; d. Bordeaux, July 20, 1954. 

Duels (dti-sS), Benoft (Benedictus 
Ducis), b. Bruges, 1480; important 
composer; not to be confused with 
Benedictus of Appenzell. 

Dufay (dti-fe 1 ), GuilL, ca. 1400 Cam- 
brai, Nov. 27, 1474; * canon; said 
to have inv, white (open) notes* 

Dufrarme (dii-frSn 7 ), Hector, b. Bel- 
gium; tenor; sang at Brussels Op. 
1896; then in London and after 
1899 at Paris Op.-Comique; 1908, 
Manhattan Op. House, N. Y.; 1910* 
13 with Chicago Op*; sang m the 
premieres of "Griselidis*' "Monna 
Vanna" and "P&tes ft M&sandt." 

Dugazon (dti-g&-z6n), Louise-Rosalie 
(n6e Leffcvre), Berlin, 1953 Paris, 
tSai; untrained singer in light opera, 
so charming in both young and old 
rdles as to give rise to the descriptive 
terms "Teuns Dugazon," and 
"MSres Dugazon," 

Ottg'gan, Jos. Brands, Dublin, July 10, 
18x7 London, xooo(?); opera -con- 
due tor and teacher in various cities 
in America, also Paris and London; c. 
ucc. operas, "Pirn**," and "&>%" 
and 3 not produced; 2 symphonies, 

Duiffopruggar (rightly Tieffenbriicker) 

&), (i) 6aspar, Freising, Bavaria* 
1514 Lyons, 1571; long considered 
the first via. -maker; went to Lyons 
in 1553, naturalised in 1559, and 
made violas da gamba and lutes., 
Other instr.-maJcers of the same sur- 
name were (a) Wendelixu (3) Leon* 
hard, (4) Leopold, (5) Uldeh, and 
(6) Magnus* The latest made lutes 
at Venice, 1607. 

(dU-k&&) Paul, Paris, Oct. i, 
1865 May 17, 1935; one of th most 
original of French composers; pupil 

at the Cons* of Dubols > Matfalas and 
Gulraud; won prize in counterpoint, 
1888, second Prix de Rome with 
cantata "Fe&ofo"; spent a year is 
Rome* then a year of military 
service; his overture ** PdLyeucti?* 
was played by Lamoureux in 2892; 
his symphony, 2896, and elsewhere; 
1897 **L'Apprcnii-S0rc*er"i *9oo, 
piano sonata; 1906, ViUanfUi for 
Lorn and piano; 2007, his opera 
"Ariane ct Barb* Bknte" made & 
great stir and was played in Vienna, 
$908, Met. Op., N. Y. 1911, etc*; 
had edited texts of &ameau> arjd q. 
for piano "yari&tfons, Interlude & 
Final," on a theme of Rameau's 
1902; Prelude iU&vqu* on the name 
of Haydn, 1909; also a ballet "La 
P4ri" dance-poem in one act (Paris 
1911),, etc.; after 2909 he was prof. 
at the Paris Cons. Studies by 
Sr and SamaxeuIIh. 

I>ukelsky (d6-k*l'~*k), Vladimir, b. 
Parifianova near PoloUk, Russia, 
Sept, 7 3903; composer; studied in 
Moscow and Kiev; came into promi- 
nence through prod* of his ballet, 
"Zephyr ct Flort" by Diaghikff at 
Monte Carlo, 1925; he has c. a larxr 
amount of chamber music, orcb 
works, etc.; also popular stage re 
vues and ballads under the pseudo- 
nym of **Vmoa Btike**; res. in 
America* where he has appeared as 
pianist in concerts of his works. 

I>ulckOT (dool'-k*n), (?) Ixnija* (nee 
J>avid), Hamburg, 1811 Londo^ 
1850, a sister of Fd. David; pianist 
(a) Fd* Qucntin, Ix>ndon, June r t 
^^37^ Astoria, N, V, xgoa; son *** 
above; pupil of Mendelssohn, Mo- 
scheles, Cade, HauptmanD, Becker 
and F. Hiller; prof. Warsaw 
Coos*; toured in Europe; lived for 
years in New York; c. *tt opera, 
"Wfafe"; a mass, etc. 

Dulichius (d6-l!kh'-l-oos) also (BettHck 
or Deilich) Philip, Chemnitx (chris- 
tened Dec. 19), 1562 March as, 
1631; teacher and romp. 

Diiion (doo'-iOn), FT* L^ Oraaienburg, 
near Potsdam, 1769 Wfinburg, 
xBa6; a blind flutist and composer. 

Xhnnoot <dtim6ft), Henri, Villers^ 
near Lige 1610 Paris,, May &* 

1684; organist and comp. 
n, WiiHaxn Edmondst 

Dune 'an, 


ne, Sale, 
26, 1920; 

1866 June 

organist: at x6 an associate of tit* 
Royal College of Organists: 1883, 



obtained scholarship at R. C. M,, 
pupil of Parry, Stanford and Mac- 
farren; critic for some years, then 
prof, at Oldham College; c. successful 
odes with orch., notably " Ye Mar- 
iners of England" (1890), etc. 

Dun/ham, Henry Morton, Brockton, 
Mass., July 27, 1853 1929; grad. 
New England Cons,, as pupil of 
G. E. Whiting (organ), J. 5. D. 
Parker (piano), Emery and Paine 
(theory); held various church posi- 
tions till 1911, and gave organ 
recitals on the Great Organ at 
Boston, at St. Louis Exposition; long 
prof, of organ at N. E. Cons.; author 
of an organ method; c. symph., 
poem "Easter Morning" a book of 
organ studies, Meditation for organ, 
harp and violin; 3 organ sonatas, 

Dun lull, Thomas Frederick, b. Hamp- 
stead, London, Feb. i, 1877; com- 
poser; studied at R. Coll. of Mus., 
after 1905 prof, there; also taught at 
Eton Coll., and toured colonies as 
examiner; 1907. founded concerts 
of British chamber music that have 
been influential in introducing new 
works and composers; c. large 
variety of orch. and esp. chamber 
works of tasteful quality and tra- 
ditional form; opera, "The Ice Queen, 3 ' 
etc.; d. Scunthorpe, March 13, 1946. 

Duni (doo'-nfi), Egidio Romualdo, 
Matera, near Otranto, Feb. 9, 1709 
Paris, June n, 1775; pupil of 
Durante; his first opera, " Nerone"* 
prod. Rome, 1735, with great succ., 
triumphing over Pergolesi's last 
opera "Qlimpiado" which the 
generous Duni said was too good for 
the public, declaring himself "fre- 
netico contre il pubblico Romano"; 
he c. French operettas with such 
succ. that he settled in Paris, where 
he is considered the founder of 
French opera-bouffe; c. 13 Italian 
operas and 20 French. 

Dtmkley, Fd. (Louis), b. London, 
England, July 16, 1869; pupil of G. 
, Bainb ridge. J. Higgs (cpt.), 

A. JLal^gS, JkJCbJLA.LMJ..LUgl~) J. .LJkJ.K0 \\~}J\*.Jj 

and E. H. Turpin (compj; and at 
R. A. M. (Scholarship), under Parry, 
Bridge, Martin, Gladstone, Sharpe 
and Barnet; 1893, dir. at St. Agnes' 
School, Albany, N. Y.; also organist 
1897 at Trinity M. E. Ch.; pub. 
"The Wreck <>j the Hesperus, 39 ' 
ballade for soli, chor., and orch., 
etc.; 1889 took prize of 50 guineas 

with orch, suite; lived in various 

cities; after 19 20 in Birmingham, Ala. 

Dunoyer (dtln-wa-ya')- Vide OATTC- 


Dun 'stable (Dtinstaple), John, Dun- 
stable, Bedfordshire, England, 1370 
(?) Walbrook, Dec. 24, I4S3J called 
by Tinctor one of the "fathers" of 

Duparc (dti-par) (Fouques Duparc), 
Henri, Paris, Jan. 21, 1848 Mont 
de Marsan, Feb. 12, 1933; pupil of 
Csar Franck; soldier in war of 1870- 
71; ill health led to a life of seclusion 
to C6sar Franck's great regret; c. 
symph. poem "Lenore," orch noc- 
turne, "Aux fitoiles"; 6 pf. -pieces; 
vocal duet, "La Fuite"; other works 
destroyed by the comp., and some 
songs of the highest importance. 

Dupont (du-p6n), (i) Pierre, Roche- 
tail!6e, near Lyons, April 23, 1821 
Saint-fitienne, July 25, 1870; c. the 
words and tunes of popular and 
political songs which Reyer wrote 
out; provoked such riots that Napo- 
leon banished him, 1851. (2) Jo- 
seph (ain6), Li6ge, 1821 1861; 
violinist; prof, and dram, composer. 
(3) J Fran., Rotterdam, 1822 
Ntirnberg, 1875; violinist and dram, 
composer. (4) Aug., Ensival, near 
Li6ge, 1827 Brussels, 1890; com- 
poser. (5) Alex., Li6ge, 18331888; 
bro. of above; pub. a "Repertoire 
dramatique Beige." (6) Jos. (te 
jeune), Ensival, near L16ge, Jan. 
3, 1838 Brussels, Dec. 21, 1899; 
bro. of (3), pupil at Liege and 
Brussels Cons., took Grand prix 
de Rome at Brussels; 1867 cond. at 
Warsaw; 1871, in Moscow; 1872, 
prof, of harm., Brussels Cons.; cond. 
Th. de la Monnaie, the Society of 
Musicians, and the Popular Con- 
certs. 1 (7) Jos. D., d. The Hague, 
June 26, 1867; bro. of above; dir. 
German Op. at Amsterdam. (8) 
Gabriel, Caen, March i, 1878 
V6sinet, Aug. 3, 1914; composer, 
esp. known for his operas M La 
Cabrera 9 ' which won the Sonzogno 
prize, 1904; "La Glu" (1910); "La 
Farce du Cuvier" (1912) and "Antar"* 
(prod. 1921), also orch. works, 
chamber music, etc. 

Duport (dti-p6r), (i) J. P., Paris, 1741 
Berlin, 1818; 'cellist. (2) J. L-, 
Paris, 1749 1819; more famous 
bro. of above; also 'cellist; composer 
and writer. 



Duprato (dti-pr&'-td), Jules Laurent, 
Nimes, 1827 Paris, 1892; prof, of 
barm* and dram, composer. 

Dupr (du>prft'), Marcel, b. Rouen, 
May 3, 1886; organist; pupil of his 
father, Albert, Rouen organist, then 
of Guilmant, Die'mer, and Widor; 
won many ist prizes at Cons, in 
Paris; succeeded Widor as org. at 
St.-Sulpice and played at Notre 
Dame; toured as recitalist in Europe 
and XT. S.; noted for his ability at 
improvisation; c. org* and choral 

Duprez (dtt-prS/), Gilbert L., Paris, 
1806 1896; tenor and composer. 

Dupuis (dU-pw5), (x) Thomas Sanders, 
Condon, Nov. 5, 1733 J u iy *? 
1796; comp, and organist of Chapel 
Royal London; of French parentage, 
but lived in London, ana is buried 
in Westminster Abbey, (2) Jos6 
(Joseph Lambert), Lige, 1833 
Nogent-sur-Marne, 1900; opera- 
bouffe singer. (3) Sylvain f Lige, 
Nov. 9, 1856 Bruges, Sept. 28, 
1931; pupil Liege Cons., 1881 Prix 
de Rome) teacher of cpt. and cond. 
of a singmg-society; 1900-11, cond. 
at La Monnaie, Brussels; and of 
Concerts Populaires; c. operas, incl. 
the succ, com. opera "XsIdytteS* 3 
cantatas, symphonic poem, "Mac- 
beth" etc. (4) Albert, b. Verviers, 
France, March i, 1877; prod, opera 
L* Idyll*" (Verviers, 1896); "Bili- 
#$" (Venders, 1899); won Prix 
de Rome at Brussels with opera 
"Hans MickdJ* 5903; c, cantata, 

Dupuy (da-pwC). Vide *UTANtjrs. 

Xtarand (nghtly Dtiranowski) (dU- 
rfcft or doo-r&a-$f '-shkX), (x) August* 
Fr6d6xic, b. Warsaw, 1770; violin- 
ist and cond,, son of a court-mus. 
) fixtttte, St.-Brieue, C6tes du Nord, 

eb. 16, 1830 Neuilly, May 6, 
1903; while still a pupil at the Paris 
Cons, he was appointed teacher of 

an elementary singing-class; 1871 
prof* of harm.: dram* composer 
and writer. (3) Marie Auguste, 
Paris, July 18, 1830 May 31, 2909; 
pupil of Benoist; 1849-74 organist at 
various churches; 2870 est. mus.- 
pub* business of "Durand et Sch^ne- 
werk," later "Durand et Fils^; a 
critic and composer* 
Durante (doo-ran'-tel, Fran., Frmtta 
Maagiore, Naples, March 15, 1684 
Naples, Aug. 13, 1755; director and 

conductor; an important teachet 
and composer of the ** Neapolitan 
School"; c. 13 masses, etc. 

t>urey (dti'-re"), Louis, b. France. May 
27, 1888; composer; mem. of former 
Group of Six; studied with Lon 
Saint-Requier; after 29x4 c. various 
orch., chamber music and other 
works; also wrote critical study of 
Ravel's music and magazine articles. 

Dumtte (du-r&t) Fran, Camille Ant., 
Ypres, East Flanders, 1803 Park, 
1881; wrote a new but erroneous 
system of harm.; c. operas, etc. 

X>u(s)sek (Du&ek, Duschek) (doos'- 
sSk or better doo'-sh^k), (i) Fz., 
Chotiborz, Bohemia, 1736 Prague, 
2799; composer, pianist and teacher. 
(2) Josephine, b. Prague, 1756; 
pianist, composer, singer. (3) J. 
Ladislaus, Caslav (Tschaslau), Bo- 
hemia, Feb. xa, 1 76o~Saint -Germain- 
ea-Laye, March 20, 1812; a boy- 
soprano at Iglau, pupil of Father 
Spenar at the Jesuit College; organist 
Jesuit Church, Kutteaburg, for 2 
years; studied theology at Prague 
Univ., also music; became organist 
of Samt-Rimbaul's, Mechlin; lived 
Bergen op-Zoom; Amsterdam; The 
Hague, 1783: studied with C. P. E. 
Bach, Hamburg; became famous 
pianist and performer on Hessel'* 
"Harmonica," Berlin and St, Peters- 
burg; lived in Lithuania a year at 
Prince RadsiwUTs Court; lived Italy 
Paris, London; 2792 m. (4) Sofia 
Corri (b. Edinburgh, 1775; * wager, 
harpist and composer)* lie entered 
a mus.-business with his father-in- 
law, 1800, failed and fied to Ham- 
burg to escape creditors* He was in 
the service of various princes, and 
(xSoS) of Prince Talleyrand in Paris. 
A pioneer among Bohemian and Po- 
lish virtuosi and composers he dis- 
puted with Clement! the invention of 
the "singing-touch.** Prod. 2 Eng- 
lish operas m London with success, 
and pub. a Mass (comp, at the age 
of 13), oratorios and church-music; 
pub* nearly xoo works for pi,, incl. 
12 concertos, 80 sonatas with via.: 
sonatas for pf.-solo, etc.: pub, a 

Dnahidn (dSosh'-kfcn), Samuel, b. 
SuwalkL Russian Poland, Dec. 13, 
2898; violinist; studied with Auer, 
&reiler, Remy; European dbut, 
29x8; xst Araer. tour m 1924; has 
appeared widely In Europe, Egypt, 



Palestine, and U. S., esp. in joint 
programmes with Igor Stravinsky. 

Dustmann (doost'-man), Marie Luise 
(n6e Meyer), Aix-la-Chapelle, 1831 
1899; soprano. 

Duvernoy (or Duvernois) (du-vrn- 
wa), (i) l?r., MontbSliard, 1765 
Paris, 1838; prof, at the Cons.; com- 
poser. (2) Charles, Month 61iard 
1766 Paris, 1845; bro. of above; 
clarinettist; prof, and composer. (3) 
Chas. Fran., Paris, 1796 1872; 
singer. (4) H. L. Chas., Paris, 
Nov. 1 6, 1820 Jan., 1906; son of 
(3); pupil of Halvy and Zimmer- 
mann, Paris Cons.; 1839, assist.- 
prof.; 1848, prof, there of solfeggio; 
composer. (5) Victor Alphonse, 
Paris, Aug. 30, 1842 March 7, 1907; 
pupil of Bazin and Marmontel Paris 
Cons.; took first pf. prize; teacher of 
piano at the Cons.; a Chev. of the 
Legion of Honour, and officier of 
public instruction; 1892 prod, the 
succ. opera "Sardanapale' f (Lyons), 
also opera " Helle" (Gr. Op6ra, 
1896); his symph. poem, "La 
Temptte," won the City of Paris 

Dux (dooks), Claire, b. Witkowicz, 
Poland, Aug. 2, 1885; soprano; 
studied voice with Teresa Arkel, 
also in Milan; dbut, Cologne, 1906; 
sang with Berlin Op., 1911-18; 
Stockholm Op., 1918-21; Chicago 
Op., 1921-23; also at Covent Garden, 
and widely as concert performer in 
Europe and XL S.; m. Charles H. 
Swift; res. in Chicago since 1926, 
with occasional appearances. 

Dvorak (dv6r'-shk), Antonin, Mtthl- 
hausen, Bohemia, Sept. 8, 1841 
Prague, May i, 1904; one of the most 
eminent Bohemian composers; son 
of an inn-keeper, who wished him to 
be a butcher, but he learned the vln. 
from the schoolmaster, and at 16 
entered the Prague Org.-Sch. under 
Pitzsch, earning a livelihood as vio- 
linist in a small orchestra; graduated 
in 1862, became vla.-player at the 
Nat. Theatre. He was 33 before an 
important comp. was prod., a hymn 
for male chorus and orch., which 
attracted such attention that 1875 
he received a government stipend 
and devoted himself to composition. 
1891 Mus. Doc. Cambridge Univ.; 
1892-95 dir. Nat. Cons., New York; 
later lived at Prague; 1901, director 
of the Prague Cons; 1902, prod. 

opera "Armida," Pilsen Nat. Th. 
He was a disciple of nationalism in 
music, and provoked much contro- 
versy by advising American com- 
Eosers to found their school on the 
armonic and melodic elements of 
plantation-music. In his highly 
popular 5th symphony, op. 95, 
"From the New World," he made 
some use of such a manner. His 
other comp. are: Bohemian operas 
"The King and the Char coal- Burner" 
(Prague, 1874); "Wanda" (1876); 
"Selma Sedldk" (1878); "Turd* 
Palice" (1881); "Dimitrije" (1882); 
"The Jacobins" (1889); "Rusalka, 
the Water Nixie" (Nat. Th. Prague, 
1901); "Armida" (1904); oratorio 
"St. Ludmila" (Leeds Mus. Fest., 
1886); Requiem Mass, op. 89, with 
orch. (Birmingham Fest., 1891); 
cantatas "The Spectre 9 : Bride," op. 
69, with orch. (Birmingham Fest. r 
1885), and "The American Flag* 
(N. Y., 1895); &ym>n of the Bohemian 
Peasants, for mixed ch.; hymn for 
mixed ch. and orch.; "Stabat Mater 39 
with orch. (London, 1883); Psalm 
149 with orch.; 5 symphonies; 3 
orchestral ballades, "Der Wasser- 
mann" "Die Mittagshexe" and 
"Das goldene Spinnrad"; 2 sets of 
symphonic variations for orch.; over- 
tures, "Main Heim," " Husitvka," 
"In der Natur," "Othello, 3 ' "Car- 
neval"; concertos for 'cello, pf,, vln.; 
"Slavische Tanze y " and "Slamsche 
Rhapsodien" ; scherzo cappriccioso 
for orch.; string-sextet; a string- 
quintets; pf. -quintet; 6 string-quar- 
tets; 2 pf. -quartets; a string- trio; 2 
pf. -trios; mazurek for vln. with 
orch., serenade for wind with 'cello 
and double-bass; notturno for 
string-brch.; pf. music, "Legenden," 
"Dumka" (Elegy), "Furiante" (Boh. 
natl. dances); r 'Klange aus Mahren y " 
and "SUkouetten" for pf. 4-hands; 
violin-sonata, op. 57; songs, etc. 

Dwight, J Sullivan, Boston, Mass., 
1813 1893; editor and critic; one 
of the founders of the Harvard Musi- 
cal Association; was a member of 
the Brook Farm Community; 1852 
81, edited " Dwight 9 s Journal of 

Dykema (dl'-kg-ma), Peter W., b, 
Grand Rapids, Mich.. Nov. 25, 1873; 
educator; studied N. Y. and Berlin, 
with Arens, Frank Shejjhard and at 
Inst. of Music. Art; dir. of music. 



Ethical Culture School, N. Y.. 
100113; prof, of music, Univ. 01 
Wis., 1913-24; thereafter, prof, of 
music, education, Teachers College, 
Columbia Univ., author of "School 
Music Handbook 79 (with Cundiff), 
and ed.; d. Hastings, N- Y., 1951. 

Dykes (Rev.) J- Bacchus, Kingston- 
upon-Hull, Eng., 1823 St. Leon- 
ard's, 1876; conductor. 

Dy'son, Sir George, b. Halifax, Eng- 
land, May 28, 1883; composer and 
educator; pupil of R. Coll. of Mus., 
where won Mendelssohn Stipend; 
dir. of music at R. Naval Coll., 
Marlborough ColL, and Wellington 
Coll.; 1918, Mus. D., Oxford; has c. 
orch. and choral music; author of 
"The New Music." Dir., R. C. M., 
1938; knighted, 1940. 


Barnes (SLmz), Emma, b. (of American 
parents) at Shanghai, Aug. 13, 1865; 
noted soprano; at 5 went with her 
mother, ner first teacher, to Bath, 
Maine; pupil of Miss Munger at 
Boston; 1886-88 at Paris, of Ma- 
dame Marchcsi (voice), and Pluque 
(acting, etc.); z888, engaged at the 
Op,-Com., but made dbut with 
succ. at the Or. Opera, March 13, 
1889, as "Juliette" in Gounod's "Romeo 
et Juliette,* 9 a rdle previously sacred 
to Patti; sang at the Opera for 2 
years, creating "Colombe" in St.- 
Saens' "Ascanio" and as "2&ire" in 
De La Nux's opera; 1891, Covent 
Garden in <4 ^a$*"; m* the painter 
Julian Story the same year, and la 
Oct. appeared in New York at Met. 
Op.; from then until 2909, when she 
retired from the stage, she sang 
regularly in N. Y. and London, 
except 1893-03, at Madrid, ana 
1895-96, during ill-health; "Sieg- 
linde" was perhaps her best rdle. 
la ion she m. Emilio de Gogorsa, 
barytone, and toured in concert 
with him, later separated. Lived in 
N* Y.) where d. June 13, 1952. 

Earliart, Will, b. Franklin, O., April 
x, 1871; educator; after 1913 mus- 
dir* of School of Education, Univ, 
of Pittsburgh; author of works on 
school music; ores. Music Super- 
visors* Nat'l. Conference, 19*5-16; 
Mus. D., Univ. of Pittsburgh, 1920. 

East'maB, George, Waterville, N. Y,, 
July i a, 1 854 -Rochester, N. Y., 
larch 14, 1932 (suicide); music 

& 1; 


patron; in 1919 made gift of 83,500,* 
ooo to found Eastman School o^ 
Music, as part of the Univ. of 
Rochester, and the next year added 
another million, the permanent en- 
dowment fund being about three 
millions; Rochester as a result has 
become an active centre of music, 
with the Eastman Theatre, Philh. 
Orch., and other enterprises inch 
annual fests. of American music 
deriving their impetus from his 

East 'on, Florence, b. Middlesbrough, 
England, Oct. 25, 1884; soprano; 
studied R, ColL of Mus,, London, 
and with Elliott Has! am, Paris; 
made appearance as pianist at 8; 
opera deout as Madame Butterfly 
with Moody- Manners Op, Co., Lon- 
don, 1903; toured U. S. with Savage 
Op, Co., 1904-05 and 1906-07; 
sang with Berlin Op., 1907-13- 
Covent Garden in "JSfotlra,* 19x0; 
Hamburg Op., IQI3-X5; Met* Op., 
where she sang German and other 
rdles with marked versatility, 19x7- 
28, and again in 1936; has also sung 
widely in concert, and as orchestral 
and festival soloist; a gifted Ileder 
singer; m. Francis Maclennan, tenor; 

Baton, Louis H., b. Taunton, Mass, 
May 9, 2862; organist; pupil of Guil- 
mant; 2901, org. at San Francisco. 

Eb'don, Thos., Durham, 2738 1811; 
organist and composer. 

Bbelfag (a'-b*-lfng). (i) J. G. t LUne- 
burg, 1637 Stettin, 1676; prof, and 
composer. (2) Chp. Darnel, Gar-* 
xnisscn, near Hi!desheim 1741 
Hamburg, 18x7; prof, and writer. 

Bbell (&'-b*I), H* K. 9 Neunippln. 
1 775 Oppeln, 1824; conductor and 
dram, composer. 

Eberhard (x) von Freisicgen (a'-br- 
h&rt f6n fri'-zlng-*n), Eberhar'dus 
Frisengen'sis, Benedictine monk, 
iith cent.; wrote on the scale of 
pipes and bell-founding. (3) J. 
Aug., HalbenOadt, x 739 Halle, 
1809; professor. 

Eberi (&'-b*rl) Anton* Vienna, June 13, 
1766 March ix t 1807; famous pian- 
ist, conductor and dram, composer. 

Bboriia (a'-bdr-iftn), (i) Daniel, NUrn- 
berg, ca, x63O-^CAseU 16^2; con- 
trapuntist and violinist; famous as a 
composer In his day, (2) (or Eberle) 
J* Ernst, Jettenbacb, Swabia, 1702 



SaLbburg, 1762; conductor and 

Ebers (a/-b6rs), K. Fr., Cassel, 1770 
Berlin, 1836; conductor and dram, 
composer. ' 

Ebert ^a'-brt), Ludwig, Kladrau, Bo- 
hemia, April 13, 1834 Coblenz, 
1908; 'cellist; pupil Prague Cons.; 
1854-74, first 'cellist at Oldenburg; 
1875-88, teacher at Cologne Cons.; 
1889, founded Cons, at Coblenz; c. 
'cello pieces. 

Eberwein (a'-bSr-vin), (i) Traugott 
Maximilian, Weimar, 1775 Rudol- 
stadt, 1831; dram, composer. (2) 
Karl, Weimar, 1786 1868, bro. of 
above; dram, composer. 

Ebner (ap'-nSr), Wolfgang, Augsburg, 
ca. 1 6 10 Vienna, Feb., 1665; or- 
ganist and comp. 

Eccard (k'-kart), J., Miihlhausen, 
Thuringia, 1553 Berlin, 1611; im- 
portant composer of church-music. 

Eccles (gk'-kSls), (i) John, London (?), 
1668 Kingston, Surrey, 1735; son 
and pupil of the violinist, (2) Solo- 
mon E. C. His brother (3) Henry, 
was violinist and composer. (4) 
Solomon Thomas, bro. of above, 
also violinist. 

Eck (Sk), (i) J. Fr,, Mannheim, 1766 
Bamberg (?), 1809 (1810 ?); violinist 
and composer. (2) Fz., Mannheim, 
1774 insane, Strassburg, 1804; bro. 
and pupil of above; violinist. 

Eckelt (Sk'-Slt), J. Vol., Wernings- 
hausen, near Erfurt, 1673 'Sonders- 
hausen, 1732; writer. 

Eckert (Sk'-Srt), K. Ant. Florian, Pots- 
dam, 1820 Berlin, 1879; at 10 c. 
an opera, at 13 an oratorio; court- 
conductor and dram, composer. 

Ed'dy, (i) Clarence H., Greenfield, 
Mass., June 23, 1851 Chicago, 
Jan. 10, 1937; organist; pupil of 
J. G. Wilson and Dudley Buck; 1871 
of Haupt and Loschhorn (pf.)> 
toured in Germany, Austria, Switzer- 
land, and Holland; 1874, organist, 
Chicago; 1876, dir. Hershey School 
of Musical Art; toured America and 
Europe, 1879 gave 100 recitals at 
Chicago without repeating a num- 
ber; for some years cond. Chicago 
Philh. Vocal Soc.; after 1910 in 
San Francisco; c. organ and church 
music, etc.; pub. "The Church and 
Concert Organist" "The Organ in 
Church" and transl. Haupt's "Cpt. 
and Fugue" (2) Nelson, b. Provi- 
dfence> R. I., Tune 20, 1901; barytone; 

sang as boy soprano in choir of 
Grace Church, New York; pupil of 
David Bispham and William Vilonat; 
d6but, in benefit perf., Phila., 1922; 
sang with Savoy Op. Co. and Phila. 
Civic Op., making New York d6but 
in "Wozzeck," 1931; sang leading 
male r6le in Respighi's "Maria 
Egiziaca" with N. Y. Philh. under 
baton of composer; later won out- 
standing reputation as concert singer, 
in radio programmes and as featured 
performer in musical films. 

Edelmann (a '-del-man), Joh* Fr., 
Strassburg, May 6, 1749 Paris, 
July 17, 170,4; c. opera, baflets, etc. 
/son, Lewis, Bridge water, Mass., 
1748 Woodstock, N. Y., 1820; pub. 
a coll. of hymns, etc. 

Edwards, (i) Henry Sutherland, b. 
London, Sept. 5, 1829 Jan. 21, 
1906; writer; historian and critic for 
many years of the St. James Gazette. 
(2) Henry John, b. Barnstaple, Feb. 
24, 1854 April 8, 1933; of an organ- 
ist, then pupil of Bennett, Mac- 
farren; 1885, Mus. Doc. Oxford; c. 
oratorios, etc. (3) Julian (rightly 
D. H. Barnard), Manchester, Eng- 
land, Dec. u, 1855 Yonkers, N. Y., 
Sept. 5, 1910; pupil Sir H. Oakley, 
Edinburgh, then of Macfarren, Lon- 
don; 1875, pianist to Carl Rosa Opera 
Co.; 1877, cond. Royal Eng. Opera 
Co* and prod. "Victorian" Covent 
Garden. 1880, prod. "Corinne" at 
St. James's Hall, London; cond. 
Engl. Opera at Covent Garden, and 
prod. 2 operas, "Corinne" and "Vic- 
torian," at Sheffield, 1883; came to 
the U. S., 1889, and prod, with 
success various comic operas, incl. 
"Madeleine or the Magic Kiss" (Bos- 
ton, 1894), and "Brian Boru" (N. 
Y., 1890); "The Wedding Day, 99 ' 
"The Jolly Musketeer," "Princess 
Chic" (1899), "Dolly Varden" (N. Y., 
1902), and "When Johnny Comes 
Marching Home"] prod, also roman- 
tic opera "King R&n&s Daughter"; 
c. gr. opera "Elfinella" (MS.), sym- 
phonies, overtures, etc. 

Eeden (a'-dSn), Jean Baptiste van den, 
Ghent, Dec. 26, 1842 Mons, April 
4, 1917; pupil of Ghent and Brussels 
Cons.; ist prize for comp. (1869) 
with the cantata "Fausfs Laaste 
Nacht"; 1878 dir. of Cons, at Mons; 
c. opera " Numance" (Antwerp, 
1897), oratorios and the trilogy 
"Judith," cantatas with orclu, a 



symph. poem, "La Lutte au XVI* 
Sitoh" etc. 

Egenolff (or Egenolph.) (5/-gn-6lf), 
1302 55; a slovenly and piratical 
German mus. -printer, 

Egidi (a'-kh5-de), Arthur, b, Berlin, 
Aug. 9, **8$g; organist; pupil of Kiel 
and Taubert; 1885-02, teacher at 
the Hoch Cons,, Frankfort-on-Main; 
then org. at Berlin, and Royal Prof.j 
comp.; d. 1943- 

Egk, Werner, b. Auchsesheim, Bava- 
ria, May 17, 1901; composer; studied 
in Germany and Italy; after 1929 
lived in Munich; c. an opera, 
(premiere, Frankfort, 
based on nursery tale and 
w'itfT South German peasant songs 
utilised, which had succ. on several 
German stages; also popular orch* 
work, "Georgia," etc. 

EgU (Sl'-ye* or a'-gl), Jofcann Heinrich, 
Seegraben, canton Zurich, 1742 
1810; c. "0Jn, T> etc. 

Bblert (aM^rt), Louis, Kfcnigsberg, 182$ 
Wiesbaden, 1884; teacher and 
critic; conductor and composer. 

Ehnn-Sand (an'-zant), Bertha, Buda- 
pest, Nov. 30, 1847 Aschberg, 
March 2, 1932; dramatic soprano, 
pupil of Frau Andriessen, 

Bhrlich (ar'-Hkh), (i) FT. Cfcr., Mag- 
deburg, 1807 1887; conductor, 
singing-teachei, and dram, com- 
poser. (2) Alfred H., Vienna, Get, 5* 
1822 Berlin, Dec. 30, 1899; pupil 
of Henrelt, Bocklet, Thalberg (piT), 
and Sechter (comp.); court-pianist 
to King George V.; 1864-72 pf>- 
teacher Stern Cons., and 1866-98 
critic in Berlin; composer and editor. 

Bibenschtitz (I'-bSn-sMts), <i) Albert, 
Berlin, April i, 185 7-7 Vienna, Nov. 

ami Paul, Leipzig Cons., won the 
Diploma of Honour. 1876-80, pro*, 
in Charkoff (Russia); 1880-84 at 
Leipzig Cons., then Cologne Cons.; 
1893, air. Cologne Liederkrans: 1896, 
tst pf.-prof. Stern Cons., Berlin; c. 
pf.-sonatas, etc. (2) Hona, Buda- 
pest, May 18, 1872; cousin of above; 
pianist; at 5 she played in a concert 
with Liszt; 1878-85, pupil of Hans 
Schmitt; 1885-89, studied with Frau 
Schumann; lived in Vienna and made 

ffichberg (Ikh'-bSrkh or Xch'-burg), 
(j) Julius* b. DUsaeldorf, June 13, 
1824 Boston, Mass., Jan. 18, 1893; 
violinist and notable teacher; c. 4 

operettas, etc. (2) Oskar, BerHn, 
1845 1898; singing- teacher, con- 
ductor, critic, editor, and composer. 

Eic&born (Ikh'-b6rn), H. L., Breslau, 
Oct. 30, 1847 near Bosen, April 15, 
1918; studied pf., fiute, trumpet^ 
horn, etc., at an early age; at i 4 
pupil of the trumpeter AdL S.holz; 
studied theory with Dr. E. Bonn; 
became a Waldhorn virtuoso; 1882 
inv. the Oktav (or soprano) Wald- 
horn; wrote musical essays, etc.; 
cond. at Gries, near Bozen; editor, 
writer and composer. 

Eichheim (Ikh'-hlm), Henry, Chicago, 
1870 Santa Barbara, Aug. 22. 1942; 
grad. Chicago Music. Coll. with vln. 
prize; studied with Carl Becker. 
Jacobsohn and Lichtenberg; played 
ist vln. in Boston Symph., 1890- 
1913; has toured as soloist in modern 
programmes, and cond. own works as 
guest in Eur. and A met. cities: c. 
orch. works based on native folk 
material of the Orient, also chamber 
music, piano pieces and songs, 

Eichner (ikh'-nfir), Ernst, Mannheim, 
1740 Potsdam, 1777; c. important 
symphonies, concertos, etc. 

Bijken (I'-ken) (or Eyken), van (i) 
Jan Alberty Amersloort, Holland, 
April 25, ^822 Elberfeld, Sept. 24, 
1868; organist and comp.; his 
son. (a) Heinrich, Elberfeld, July 
19, 1861 Berlin, Aug. a8, 1908; 
composer: pupil of Leipzig Cons.; 
teacher of theory; c. songs with orch 

Ein 'stein, Alfred, b. Munich, Dec- 30, 
1880; critic and writer on music; 
studied with Sandberger and Beer* 
Walbrunn; after 1917, critic of 
Munich "A*/' '; later of Berlin ' Tuge- 
blait"\ now re^ in U S. A.; after 1919 
he ed. $th edition of Ricmann's 
Music Lexicon; ed. " AVur Musik- 
Lexicon" (1926), a revision of Eagle- 
field Hull's "/>*r7if*riry of Madcr* 
Music and Mttsifians"! until 1933 
he was the ed. of the 

Eisfeld (!ft'-f*lt), Th. ; WolfenbUttcl, 
April is, 1816 Wiesbaden, Sept. 
a, 1883; cond., N. V. Philh. (with 
Bergmann), 1849*64; previously con- 
ductor at Wiesbaden; then of "Con- 
certs Vivicnncs,** Paris. 

Eialer, HanriB, b. Leipzig, July 6, 1898; 
composer; pupil of Schdnberg and 
Anton Wcbcrn; after 19^5 taught at 
Klindworth-Scharwenka Cons., Ber- 
lin; visited America* 1035; esp* noted 



for Ms works written to revolution- 
ary song texts, also chamber music. 

Eitner (it'-ner), Rob,, Breslau, Oct. 22, 
1832 Templin, Jan. 22, 1905; pupil 
of Brosig; 1853, teacher at Berlin; 
est, a pf.-sch., 1863; from 1865 he 
was engaged in musicological work of 
the highest value, incl. the compila- 
tion of a "Source Lexicon of Musi- 
cians and^ Musical Scientists" (10 
yols.), which has not been surpassed 
in its particular field; important for 
work in musical literature, and re- 
search in 1 6th and iyth centuries, 
Dutch music, etc.; c. "Biblical 
opera," "Judith"*, overture to "Der 
Cid"\ etc. 

El'deiing, Bram, Groningen, Holland, 
1865 Cologne (air raid) 1943; pupil 
Poortmann, Hubay, and Joachim; 
Konzertmeister Berlin Philh.; then 
do. in Meiningenct. -chapel; and 1899 
in Giirzenich Orch.; after 1903 taught 
at Cologne Cons. 

Elers (a'-l&s) (called El'erus), Fz., 
Uelzen, ca. 1500 1590, Hamburg; 
teacher, director, and composer. 

Elewyck (van 2/-lu-vek), Xavier Victor 
(Chevalier) van, Ixelles les Bruxelles, 
Belgium, 1825 in an insane asylum, 
Zickemont, 1888; writer. 

Ergar, Sir Edward, Broadheath, 
Worcester, EngL, June 2, 1857 
London, Feb. 23, 1934; important 
English composer; violinist, and or- 
ganist; cond. Worcester Instrumental 
Soc., 1882-89; 1885-89, organist at 
St. George's; as part of his early 
training he was bandmaster 1879- 
1884 at the County Asylum with 
attendants as musicians; he retired 
to Malvern in 1891 discouraged with 
his prospects in London; lived as 
teacher and occasionally cond. His 
"King Olaf" (1896) brought his first 
real success, which his orch. varia- 
tions (1899) increased and the 
"Dream of Gerpntius" (1900) estab- 
lished; Cambridge made him Mus. 
Doc. that year; Strauss cond. 
"Gerontius" in Germany, 1902; 1904 
an Elgar Festival was given for 3 
days at Covent Garden, and the 
same year he was knighted. He c. 
Imperial March, 2 military marches, 
called "Pomp and Circumstance"* 
"Sea Pictures" contralto and orch.; 
Coronation Ode (1902), "The Apos- 
tles" (Birmingham Fest., 1903); 
Symphony No. i in A flat (1908); 
Symphony No. 2 in E flat "To the 

Memory of Edward VII" (London 
Mus. Fest., 1911, and the same year 
by Cincinnati Symph., N. Y. Phil., 
Boston Symph., etc,)- 
In 1906 he visited the U. S. and con- 
ducted his music at the Cincinnati 
Fest.; he served as prof, of music in 
Birmingham Univ., 1905-08; in 1924 
he was created Master of the King's 
Musick. He lived at Hereford (after 
1904), but in later years, though 
he maintained an estate there, he 
passed much of his time in London. 
Honorary degrees of Mus. D. were 
conferred upon him by Durham, Ox- 
ford and Yale Univs.; LL. D., by 
Leeds, Aberdeen and Pittsburgh 
Univs. His large output of com- 
positions includes also a symph. 
study, "Falstajf" (1913), symph. 
poem; "Polonia" (1915), a much 
played vln. concerto in B minor 
(igio); Introduction and Allegro for 
strings (1905); incidental music for 
"Crania and Diarmid" the notable 
"Enigma" Variations for orch. (1899) 
in which the identity of various of 
his friends is concealed; "The King- 
dom." oratorio (1906, Birmingham 
Fest.); "The Music- Makers" (1912) 
for chorus; "The Crown of India"' 
(191 2}; "The Spirit of England" 
(1916), do.; 2 string quartets, ora- 
torio, "The Light of Life" (1896); 
cantata, t( Caractacus" ; overtures, 
"Froissart," "In the South," "Coc- 
kaigne" (1901); 6 Scenes from the 
Bavarian Highlands, for chorus and 
orch. (1896); Spanish serenade for 
ch. and orch.; romance for vln. and 
orch.; church-music; pcs. for vln. and 
pf.; organ-sonata; songs, etc. 

Elfas (a r -H-as), Salomonis, monk at 
Saint- Ast&re, Perigord, wrote in 1274 
the oldest extant book of rules for im- 
provised counterpoint. 

El'kus, Albert, b. Sacramento, Cal., 
April 30, 1884; composer; studied 
with Oscar Weil, Robert Fuchs, Karl 
Prohaska, Georg Schumann, Harold 
Bauer and Lhevinne; c. orch., cham- 
ber music and choral works. 

El'ler, Louis, Graz, 1820 Pau, 1862: 
vln.-virtuoso; c. "Valse DiaboUque,< 
a "Rhapsodic Hongroise," etc., for 

El'lerton, J. Lodge, Chester, 1807 
London, 1873; dram, composer. 

El'man, Mischa, b. Talnoe, Russia, 
Jan. 21, 1891; violinist; played at 5 
in public; studied 16 months at 



Odessa with Fideimann, 1903 Invited 
by Aucr to become his pupil; dbut 
at St. Petersburg, 1004, and greeted 
as a great artist though only 12; 
toured widely; 1908, America; he has 
long ranked as one of the most 
eminent performers in his field. He 
has made his home in N. Y. for some 

Elmblad (Slm'-blat), Jus., b. Stock- 
holm, Aug. 22, 1853; bass; studied 
with Stockhausen and Garcia; 1876, 
Wagner chose him for "Donner'* 
(Rheingold), but his father, a prof, of 
theology, objected; 1880, he went 
into opera and sang in various cities, 
as well as in London and America; 
1896, sang "Fafner" at Bayreuth; 
1897 at ct.~Th., Stockholm; d, ion, 

ftl'mendorflf, Karl, b. BUsseldorf, Ger- 
many, Jan, 25, 1891; conductor; pu- 
pil of Steinbach and Abendroth at 
Cologne Cons.; active as cond. at 
native city, Mainz, Hagen, Aachen; 
1925-32, first cond. of Munich State 
Op.; after 1932 in Wiesbaden; ap- 
peared at Bayreuth, beginning 1927. 

Elsenheimer (gr-zn-h!-mgr) Nicholas 
J> Wiesbaden, 1866 Limburg, Ger- 
many, July 12, JQ3S; pupil of his 
father and of Jakobsthal, Strassburg, 
LL.D., Heidelberg; 1890, America; 
2891, prof, at Coll. of JMusic, Cincin- 
nati; c. cantata "Valerian," with 
orch, "Belshazzar" etc, 

Eisner (Sls'-nfir), Jos* XavJer, Grottkau, 
Silesia, 1769 Warsaw, 2854; writer 
and composer of 19 operas* 

El'son, (r) Louis Chas., Boston, April 
*7, 1848 Feb. 14, 1920; writer and 
teacher; pupil of Kreissmann (sing- 
ing), Boston, and Gloggner-Castelu 
(theory), Leipzig; edited the "Vox 
Humana"; then on the "Music Herald"; 
for years critic of the "Boston Courier" 
then of the "Advertiser"} 1881 prof, of 
theory and lecturer on the orch, and 
musical history at N. E. Cons.; lec- 
tured on music with much success; 
pub. "Curiosities of jlfww/* "The 
History of German Song*" "Th& 
Theory of Music," "The Realm oj 
Music," "German Songs and Son%~ 
writers," "European Rfminisctntes, 
"Syllabus of Musieal History," and 
"Great Composers and Thfir Work" 
(1899), "The National Music of 
America" (1900), * 4 Hume end School 
Songs" i c. operettas, songs, and 
instr.- works; transl. and arranged 
over 3,000 songs, oDeras, etc. (a) 

Arthur B-, b. Boston, Nov. 18, 1873: 
d. N. Y,, Feb. 24, 1940; son and pupil 
of (i); grad. Harvard Univ.; and 
Mass. Inst. of Technology; author of 
books on music. 

ETvey, (*} Stephen, Canterbury, 1805 
Oxford. 1860; organist. (2) Sir 
George (Job), Canterbury* 1816 
Wincfiesham, Surrey, 1893; bro. of 
above; c. oratorios. 

Elwart (er-v&rt), Antoine Aimable 
BHe, Paris^ 1808^ ^877; violinist and 
dram, composer. 

El'wes, Gervase Cary, Northampton, 
England, Nov. 15, 1866 Boston, 
Mass., 1921 (killed by locomotive 
while on American tour); tenor; 
studied Vienna, Paris, etc*; at first 
in diplomatic life; professional dbut, 
1903; sang la Europe and America; 
excelled in Brahms songs* 

Em'ery, Stephen Albert, Paris, Maine, 
Oct. 4, 1841 Boston, April 15, 1891; 
prof, of harm, and cpt.; asst.-ed. 
"J/iurlrdE Iftrald"', graceful composer 
and pop. theorist. 

EtQx&an'ue!, Maurice, b. Bar-sur-Aube, 
May 2, 1862 Pirns, Dec. 14, 1938$ 
writer on musk; pupil of Paris 
Cons., and Gevaert in Brussels; also 
at Sorbonne, Paris; won Kastner- 
Boun&ult prize from French Acad. 
lor his " Hisioirc df la Lan&ue Musi- 
catc"', has also written treatises on 
Greek music and modal accompani- 
ment to the psalms; 1900, appointed 
prof, of music, hist, at Pans Cons.; 
c. orch,, chamber and choral music. 
org. pieces and songs, 

Emmerich (&m'-mr-rkh), Robt., Ha- 
nau, 1836 Baden-Baden, 1891; com** 

Enckhausen (^nk'-how-i^nl, H. Pr., 
Celic, 1709 Hanover, 1885; court- 
organtst, pianist and director. 

Enesco (&-ns'-koo), Georges, b. Cor* 
daremi, Roumania, Aug. 7, 1882; 
violinist, conductor, composer; at 4 
played and composed, at 7 was ad- 
mitted to Vienna Cons., by HeHmes- 
berger, in whose family he lived; at 
7i, took first prises for violin and 
harmony; 1X96, studied in Pans 
Cons, with Marsick and Faurg; in 
2807, he took second accessit for 
counterpoint and fugue, and a con- 
cert of his works was given In Paris, 
including a violin sonata, a piano 
suite, quintet, 'cello pieces and songs; 



1898, Coloxme prod. his "Polme 
Roumain" for orch.; 1899, he took 
first violin prize at the Cons.; toured 
and became court violinist to the 
Roumanian queen; c. symph. (Co- 
lonne orch., 1906; N. Y. Phil., 1911) 
and symph. in E flat, op. 13 (Berlin, 
1912) Pastoral fantasie for orch. 
(Colonne orch., 1899); TJixtuor, or 
symphony for wind instrs., do. for 
'cello and orch. (Lamoureux orch., 
1909); suite for orch. (Boston 
Symph., 1911); 3 Rhapsodies Rou- 
maines, (1911), etc. He has ap- 
peared in the U. S. both as violinist 
and conductor, and was engaged for 
guest appearances in latter capacity 
with N. Y. Philh. Orch., 1936-37; 
his music drama "Oedipe" on which 
he had worked for many years, was 
prod, at the Paris Op., 1936, creating 
a marked impression by its nobility 
and original form of expression. 

Engel (Sng'-Sl), (i) Jn. Jakob, Par- 
7him, Mecklenburg, 174.1 1802; dir. 
and composer. (2) David Hn., 
Neuruppin, 1816 Merseburg, 1877; 
organist, writer and dram, composer. 
(3; K., Thiedewiese, near Hanover, 
1818 suicide, London, 1882; organ- 
ist and writer. (4) Gv. Ed., K6nigs- 
berg, 1823 Berlin, 1895; singing- 
teacher, composer and theorist. 
(5) Carl, Paris, July 21, 1883 N.Y., 
May 6, 1944, musicologist; studied 
Strasbourg and Munich Univ., stud- 
ied composition with Thuille; res. 
U. S. since 1905, became Amer. 
citizen, 1917; chief of music division, 
Library of Congress, Washington, 
1921-29; pres. publishing firm of 
G. Schirmer, Inc., N. Y., and ed. of 
"Musical Quarterly"; has written ex- 
tensively on musical subjects. 

En'na, Aug., Nakskov, Denmark, 
May 13, 1860 Copenhagen, Aug. 3, 
1939; grandson of an Italian soldier 
in Napoleon's army; son of a shoe- 
maker; self-taught in pf. and in- 
strumentation, and had almost no 
teaching in vln. or theory; went with 
a small orch. to Finland (1880); 
played Carious insts., even a drum 
before a circus- tent; returned to 
Copenhagen; prod, the operetta "A 
Village Tale" (1880) in provincial 
theatres; played at dancing-lessons, 
and gave pf. -lessons at 12 cents an 
hour; 1883, cond. for a small provin- 
cial troupe, for which he wrote act- 
tunes, and 10 overtures; pub. songs, 

pf.-pcs., an orchl. suite, and a sym- 
phony; this gained him, through 
Gade's interest, the Ancker scholar- 
ship, enabling him to study in Ger- 
many (1888-89). After producing 
an operetta "Areta," he prod, with 
unequalled succ. for a Dane, the 
opera "The Witch," 1892, at the R. 
Opera House, Copenhagen. The 
opera "Cleopatra" (Copenhagen, 
1894) failed, but 1895, with new cast, 
was succ. as also "Aucassin and 
Nicolette" (Copenhagen, 1896; Ham- 
burg, 1897). Opera "Aglaia," in 
MS. Pub. a vm.-concerto, etc. 

E'noch & Co., London music-pub, firm, 
est. 1869, 

Epine (dS-la-pe'-ne 1 ), Francesca Mar- 
gerita de 1% extremely popular 
Italian singer and harpsichordist in 
London, from ca. 1698 1718, when 
she m. Dr. Pepusch; her sister sang 
in London from 1703-1748 as Maria 

Epstein (Sp'-shtin), (i) Julius, Agram, 
Aug. 7, 1832 Vienna, March i, 1926; 
pupil of Lichtenegger, Halm (pf.), 
and Rufinatscha (comp.); 1867-1902, 
prof, of pf . Vienna Cons. Among his 
pupils were Mahler, Ignace Briill, 
Ugo Reinhold, August Stum, etc., 
and he is said to have discovered the 
voice of Marcella Sembrich, when sht 
studied piano with him. His two 
daughters, (2) Rudolfine ('cellist), 
and (3) Eugenie (violinist), toured 
Austria and Germany. 1876-77. 
(4) Richard (1869-1919), his son, 
pianist; toured Europe, and 1914 
in U. S. 

ISrard (a'-rar), (i) SSbastien, Strass- 
burg, April 5, 1752 near Paris, Aug. 
5, 1831; notable piano-maker and in- 
ventor; inv. a "Clavecin Mecan- 
ique"; the "Piano organist," finally 
the double-action mechanism, which 
made a new instr. of the harp (v. 
D. D.); perfected in 1811 his greatest 
achievement, the repetition action 
of the piano (v. D. D.) . His successor 
as a piano-maker was his nephew, 
(2) Pierre (1796 1855), succeeded 
by Pierre Schaffer (d. 1878); he was 
succeeded by Count de Franqueville. 

Erb (Srp), (i) M. Jos., b. Strassburg, 
1860 d. 1944; pupil of Saint-Saens, 
Gigout, and Loret, Paris; lived in 
Strassburg as teacher and organist 
at the Johanniskirche and the 
Synagogue; c. a symphony; a sym- 
phonic suite; sonatas and "dram. 



episode" "Der letzte Ruf" (Strass- 
burg, 1895), with some succ., etc. 
(2) Karl, b. Ravensburg, July 13, 
1877; tenor; sang as choir boy; later 
entered chorus of Stuttgart Op. when 
it was on guest tour in his native 
town; 5 months later made d6but 
at Stuttgart without formal vocal 
study; 1913-25, member of Munich 
Op.; also active as recital and ora- 
torio singer. (3) John Lawrence, 
b. Reading, Pa., 1877; organist; 
studied Metropolitan Coll., N. Y., 
and Virgil School; headed mus. dept. 
of Wooster Univ,, later dir. school of 
music, Univ, of Illinois; after 1922 
dir. at Conn. Coll., New London; 
wrote life of Brahms; c. organ, piano, 
vocal mus.; d. Eugene, Ore., 1950. 

Er^ba, Bon Dionigi, nobleman and 
composer at Milan, 1694; Handel 
appropriated some of his best works. 

Erbach (Sr'-bakh), Chr,, Algesheim, 
Palatinate, 1570 AugLburg, 1635; 
composer and organist. 

Br'ben, Robert, Troppau, March 9, 
1862 Berlin, Oct. 17, 1925; 1894, 
conductor at Frankfort-on-M.; 1896, 
at Mannheim; prod, the succ. i-act 
opera "Enoch Arden" (Frankfort-on- 
M., 1805), and a "fairy comedy," 
"Die Heinzelmannchen" (Mayence, 

Erdmannsddrffer (Srt'-mans-dSrf-fe'r), 
(i) Max, Niirnberg, June 14, 1848 
Munich, Feb* 14, 1905; pupil Leipzig 
Cons,, and in Dresden of Riets; 
1871-80, ct.-cond., Sondershausen; 
1882, dir. Imp. Mus. Soc. at Moscow, 
and prof, at the Cons.; 1885, founded 
a students* orch. society; returned to 
Germany, cond. the Bremen Philh. 
Concerts till sBos; 1896, cond. Sym- 
phony Concerts St. Petersburg; 1896, 
cond* at the ct.-Th., Munich; c. 
"Printessin Ilse^ "a forest-legend"; 
and other works for soli, chor. and 
orch.; overture to Brachvogel's 
"Narciss," etc-; 1874 he m. (2) Paul- 
ine lichtner OprawiU, b. Vienna, 
June 38, 1847 Municr^ Sept. 24, 
1916; jmpil of Pirkhert and Lisat; 

Erk (rk), (i) Adam Win., Herpf, Saxe- 
Meinxngen, 1779 Darmstadt^ 1820; 
organist and composer* (2) Ludwig 
(ChrO> Wetzlar> 1807 Berlin. 1883; 
son of above; conductor. Cs) 3?t. 
Albrecht, Wetzlar, 1809 DUsseldorf , 
1879; bro. of above; pub* the 
"chrcr Ccmmer&uck,** etc. 

Erkel (Sr'-ke*l), (i) Franz (or Ferencz), 
Gyula, Hungary, Nov. 7, 1810 > 
Pesth, June 15, 1893; the father of 
Hungarian opera; conductor and 
prof., composer of operas incl. 
"Hunyddy Ldsld" and "Bank Ban." 

(2) Alexander (or Alexius), Pesth, 
1846 1900, son of above; dir. of 
Philh. Cone., Pesth, 1875-93; 1896, 
dir. Royal Opera, Pesth; prod, 
opera "Tempcf&i" (Pesth, 1883). 

(3) Julius, d. Budapest, March 22, 
1909; son of (i), prof, at Acad, of 
Mus., Pesth; conductor for many 
years at R, Opera. 

Erlanger (r-ifin-zha), (x) Canaille, 
Paris, May 25, 1863 April 24, 1919; 
pupil of Bribes, Paris Cons.; 1888 
took Grand prix de Rome with can- 
tata "Vtlleda"; c. symphonic piece, 
"La Chasse Fanlastique *; dram, leg- 
end, "Saint Julicn U HospitalieP* 
(Paris, 1896); the succ. lyric drama 
" Kcrmaria" (Paris, Op.-Com., 1897), 
"Aphrodite," (1906) etc, (a) Baron 
Frdric d' (pen-names Fr. Regna* 
or Federico Ringel), b* Paris, May 
29, 1868; son of a banker; prod. succ. 
opera "Jthan de Sainlre" Hamburg 
(2894), and mod. succ. opera "I net 
Mtndo" (London, xS^f. M r$-/' 
"Noel," etc.; d, London, 1943. 

Erlebach (r r -l$-bakh), Ph. H., Essen, 
July a$, 1657 Rudolstadt, April 17, 
17x4; court-cond.; c. overtures, 

Brier, Hermann, Radeberg, near Dres- 
den, June 3, 1844 Berlin, Dec. 13, 
1918; 2873 eat. a mus. -pub. business 
(now Ries and Erler); editor and 

Ernst, Heimich Wilhelm, Brtinn, Mora- 
via, May 6, 1814 Nice, Oct. 8, *86$: 
violinist: pupil Vienna Cons, and 
with Bohm and Mayseder; followed 
Paganini about to learn his methods; 
1833-38 lived at Paris; 1838-44 
toured Europe with greatest success; 
c. violin-concerto, etc, 

Enrani (Cr-ra'-n^), Achille, Italy, 1823 
New Yorkj 1897; operatic tenor 
and notable singing-teacher in N. V. 

Er'skine, John, b. New York, Oct. 5, 
187^ N. Y., June a, 1951; writer, musi- 
cian; pres. Juilliard School of Music, 
H. Y., until 1937; heard as lecturer, 
and as piano soloist with leading 
Amer. orchestras; prof, of English 
lit,* Columbia University; among 
many academic degrees, faon. D. 
Litt., Bordeaux Univ.; Chevalier of 



the Legion of Honour; author of 
librettos to operas, "Jack and the 
Beanstalk" (Gruenberg) and "Helen 
Retires" (Antheil). 

Er'tel, Jean Paul, Posen, Jan. 22, 1865 
Berlin, Feb. n, 1933; critic and 
composer; pupil of Tauwitz, Brassin 
and Liszt; self-taught in instrumen- 
tation; teacher at Brandenburg 
Cons.; 1897-1905, edited the "Deut- 
sche Musiker Zeitung"; c. symphony 
"Harald"; symph. poems "Maria 
Stuart," "Der Mensch," "Belsazar," 
" Hero und Leander" (1909); a double 
fugue for orchestra and organ, etc. 

Ert'mann, Baroness, ca. 1778 Vienna, 
1848; pianist; intimate friend of 

Eschmann (gsh'-mSn), Jn. K., Win- 
terthur, Switzerland, 1826 Zurich, 
1882; pianist, teacher and composer 
at Leipzig. 

Escudier (s-kttd-ya), two brothers, 
of Castelnaudary, Aude, (i) Marie, 
i8ip 1880, and (2) Leon, 1821 
Pans, 1881; journalists. 

Eslava (Ss-la'~va), Don Miguel Hnario, 
Burlada, Navarra, 1807 Madrid, 
1878; court-conductor, editor and 

Espagne (Ss-pakh'-ne 1 ), Fz., Miinster, 
Westphalia, 1828 Berlin, 1878; di- 
rector and editor. 

Espla, Oscar, b. Alicante, Aug. 5, 1886; 
Spanish composer; one of the leading 
composers of his country, his works 
based on folk music of eastern Spain; 
utilises original musical scale drawn 
from folk music; forswears impres- 
sionism and romanticism for classical 
method; c. orch., chamber and other 
music of marked originality. 

Espo'sito, Michele, Castellammare, 
near Naples, Sept. 29, 1855 Dublin, 
Nov. 19, 1929; pianist; pupil of 
Naples Cons., under Cesi; 1878-82, 
at Paris; from 1882, piano-prof., 
Royal Irish Acad. of Music, Dublin; 
1895 org 3 - 11 !?^ an< i cond. an orches- 
tra in Dublin; c. cantata "Deirdre" 
winning Feis Cecil prize (1897); 
operetta, "The Postbag'*- "Irish"- 
symph. (Feis Ceoil prize, 1902), 

Es'ser, H., Mannheim, 1818 Salz- 
burg, 1872; court-conductor. 

Es'sipoff (or Essipova) (Ss-sX-p6f'-a), 
Annette, St. Petersburg, Feb. i, 1851 
Aug. 1 8, 1914; pianist; pupil of 
Wielhorski; of Leschetizky, whom 

she m. 1880: dSbut, 1874, St. Peters- 
burg; toured Europe with great succ.; 
toured America (1876); 1885, pianist 
to the Russian Court; 18931908, 
pf.-prof. St. Petersburg Cons. 

Este (or Est, East, Easte), (i) Thomas, 
London music-printer, ca. 1550 
ca. 1609. (2) Michael, son of above; 
1 7th cent, composer. 

Esterhazy (esh'-tSr-h-zg), Count 
Nicholas, 1839 Castle Totis, Hun- 
gary, 1897; generous patron of 

Ett (St), Kaspar, Erringen, Bavaria, 
1788 Munich, 1847; court-organist 
and composer. 

Ett'inger, Max, b. Lemberg, Dec. 27, 
1874; comp. of operas, "Clavigo," 
"Judith," etc. 

Eulenburg (tsoo oi'-lSn-boorkh), (i) Ph., 
Graf zu, Konigsberg, Feb. 12, 1847 
Liebenberg, Sept. 17, 1921; Royal 
Prussian Ambassador, Stuttgart; c. 
songs (words and music). (2; Ernst, 
Berlin, 1847 Leipzig, 1926; founder 
of Leipzig publishing house. 

Ev'ans, (i) Edwin, 1844 London, Dec. 
21, 1923; organist, writer; author, 
"Beethoven's Nine Symphonies,"- 
"Record of Instrumentation"- etc.; 
his son (2) Edwin; b. London, 
Sept. i, 1874; music critic; educated 
at Lille, Echtemach, Luxembourg; 
self-taught in music; critic, "Pall 
Mall Gazette," 1914-23; contributor to 
many periodicals; one of the founders 
of the Internat'l Soc. for Contem- 
porary Music; wrote work on 
Tschaikowsky; d. 1945. 

Evers (a'-v&rs), K., Hamburg, 1819 
Vienna, 1875; pianist and composer. 

Ew'er & Co., London mus. --publishers; 
founded 1820 by J. J. Ewer, suc- 
ceeded by E. Buxton; 1860, W, Witt; 
1867, became Novello, Ewer & Co. 

Eximeno (Sx-I-ma'-nS), Ant., Valencia, 
1729 Rome, 1808; Jesuit priest; had 
historical controversy with Padre 

Expert (fix-par), Henri, b. Bordeaux, 
May 12, 1863; pupil of Csar Franck 
and Gigout; authority on 15-1 6th 
century music and editor of many 
important texts; from igc*9 librarian 
Paris Cons.; d. Alpes Maritim 63,19^ 

Eybler (I'-blSr), Jos. (later, in 1834, 
Edler von Eybler), Schwechat, neai 
Vienna, 1765 Scho'nbrunn, 1846 
conductor and composer. 

Eyken (i'-k6n), (i) Simon van -{or 



Eyciken; du Citesne). Vide QUEROT. 
(2) (Eijken), Jan Albert van, Amers- 
foort, Holland, 1822 Elberfeld, 1868; 
organist and composer; c, valuable 
chorals, etc. 

Bymieu (fim'-y&), Henri, b. Saillans 
Drome, France, May 7, 1860; a law- 
yer, but studied with E. Gazier 
(theory) and Widor (corap.); writer 
and critic for u Le Mtnestrd" etc.; 

c. a stage-piece, " Un Mariage sous 
N6ron" (Paris, i8QiS), and an ora- 
torio "Afartke et Marie" (Asni&ces, 
1898), etc. 

Eysler (I&'-lr), or Eisler, Edmund, b. 
Vienna, Mar. 12, 1874; c. operettas 
"The Feast of Lucullus" (Vienna. 
1901), and "Brother Straubinger 9 * 
(1003), "Vcra Ywlrtla," 1907, etc.; 

d, Vienna, Oct. 4, 1049. 


Faber (ft'-br). (0 Nlkolaus (Nteol), 
priest at Halberstadt, 1 350-6 x, built 
there what is considered the first 
organ made in Germany, (a) HJko- 
laus (IL)> a native of Bocen, Tyrol; 
pub. "Rudimenia inttsicaeS 9 Augs- 
burg, 1516. (5) Heinrich, "Magis- 
ter,** b. Lichtenfeis* d. Oelsnits, Sax- 
ony, 1552; rector of a school, whence 
he was expelled for satirical songs 
against the Pope; then rector of 
Brunswick; pub. a pop* book of ru- 
diments. (4) Bened&t* Hildburg- 
hausen, 1603 Coburg, 3:63* ; com* 

Fabio. Vide uasnxa 

Fabri (ffc'-br*), (*> Stefao 

f b. Rome, ca. 1550; 3599 
1 60 r, conductor, (a) Stefano (U 

)) Rome, x6o6- x6$8; conduc- 
tor and composer. (3) AJonibaJe PJo 
(called BaUno), Bologna^ 1697 Lis- 
bon, 1760; tenor, etc. 
Fabrldus (f&-bre'-tsl-oos) > (2) 

Itzehoe, i6ri Leipzig, 21679; cona- 
noser. (2) J* Albert, Leipzig, 1668 
Hamburg, 1736, son of above? pro- 

Faccio (fat'*cha) Franco, Verona, 
March 8, 1840 Monasa, July ax, 
i HQI; an important composer; criti- 
cised as Wagnerite; notable cond*; 
prof, at Milan Cons, (harmony, later 
cpt.). Vide sorro. 

Faetten (fer-t*n), (ac) 3BC,* Bmenau, 
Thuringia, Dec. ai t 1846 Read- 
lield, Me., Jan. 5, 1928; studied as a 
school-boy with Montag; for 6 
years orchestra- violinist; 1867 stud- 

ied with J. Schoch, Frankfort, and 
was for 10 years friend of Raff; 1868- 
82, Frankfort; 1878, Hoch Cons.; 
1882-85, Peabody Institute, Balti- 
more, U. S. A.; 1885-97, N. E. Cons., 
Boston; dir. 1890-97; 1897, founded 
the Faelten Pf.-School (Teachers' 
Seminary), at Boston; pub* text- 
books. (2) ReLoJboId, b. Ilmenau, 
Jan. 17, 1856; brother of (i); pupil 
of Klughardt and Gottschalg in 
Weimar; also for many years in the 
U. S., active in Baltimore and Bos- 
ton as teacher, writer, 

Fago (fa'-g6), Nicola (called **H Taren- 
fino") t Tarento, 1674 1745 (?); c. 
oratorio, masses; prod* several very 
aucc. operas. 

Fafcrbach (ffilr'-bakh), (i) Jos, t Vienna, 
3:804 1883; flutist, conductor, and 
composer. (2) Ph. (Sr,), Vienna^ 
18x5^ 1885; conductor and dram. 
composer* (3) Wm* Vienna, 3838 
* xS66; conductor and composer. 
(4) Pbu (Jr.), Vienna, 1840 1894; 
son of (a): conductor. 

Ffihrmann (far'-man) Ernst Hans* b. 
Beicfaa, Dec. 17, 1860; organist; 1894, 
teacher at Dresden Cons.; c. organ 
sonatas, etc. 

Falgnlent (fin-yaft), Hoi, b. Antwerp, 
ca. 1570, Flemish contrapuntist* 

Pair/child, Blair, Belmont, Mass., June 
3, 1877 Pari*. April 23, 1933; 
composer; studied at Harvard Univ., 
with Paine and W. Spalding* also in 
Florence with BuonamSci; entered 
diplomatic service in Constantinople 
and Persia: Oriental impressions 
notable in his music; after 1903 lived 
in Paris, studied with Widor and 
Ganave; c. (pantomime) "Dame 
LibtUulc" (Paris Op.Comique f 19*1); 
also many orch., chamber music, 
vocal and piano works. 

Faiszt (fist), Imznanuel G. Fr., Ess!lgen r 
Wttrtemberg, 1823 Stuttgart, 1894; 

FaJcke (f*ik} Henri, Paris, 1866 
May 1901; pupit of $aint-Sans, 
Massenet, Dubois, and Mathias, 
Paris Cons.: won xst prizes in pf * and 
harm,; studied in Germany; pub. a 
useful text-trek on arnegjrlos. 

Falcon (fal-kOn), M. Corn^lie, Pari-, 
x8ia 18^17; soprano singer. 

Faik Mehlig (talk mi'-!lkh\ Anna, 
Stuttgart, July n, 1846 Berlin, 
July 16, 1928; studied At the Cons., 
also with Liszt; toured as concert 
pianist throughout Germany, 



land, and America; court-pianist to 
the king of Wiirtemberg. 

Fall, Leo, Olmiitz, Feb. 2, 1873 
yienna, Sept. 15, 1925; composer of 
light operas; "Irrlicht" (Mannheim, 
1905), "Der Rebell" (Vienna, 1905), 
"Der fidele Bauer" (Mannheim, 
1907), "Die Dollar Prinzessin,"- 
(Vienna, 1907, London and America 
as "The Dollar Princess"), etc. 

Falla, De. Vide DE FALLA. 

Faltin (Car-ten), R. Fr., Danzig, 
Jan. 5, 1835 Helsingfors, June i, 
1918; pupil of Markull, Schneider, 
and Leipzig Cons. Since 1869 lived 
at Helsingfors, Finland, as cond.; 
pub. " Finnish Folk-Songs" and a 
"Finnish Song-Book." 

Faminzin (fa-mSn'-tsen), Alex. Ser- 
gievitch, Kaluga, Russia, 1841 
Ligpvo, near St. Petersburg, 1896; 
critic and dram, composer. 

Fanel'li, Ernest, Paris, 1860 1917; 
studied Paris Cons.; violinist; played 
in cafe's, dance halls, acted as music 
copyist; in 1912 his symphony 
"Tableaux Symphoniques" written 
in 1883, prod, by the Colonne orch., 
received with greatest approval. 
His works, in modern style of much 
originality, are prophetic of Debussy. 

Fan'ing, Eaton, Helston, Cornwall, 
May 20, 1850 Brighton, Oct. 28, 
1927; pupil of the R. A. M., took 
Msndelssohn Scholarship in 1873 and 
the Lucas Medal in 1876; 1894 Mus. 
Bac., Cantab.; 1885 dir. music at 
Harrow School; c. 3 operettas, can- 
tata for female voices, symphony in C 
minor, overture, "The Holiday" etc. 

Farabi. Vide ALFARABI. 

Faiina (fa-rS'-na), Carlo, b. Mantua; 
one of the earliest of violin virtuosos; 
1625 court chamber musician at 
Vienna; c. violin pieces. 

Farinelli, (i) Carlo Broschi (br6s'-k5), 
Naples, June 24, 1705 Bologna, 
July 15, 1782; famous male soprano; 
dbut 1722 at Rome; he sang with 
the utmost brilliancy and success, 
being only once overcome by a rival 
(Bernacchi) from whom he immedi- 
ately took lessons; he joined the op- 
position to HSndel in London, and 
Handel went into bankruptcy and 
took to oratorio. He amassed great 
wealth and became the chief adviser 
of Philip V. of Spain; biog. by 
Sacchi (Venice, 1784). (2) Gitu, 
Este y 1769 Trieste, 1836; org,; c. 
60 operas. 

Far'jeon, Harry, b. Hohokus, N. J., 
May 6, 1878; composer; of English 
parentage, t-nd taken to England in 
infancy; pupil of Landon Ronald, 
Storer, and 1895-1901, R. A. M.; 
prod, operetta "Floretta" 1899; from 
1903, prof, of theory at the R. A. M.; 
c. piano concerto, orch. suite "Hans 
Andersen"; symph. poems, "Mow- 
glij" and "Summer Vision" \ chamber 
music, songs, etc.; d. Dec. 29, 1948. 

Farkas (far'-kSLsh), Edmund (Hung., 
Od<5n), Puszta-Monostor (Heves), 
Hungary, 1852 Klausenburg, Sept. 
i, 1912; important figure in national 
Hungarian music; of noble family, 
intended to be a civil engineer; but 
studied 3 years at the R. Mus. Acad., 
Pesth; next year became dir. at the 
Cons, at Klausenburg, Transylvania; 
was for a time op. cond. and wrote 
mus. articles; 1876, while still study- 
ing engineering, he prod, a i-act 
opera "Bayader" (Pesth); won the 
Haynald prize of 300 florins with a 
mass; c. also mixed choruses, and the 
drch. works "Dawn" (Virradat), 
"Evensong" (Estidal), " Twilight" 
(Alkony), and "Dies ir<z"\ a pop. 
symphony and 5 string-quartets; a 
prize "Festouvertftre"\ and the operas 
' 'Fairy fountain 9 ' ( Tilnderhorrds) , 
i-act (Klausenburg, 1892); "The 
Penitent" (Veseklok) (Pesth, 1893); 
"Balassa Balint," comic (Pesth, 
1896); and "The Blood-ordeal" (Te- 
temre Hinds) (not prod.). 

Far'mer, (i) John, important English 
composer of madrigals; author of a 
treatise pub. 1591, and madrigals, 
1599-1602. (2) Thomas, d. 1694 (?); 
composer; graduated at Cambridge, 
1684; published songs, stage music, 
etc., 1675-1695; Purcell wrote an 
elegy to Nahum Tate's words, on his 
death. (3) H., Nottingham, Eng- 
land, 1819 1891; violinist and or- 
ganist. (4) J., Nottingham, Aug. 
16, 1836 July, IQOI; nephew of 
above; pupil of Leipzig Cons, and 
df Spath; teacher in Zurich for some 
years; 1862-85 mus. -master at Har- 
row School, then organist at Balliol 
Coll., Oxford, where he founded a 
mus. society; edited song-books, etc.; 
c. an oratorio; a fairy opera; comic 
cantata; a requiem, etc. 

Far'naby, Giles, English composer, 
ca. 1565 1600 (?). 

Far 'rant, (i) John, English organist, 
ca. 1600. (2) John, English or- 



ganist, Salisbury cath., ca. 1600. 
(3) Richard, d. Nov. 30, 1580; 
English organist and notable com- 
poser of church-music. 

Farrar', Geraldine, b. Melrose, Mass., 
Feb. 28, 1882; soprano; at 12, pupil 
of J. H. Long, Boston; later of 
Trabadello and Lilli Lehmann; 1901, 
debut Berlin Royal Opera; also at 
the Op. Com., Paris, and 190622, 
at the Met. Op. House in N. Y., 
creating the role of the Goosegirl 
in Humperdinck's " Ktinigskinder" 
(1910). Her striking dram, and 
music, gifts, couoled with charm of 
personality, placed her in the front 
rank of Amer. singers, and she was 
heard widely as a concert and fest. 
soloist. She made several successful 
silent motion pictures, and also 
toured with her own company in a 
version of "Carmen," a role in which 
she had enjoyed favour at the Metro- 
politan. After retiring from the 
stage and later the concert field, she 
sang in radio programmes and also 
acted as commentator for the Met. 
Op. broadcast performances* 1935* 

Farrenc (f&r-raftk), (i) Jacq, Hipp, Axis- 
tide, Marseilles, 1704 Paris, 1865; 
teacher and composer. (2) Jeanne 
Louise (ne'e Dumont), Paris, 1804- 
1875; wife of above, pf. -professor. 

Far'well, Arthur, b. St. Paul, Minn,, 
April 33, 1872: American composer: 
pupil of H. A. Norm, Boston, and of 
Humperdinck; founded at Newton 
Center, Mass., 1001, the "Wawan 
Press" for the artistic pub. of comps. 
by Americans, particularly music 
based on Indian themes. In 1905 he 
established the Amer, Music Soc, 
From 1909--*$ n was a member of 
the staff of "Musical America 1 * and 
in 1010-13, dir, of municipal concerts 
in New York; 3915-18, dir. of Music 
School Settlement there; igiS-xo, 
acting prof., Univ. of Calif. Has 
comps. include for orch. "Dawn" 
"The Domain of flurakanj* " Na- 
vajo War- Dance* 9 (all on Indian 
themes). "Comfit" overture, and 
"Love Song'*} for piano many pieces 
of Indian theme, and numerous fine 
songs; d. N* V., Jan, jo, 1952. 

tfasch (fash), (i) Jn. Fr, t Buttlestadt, 
near Weimar, 1688 Zerbst, 1758; 
court-conductor, composer, (a) 1C* 
IV. Chr.> Zerbat, 1736- Berlin, 1800; 
cembalist; son of above; conductor. 
i Vincent Cor Fauquas, Fa'gus, 

La Fage) (f6g, f6k, la fzb), 
cent, contrapuntist. 
Faure (f5r), J. Bapt., Moulins, Allier, 
Jan. 15, 1830 Paris, N v - 9 I 9 I 45 
184*, Paris Cons.; choir-boy at the 
Madeleine, and studied with Tre- 
vaux; took ist prize for comic opera; 
1852-76, at the Op, Com. as leading 
barytone with great succ.; 1857, 
teacher in the Cons.; after 1876 sang 
in concert; pub. "L'Ar* du Chant"-, 

c. songs, etc. 

Fatir^ (f^-ra), Gabriel Urbain, Pamiers, 
Ari^ge, May 13, 1845 Paris, Nov. 4, 
10,24; eminent French composer; 
pupil of Niedermayer, Dietsch, and 
Saint-Safe'ns; x866 T organist at Rennes, 
then at St.-Sulpice and St.-Honore"; 
1885 took Prix Chartier for chamber 
music; 2896 organist at the Made- 
leine, and prof, of comp., cpt., and 
fugue at the Cons, (vice Massenet); 
1905-20, he became director; C* 
music to "Prom&kte" <Bziers, 1900), 
"Julius Casar" (1905), "PtUtas # 
Mtlisande" 2898; arranged as an 
orch. suite, XQOJT; also much chamber 
music, ana religious choruses, piano 
pieces and many highly important 
songs; i-act opera "L'Organiste" 
(1887); "La Naissanc* d* Venus" 
for soli, chorus, and orch.; "Ckcntr 
de >jrJiffts"; reouienn; symphony; 
vln.-concerto; orchestral suite; a pf.- 
quartets; /^*V, for 'cello; Berceus* 
and Romance, for vin. and orch., a 
vln. -sonata, etc*; 1909, elected to 
French Academic; 19x0, commander* 
Legion of Honour. Memoirs pub* 
by Sere* and Vuillemin. 

Fayolle (fl-y6!>, Fnuou Jon. M, Paris, 
17741852; mus. biographer and 

Fayr'faz* Robt., Mus* Doc. t Cantab, 
and Oxon, 1504-21; organist and 

Fechner (f^kh*-nr), Gv* Th* y Gross* 
Sarchen, Nicderlausite, iSoi Leip* 
IUK, 1887; writer. 

Fedele (fa-da'-li). Vide TREU. 

Faderici (fft-dA-r'-che), V^ Pesaro, 
1764 >Jilan, 2826; went to London, 
where he became cembalist; returned 
to Italy in 1803 and prod, many succ. 

Federrlein (f*'-d*r4ln), Gottfried, b. 
New York, 1883; organist; pupil of 
his father, Goctsciuus and Saar; 
church organist; former warden A.G.O.; 

d. Flushing, N. Y., Feb. 6, 19 
Feiix'berg, bamuel Engenievitch, 



Odessa, May 26, 1890; composer; 
pupil of Jensen and Golden weiser; 
grad. of Moscow Cons., as pianist; 
representative of the more advanced 
modern Russian school of composi- 
tion; c. piano works and songs. 
Felix (fa-lSks), Dr. Hugo, Vienna, 
Nov. 19, 1866 Los Angeles, Aug. 24, 
1934; c. operettas " Husarenblut"- 
Vienna, 1894; "Rhodope,"* Berlin, 
1900; "Mme. Sherry 99 (Berlin, 1902, 
with great success in America, 1910). 
Fellowes, Edmund Horace, b. London, 
Nov. n, 1870; author, lecturer, edi- 
tor; specialist in Elizabethan madri- 
gal; grad. Winchester Coll. and Oriel 
Coll., Oxford; hon. Mus. D., Trinity 
Coll., Dublin; dir. Choir of St. 
George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, 
192327; has toured Canada as cond. 
of Westminster Abbey singers, and 
d. Windsor, Engl., Dec. 21, 1951. " 
Felstein (fel'-shtm) (called Felstinen'- 
sis), Sebastian von, ca. 1530; church- 
conductor and composer, Cracow. 
Fenaroli (fa-na-r6 x -le;, Fedele, Lan- 
ciano, Abruzzi, 1730 Naples, 1818; 
teacher and composer. 
Feo (fa'-5), Francesco, b. Naples, ca. 

1685; composer and teacher. 
Fer(r)abosco (fSr-ra-bds'-kd), (i) Al- 
fonso, Italy, 1543 1588; c. madri- 
gals. (2) Dom. M., Rome, i6th 
cent., member Papal Choir; composer. 
(3) Costantino, court-musician and 
composer at Vienna, 1591. (4) Al- 
fonso, Greenwich, England, ca. 1575 
1628; probably son of (i); com- 
poser. (5) John, d. 1682, son of 
(4); organist Ely Cathedral. 
Ferrari, (i) Benedetto (called della 
Tiorba "the theorbist") (fSr-ra'-re 1 
dSl-la t5-6r'-ba), Reggio d'Emilia, 
^597 Modena, 1681; court- 
conductor and dram, composer. 
(2) Domenico, Piacenza, (?) Paris, 
1780; 'violinist, conductor and com- 
poser. (3) Carlo, Piacenza, ca. 173 
Parma, 1789, bro. of above; 
^cellist. (4) Giacomo Gotifredo, Ro- 
veredo, Tyrol, 1759 London, 1842; 
cembalist, writer, teacher, and com- 
poser. (5) Francisca, Christiania, 
ca. 1800 Gross-Salzbrunn, Silesia, 
1828; harpist. (6) Serafinp Aniadeo 
de% Genoa, 1824 1885; pianist and 
dram, composer. (7) Carlotta, Lodi, 
Italy, Jan. 27, 1837 Bologna, 1907; 
pupil of Strepponi and Panzmi 
(1844-50) of Mazzucato at Milan 
Cons.; wrote text and music of succ. 

operas " Ugo" (Milan, 1857); "Sofia** 
(Lodi, 1866); "Eleanora d'Arborea"* 
(Cagliari, 1871); also masses; a 
Requiem for Turin, 1868, etc. 
(8) GabrieUe, Paris, March 14, 1860 
July 4, 1921; pupil of Eletten, 
Duprato, later of Gounod and Le- 
borne; at 12 d6but as pianist, Naples; 
c. opera "Le Colzar," given at Monte 
Carlo in one act, enlarged to two 
(Paris Op6ra, 1912); also orch. suites 
and many popular songs. 
Ferrari-Fontan'a, Edoardo, Rome, July 
8, 1878 Toronto, Can., July 4, 1936; 
tenor; early in life entered medical 
career, later diplomatic service at 
Italian consulate in Montevideo and 
Rio de Janeiro; opera d6but, Turin, 
1910, as "Kurwenal" in "Tristan und 
Isolde"-, sang later in leading Italian 
theatres, South America, Paris, Bos- 
ton and New York, with Met. Op. 
Co. after 1914; rn. Margarete Mat- 
zenauer, contralto; divorced. 
Ferreira (fr-ra'-e-ra), Da Costa, RooV 
rigo, 1776 1825; Portuguese writer*. 
Fer(r)et'ti, Giov., b. Venice, ca. 1540; 


Fern (fSr'-re), (i) Baldassare, Perugia, 
1610 Sept. 8, 1680; one of the most 
gifted and successful of singers; 
a male soprano; possessed extraor- 
dinary endurance of breath, flexibil- 
ity of voice, and depth of emotion; 
at 65 returned to Perugia; on his 
death left 600,000 crowns for charity. 
Ferrier (fer-e-a'), Kathleen, b. Lan- 
cashire, 1912 d. London, Oct. 8, 
1953; noted contralto; pupil of J. E. 
Hutchinson, Roy Henderson; sang 
Glyndebourne Opera; toured U. S. 
Ferro'ni, V. Emidio Carmine, Tramu- 
tola, Italy, Feb. 17, 1858 Milan, 
Jan. IT, 1934; pupil Paris Cons.; 
ist prize in harm, and comp., 1880- 
83; 1 88 1, asst.-prof. of harm, at the 
Cons.; 1888 prof, of comp. at Milan 
Cons., and mus. dir. of the "Famiglia 
Artistica." 1897, Chevalier of the 
Ital. Crown; c. operas "Rudello' 1 
(Milan, 1892); and (text and mus. of) 
"Ettore Fieramosca" (Como, 1^896). 
Ferroud (fa-rood'), 
Chesselay, France, 
brecen, Hungary, 
(motor accident) ; . . 

shown sensitive impressionistic man- 
ner in his works; studied with 
Florent Schmitt; served as critic 
on various periodicals; c. (orch.) 
"Foules," perf. with succ. by various 


1900 near De- 
Aug. 17, 1936 
composer; had 



Amer. orchestras; "Au Pare Man- 
ceau"\ Serenade; also a comic opera 
"ChirurgieJ* given at Monte Carlo, 
1928; ballet, "Jtunesse," etc. 

Fes'ca, (i) Fr. Ernst, Magdeburg, 1789 
Carlsruhe, 1826; violinist and 
composer. (2) Alex. Ernst, Carls- 
ruhe, May 22, 1820 Brunswick, 
Feb. 22, 1849; son of above; brilliant 
pianist and dram, composer. 

Fes'ta, (i) Costanzo, Rome, ca. 1490 
April 10. 1545; singer and contra- 
puntist. (2) Giu. M. Trani, 1771 
Naples, 1839; violinist, conductor 
and composer, (3) Franceses, Na- 
ples, 1778 St. Petersburg, 1836; 

, operatic singer; m. Maffei. 

Fest'ing, Michael Christian, Lon- 
don, ca. 1700 1752; son of a flutist, 
of same name; conductor, violinist, 
and composer. 

F$tis (fa-tes), (i) Francois Joseph, 
Mons, Belgium, March 25, 1784 
Brussels, March 26, 1871; indefati- 
gable scholar and historian; he worked 
16-18 hours a day; his father, organ- 
ist and conductor at the Cathedral, 
was his first teacher; he learned the 
vln., and c* at 9 a concerto for vln, 
and orch.; the same year became or- 
ganist to the Noble Chapter of Saint 
Waudra; 2800-03 in the Paris Cons.; 
1803, Vienna, for study of fugue, ana 
master- work of German music; here 
began an investigation of Guide 
d'Arezo's system and the history of 
notation. 1804 he started a short- 
lived mus. periodical. 1806 he be- 
gan the 30 years' task (still unpub.) 
of revising the plain-song and entire 
ritual of the Koman Church. He 
m. a wealthy woman, and was en- 
abled to pursue his studies comfort- 
ably till 1811, when her fortune was 
lost. He returned to the Ardennes 
and made researches into harmony, 
which led to his formulating the 
modern theory of tonality, 3813, 
organist and teacher at Douas; 
wrote "La Sf fence de l*Orgamst>" 
and "Melhode tltmentairc d'harwtome 
et d*accompa%ncmtnt" 1818, Paris, 
where he prod, various operas with 
succ. 1821. prof, of camp, at 
the Cons., later librarian. 1827-35 
founded and edited "La Revue 
Musicale*" In 1832 began historical 
lectures and concerts. 1833, concl. 
to King Leopold L, Brussels, and 
for 39 years air. of the Cons, there, 
and 1845 member of the Belgian 

Academy. On his wedding-jubilee 
a Mass of his was sung, and his bust 
was unveiled. In 1806, he began 
collecting and preparing for his great 
"Biographic universclle des musiciens 
et bibliographic genfrale de la mu- 
siquc" in 8 volumes (1837-1844). 
Tnis invaluable monument is, like 
everything else of its kind, bristling 
inevitably with error, bias, and ex- 
cess; yet is a standard of highest 
repute. Pub. many treatises and 
c. 6 operas (1820-32); 2 symphonies, 
an overture for orch.; masses, a 
requiem, motets, etc. Biog. in his 
Dictionary by L. Alvin (Brussels^ 
2874); and Gollmick (Leipzig, 1852). 
(2) Ed. L. Fran., Bouvignes, near 
Dinant, May 16, 2812 Brussels, 
Tan. 31, 1009; son of above; editor; 
for years libr. Brussels Library; pub. 
"Le$ musititns Beiges" (1848)- (3) 
Adolphe L. Eugene, Paris, 1820* 
1873; son and pupil ol (*); pianist*, 
teacher and dram, composer. 

Feuermaaa (foi'~*r-m{inn Emasmei, 
Kolomea, Poland, Xov. 2*, iqo? 
N. Y., May 25, 104^: cellist; pupil 
Anton Walter, Julius Kk-ngei; con- 
cert dbut al it; at 17 Icacher at 
Cologne Cons,, where he was active 
until 1933; solo 'cellist with Gr- 
zenich Orch. and mem, GUrzenich 
Quartet; later res. in Vienna; taught 
Berlin Hochsch.; solo 'cellist in 
Philfa. Orch. in that city; has made 
world tours with succ., inch XJ. S., 
where made d^but in recital and as 
soloist with N. Y. Philh., 1935-36, 

Feurich (foi'-rlkh), Julius, Leipzig, 
iSai^ xoxx>; founded pit* factory, 

Fevfca (fO-v&n)* Ant, (Axitonitis) de, 
ca. 1473 ^5^5 (?); Ketherlaad- 
ish (?) contrapuntist; contemporary 
with Jo&quin Dwpres, and rated 
second only to him. (a) Robert 
( Robertas), Cambrai, xjth cent-; c. 

F^vrier (f&v^re-i) t (i) Henri Louis, 
Abbeville Paris* ca, 17^0; composer 
of clavecin music, of which he pub. 
a collections in 1734 and 2755. 
<a) Henry, b. Paris, 1875; composer; 
pupil of H, Woollctt and the Paris 
Cons,, studying with Pugno % Leroux 
and Massenet; ateo privately with 
Mcssagcr; his first compositions were 
chamber music, inch a piano trio 
and sonata for vln. and piano; he 
has also written pieces for the latter 



instrument, choruses and songs, but 
is chiefly known for his operas, among 
which are "Le Roi aveugle" (Paris, 
1906), "Monna Vanna" after Maeter- 
linck (Paris, 1909), "Gismonda," 
taken from Sardou drama (Chicago, 
1919), and a number of operettas. 

Fiala (fe'-a-la), Jos., Lobkowitz, Bo- 
hemia, 1749 Donauchingen, 1816; 
oboist, 'cellist, composer, and con- 

Fibich (fg'blkh), Zdenko, Seborschitz, 
Bohemia, Dec. 21, 1850 Prague, 
Oct. 15, 1900; pupil at Prague, Leipzig 
Cons. (1865), and of Lachner; 1876 
asst. cond. at the National Th., 
Prague; 1878, dir. Russian Church 
Choir; notable Czech dram, com- 
poser. Prod, at Prague 6 operas incl. 
"Sarka" (1898); c. the symphonic 
poems "Othello," "Zaboj and Slavoj,"* 
"Toman and the Nymph" and 
"Vesna"; "Lustspiel OuverWre," etc. 
"A Night on Kaarlstein," and other 

Fiby (fe'-bs), Heinrich, Vienna, May 
i5> 1834 Znaim, Oct. 23, 1917; 
pupil of the Cons.; from 1857 city 
mus. dir., Znaim; founded a music- 
school and a society; c. 3 operettas; 
pop. male choruses, etc. 

Fiebach (fg'-bakh), Otto, b. Ohlau, 
Silesia, Feb. 9, 1851 Konigsberg, 
1937; mus. dir., Konigsberg Univer- 
sity; royal conductor; c. operas, and 
an oratorio; author of "Die Physio- 
logie der Tonkunst" (1891). 

Fiedler (ft'-lSr), (i) August Max, b. Zit> 
tau, Dec. 31, 1859; piano pupil of his 
father, and studied organ and theory 
with G. Albrecht; 1877-80 Leipzig 
Cons.; won the Holstein Scholarship; 
1882 teacher, Hamburg Cons.; in 
1903, became director of the Ham- 
burg Cons.; 1904 cond. the Phil- 
harmonic concerts; 1908-12, cond. 
Boston Symphony Orchestra with 
great success during the leave of 
absence of Karl Muck (q. v.), c. 
'cello sonata (Boston, 1909), cham- 
ber music, etc.; 1916-33, he was dir. 
of music in Essen. (2) Arthur, b. 
Boston, Dec. 17, 1894; studied Berlin 
R. Acad. of Mus.; after 1930, cond. 
Boston "Pop" Concerts; teacher 
Boston Univ. 

Field (i) John, Dublin, July 26, 1782 
Moscow, Jan. 1 1 , 1 83 7 ; a great though 
gentle revolutionist of music, to whom 
much of Chopin's glory belongs, for 
Field developed the more lyric man- 

ner of pf. -playing and^ carried it into 
his composition, in which he gave the 
piano-song or poem, its first escape 
from the old stiff forms. He created 
the Nocturne, and many of his 
comps. in this form have practically 
every quality and mannerism charac- 
teristic of those of Chopin, who 
excelled him in passion, resource, and 
harmonic breadth. He was the son 
of a violinist, and grandson and pupil 
of an organist, who compelled him 
to practise so hard that he ran away, 
but was brought back and later was 
apprenticed to Clementi as a sales- 
man. He also had lessons from C., 
and went with him to Paris in 1802, 
making a great stir with his interpre- 
tation of Bach's and Handel's fugues; 
he was kept at his salesman's tasks 
till 1804, when he settled at St. 
Petersburg as a teacher and pianist 
of great vogue. After touring Rus- 
sia, in London, 1832, he played a 
concerto of his own at the Philh.; 
then to Paris; 1833 Belgium, Switzer- 
land, Italy, where he was not a succ. 
Intemperance and fistula kept him 
nine months in a Naples hospital; 
whence he was rescued by a Russian 
family Raemanow and taken to 
Moscow, playing in Vienna with 
greatest succ.; but his health was 
lost and he died a few years later 
and was buried in Moscow. Besides 
20 nocturnes (of which only 12 were 
so named by Field) he c. 7 concertos 
(No. 4 in E flat the most popular); 
4 sonatas; "Air russe"; "Air russe 
vari$" (4 hands); "Chanson ritsse 
varie" in D min.; polonaise, " Re- 
viens, reviens." Romanza and 
Cavatina in E; 4 romances; 7 ron- 
deaux; rondeau with 2 vlns., viola, 
and bass; variation in C; 2 diver- 
tissements with 2 vlns., viola and 
bass; 2 fantasias; and pf. -exercises 
in all keys. (2) Henry, "Field of 
Bath," Dec. 6, 1797 May 19, 1848; 
pianist and teacher. 
Fielitz (fSn fg'-ttts), Alexander von, 
Leipzig, Dec. 28, 1860 Bad Salzun- 
gen, July 29, 1930; pupil in Dresden 
of J. SchulhofE (pf.) and Kretschmer 
(comp.); he became qpera-cond. in 
Zurich, Ltibeck, and Leipzig (City 
Th.); a nervous disorder compelled 
his retirement; lived in Italy as a 
composer of choruses, orch. pcs., 
songs, which attained popularity. 
1906-08, cond. and teacher, Chicago; 



taught Stern Cons., Berlin (dir. 

Filippi (f6-l*p'-p*) (i) Giu. de, Milan, 
1825 Neuilly, near Paris, 1887; 
writer, (2) Filippo, Vicenza, 1830 
Milan, 2887; critic, writer, and 

FiTke, Max, Staubendorf-Leobschtitz, 
Silesia, Oct. 5, 2855 Breslau, Oct. 
8, 1911; organist and singing teacher; 
pupil of Brosig and Leipzig Cons.; 
1891, cathedral cond. at Breslau, 
teacher 1893 at the Royal Inst. 
for Church music; 1899, Boyal 
Music director; c. several masses 
with orch.; choruses, etc. 

Fill 'more, J. Comfort, Franklin, Conn., 
1843 1898; studied at Oberlin (O.) 
Coll., and Leipzig Cons.; 1884-55 
founder and dir, of Sch. of Mus. in 
Milwaukee; then mus. dir. Pomona 
ColL, Claremont, CaL; pub. "A 
Study of Omaha Indian Mitsic" 
(with Miss Fletcher and F. La 
Flesche; Peabody Museum, 2893); 
and other treatises; tr. Riemann's 

Finck (ttnk), (i) Heixuidx, 1482, con- 
ductor to John Albert I., Cracow; 
eminent contrapuntist. (2) Her- 
mann, Pirna, Saxony, 1527 Witten- 
burg, 1558, grand-nephew of above; 
composer and writer. (3) Henry 
Theopfcilus, Bethel, Missouri, Sept. 
aa, 3854 Rumford Falls, Minn., 
Sept* 29, 1926; prominent American 
critic and essayist; influential advo- 
cate of Wagner; lived in Oregon, 
then (1876) graduate of Harvard, 
having studied theory and hist, of 
mus. with J. K, Paine; 2876, at- 
tended the first Bayreuth festival, 
and studied at Munich; pub. the 
valuable "Wa&ncr and His Works'* 
(N, Y., 3:893, a vols*, Germ. transL, 
Brealau, 1897); 1877-7^, studied 
anthropology at Harvard; received 
a Fellowship and spent 3 years at 
Berlin, Heidelberg, and Vienna, 
studying comparative psychology 
and sending mus. letters to N, Y. 
** Nation"\ and for some 40 years was 
mus.-ed, of the N. Y* ** Evening 
Post"\ pub. "Clwpin, and other Mus. 
Essays?* "Padcrcwski and His Art" 
"Songs and Son*~Writers"> (XQOI): 
"The Pictorial Wagner," "Anton 
Seidl" "Grieg and His Music" "Suc- 
cess in Mus&y "Massenet and Bis 
Operas** "Richard Strauss"; also 
{our collections ol songs; 3 books of 

travel: "Pacific Coast Scenic Tour* 
"Lotos-time in Japan" "Spain and 
Morocco"\ "Romantic Love and Per- 
sonal Beauty" "Primitive Love and 
Love Stories ( 190*0} , etc. 

Findeisen (flnt'-f-zSn), Otto, b. Brunn, 
Dec. 23, 1862; theat. conductor 
in Magdeburg and Leipzig, prod. 
succ. operetta "Der Alte Dessauer" 
(Magdeburg, 1890); and the succ. 
folk-opera " Benin gs von Trcjfen- 
fdd" (ib. 1891). 

Finger (f*ng'-e*r), Gf., b. OlmUtz, 
Bavaria; in England, 1685-1701; 
then chamber- mus. to queen of 
Prussia, till 1717. 

Fink, (i) Gf. Wm., Suiza, Thuringia, 
1783 Halle, 1846; editor, writer, 
and composer. (2) Chr., Dcttingen, 
Wiirtemberg, Aug. 9, 1831 Ess- 
lingcn, Sept. 5, xgn; pupil Esslingen 
Seminary; Leipzig Cons., and Schnei- 
der, Dresden; till 1860 lived as organ- 
ist and teacher, Leipzig; then teacher 
and organist, Esslingen, and prof. 
in 1862; composer. 


*), (i) Valen- 

tino, Rome, 1764 Capua, June 26, 
1837; opera-cond. and composer. 
(2) Vincenzo, Rome, 1799 Naples, 
2877, son of above; conductor and 
dram . composer. 

Fiore (fl-o'-re), Andrea Steiano, Milan, 
1675 Turin, 1730; composer of 

Fiorillo (f*-$-rH'-l6), (i) Ignazio, 
Naples, 1715 Fritzl&r, near Casse!, 
1787; court-conductor mnd composer* 
(2) Federigo, b. Brunswick, 1733 (?): 
son and pupil of above; viola player 
and composer. 

Fiau (f-k&), Karl, Bremen, 1862 
Brooklyn, N. V., Dec.^ 1930; pupil 
of Leipzig Cons.; lived in Brooklyn, 
K. V.; pianist and composer. 

Firfcusny <fr-k07.h'-ne) .Rudolf, b. 191 2, 
Xapttjdla, Czechoslovakia; pianist; 
studied Bmd Cona. and with Schna- 
hel, janacrk and Suk; d6but at 14, 
Vienna; toured Kurope; res* in U. S. 
where apt>earcd widely in concerts. 

Fischer (fl&n'-er), (x) Jofaann Klaspar 
Ferdinand, ca. 1650" 1746; im- 
portant composer for on$an and 
clavier; cond* to Markgrai Ludwig 
in Bohcmm, 1688, (a) Jn. Cfcr. 
Frriburp, Baden, 1733- London. 
2800; oboUt and composer. (3) K, 
Aug., Ebersdorf, Saxony, i8?H 
Dresden, 1892; organist. (4) Emil, 
Bruoawick, Germany, 1838 Ham- 



burg, 1914; notable German basso in 
Wagnerian r61es; dSbut 1849; sang 
at Met. Op., N. Y., 1885-98; 1899 m. 
Camille Seygard ; divorced 1 902 . (5) 
Edwin, b. Basel, Oct. 6, 1886; pianist; 
pupil of Basel Cons., and Stern. Cons., 
Berlin, where he taught from 1905 
to 1914; since then has toured as 
concert pianist, having esp, rank as 
performer of Bach and Beethoven; 
also has conducted and c. songs and 
piano works; ed. Bach's piano works. 

Fischhof (flsh'-df), Jos., Butschowitz, 
Moravia, 1804 Vienna, 1857; prof., 
composer and writer. 

Eish'er, (r) John A., b. Dunstable, 
1774, pf.- and organ- virtuoso; vio- 
linist and composer. (2) Win. Arms, 
San Francisco, 1861 Boston, 1948; 
pupil of J. P. Morgan (org. and pf .), 
H. W. Parker, and Dvorak, New 
York; also studied singing in Lon- 
don; from 1897, ed. and mgr. Oliver 
Ditson Co., Boston; composer. (3) 
Susanne, b. West Virginia; soprano; 
grad. Cincinnati Cons.; studied at 
Juilliard Grad. School, N. Y.; heard 
with Little Theatre Op. Co. in New 
York; sang at Berlin State Op., 
dbut as "Butterfly"; later at Paris 
Op.-Comique; d6but, Met. Op. Co., 
N. Y., 1935. 

Fissot (fls-sd) Alexis Henri, Airaines 
(Somme), 1843 Paris, 1896; pf.- 
and organ-virtuoso and composer. 

Fitelberg (fS'-tgl-bSrkh), (i) Georg, b. 
Dttnaburg, 1879 d. Stalanograd, 1953; 
Polish composer; pupil Warsaw 
Cons., taking Paderewski prize with 
a violin sonata, 1896, and 1901 the 
Zarnoyski prize with a piano trio; 
concertmaster, and 1908 conductor 
Warsaw Philharmonic; 1912, en- 
gaged for 6 years to cond. Vienna 
Royal Opera; later cond. in England 
and Russia; c. 2 symphonies, orch.; 
chamber music, songs, etc. (3) 
Jerzy, b. Warsaw, May 20, 1903; 
composer; pupil of Schreker; won 
Coolidge Prize; d. N. Y v Apr. 25., 1953- 

Blagstad (flSg'-shtat), Kirsten, b. Oslo, 
Norway; dramatic soprano; her 
father an orchestral conductor, her 
mother a well-known pianist and 
coach; received her training from the 
latter; early designed for medical 
career, but at 15 began voice study; 
made dbut at Oslo when 18; en- 
gaged for Gothenburg Op. Co.; for 
a time retired from singing on mar- 
riage to Henry Johansen, industrial- 

ist; consented to sing at Oslo as 
substitute for indisposed artist, and 
her succ. led to permanent engage- 
ment at the Op. there; had sung 
entirely in Scandinavian countries 
before engagement at Bayreuth, 
1933-34; was offered Berlin contract 
but declined it; engaged for Met. 
Op. Co. and made debut in 1934-35 
season as "Sieglinde" with sensational 
effect, and at once became cele- 
brated in New York for her "Isolde," 
"Brunnhilde," f 'Elsa," etc. ; next season 
also sang in "Fidetio"; Co vent Garden 
d6but, spring of 1936, as "Isolde," the 
three Briinnhildes; also a high- 
ranking concert singer. 

Flecha (flfc'-cha), (i) Juan, music teacher; 
Catalonia, 1483-1553; Carmelite 
monk and teacher; his nephew (2) 
Fray Matheo, 1520 Feb. 20, 1604, 
was an abbot and cond. to Charles 
V. at Prague; both were composers. 

Flgier (fla-zha), Ange, Marseilles, 
Feb. 25, 1846 Oct. 8, 1927; pupO 
of Marseilles Cons, and Paris Cons. 
1870; returned to Marseilles; c. i-act 
comic opera, "Fatima" (Mars. 1875), 
"Ossian" and "FranQoise de Rimini" 
cantata, with orch., etc. 

Fleischer (fli'-sher), (i) Reinhold, 
Dabsau, Silesia, April 12, 1842 
Gorlitz;, Feb. i, 1904; pupil of the 
R. Inst. for Church-music, and R. 
Akademie, at Berlin; 1870, organist 
at Gorlitz and dir. Singakademie; 
1885, Royal Mus. Dir.; c. a cantata, 
"Holda," etc. (2) Oskar, Zorbig, 
Nov. i, 1856 Berlin, Feb. 8, 1923; 
studied in Italy on govt. stipend; 
pupil and, since 1896, successor of 
Spitt0 as Prof. Extraordinary, at the 
Berlin Univ., also custodian of the 
Royal Coll. of Mus. Instrs., and 
teacher of history at the Hochschule 
fur Musik; pub. a study of neumes, 
1805, etc. (3) Fleischer-Edel 
(ft '-del), Katharina, Miilheim, Sept. 
27, 1873 Dresden, July 17, 1928; 
soprano; studied with Iffert; sang 
at court-opera, Dresden. 

Flem'ming, Fr. Fd., Neuhausen, Sax- 
ony, 1778 Berlin, 1813; c. pop. 
"Integer vitce," etc." 

iFlesch, Carl| Moson, Hungary, Oct. g, 
1873 Lausanne, Nov. 15, 1944; pupil 
Grtin at Vienna, and Marsick at 
, Paris Cons.; in 1897-1902 prof, 
at Bucharest Cons.; and chamber 
violinist to Roumanian queen; 
1903-8, teacher at Amsterdam Cons-* 



1925 at ^ Curtis Inst,, Phila.; later 
taught in Baden-Baden, London, 
etc.: author of vln. method. 

Fleta (flfi/-ta), Miguel, Albalete, 1897 
Corunna, 1938; Spanish tenor; stud- 
ied Barcelona Cons*; sang Met. Op. 
1923-4, also vddely in Europe* 

Floridia (fl6-rd'~ya), (Baron Napo- 
lino), Modica, Sicily, March 5, 
jt86o New York, Aug. 16, 1932; 
pianist, pupil of S Pietro a Majello, 
Naples; while there he pub. succ. pf.- 
pcs.; prod. succ. comic opera **(Tizr- 
loUa Clcpier" (Naples, 1882), retired 
for 3 years to Sicily; toured 1885-86; 
1888-90, prof, of pf, Palermo Cons.; 
1880, his symphony won ist prize 
of the Soc. del Quartetto, Milan; w. 
text and music of succ. opera "Jlfa- 
ruxta" (Venice, 1894)* He came to 
America in 1904, was for a year 
piano-prof, at Cincinnati Cons., and 
was commissioned to write the opera 
'*Paolctta," for the Exposition of 
1910; after 1913 he lived in N. Y. 
where he cond. Italian Symph.; c 
(with Luigi IHica) "La Colonia 
Liberal "FestouvtrMrt," opera "The 
Scarlet Letter," "M adrigal" for bary- 
tone and orch., songs, etc. 

Blorizno (fl6'-rl-md), Fran., San Giorgio 
Morgeto, Calabria, 1800 Naples, 
1888; writer, teacher, and composer. 

Blo'rio* Caryl, pea-name of Wm* Jas* 

tfiotow (flS'-to), Friedridbu Freifcerr 
von, Teutendorf, Mecklenburg, April 
27, 18x2 Darmstadt, Jan. 34* ^883: 
composer of a extremely popular ana 
melodious, also extremely light, 
operas: son of a landed nobleman; 
studied composition with Relcha, 
Paris; he fled from the July Revolu- 
tion to Mecklenburg, where he c. 2 
operettas; returning to Paris, he 
prod. "Strapkine," 1816, "Rob Roy" 
and the succ. "Le ffattfra^ de la 
Mtdust" 1839 (given Hamburg, 
1845, as '*>!> bfatrasen")* in which 
he collaborated with Paloti and 
Grisan; 3 later works failed, inch the 
ballet "Lady //<*mYf' (Opera, 1*4.*); 
afterwards rewritten with great succ. 
as "Martha" (Vienna, 1847). 

sandro Stradrlla" (Hamburg t 1844: 
rewritten from a "piece lyrique, 
"Stradttla," Paris, xft?), made his 
name in Germany. He fled from 
th March Revolution (1848), and 
prod. "Die Gross-ftirsiin** (fierlin, 
) t and "/ndraf* (Berlin 

1850); 3 later works failed. 1856-63, 
he was intendant of court- inusk^ 
Schwerin, and c. a "Torch-Dance'* 
and excellent music to Shakespeare's 
"Winter's Talc"; 1863-68, he prod. 
2 operettas, 2 operas, and 2 ballets, 
without succ.; 1868, he retired to 
one of his estates, near Vienna, made 
visits to Vienna, Paris, Italy; 1870, 
"L'Ombre" (Paris, Op. Com., 1870; 
prod, in London, 1878, as the 
"Phantom") was very succ.; " NaZda" 
(Milan, 1873) and "II Fior 
d* Harlem" (Turin, 1876) were re- 
visions, and he rewrote "Indra" as 
"I* Enehantercsse** (Paris and London. 
1878); Italy, "Alma F I ncanf air ice"; 
Germany **Z>i" &exe"; after his 
death "RoscUana," "Der Graf Saint- 
Mtgrin" (Cologne, 1884), and "JDfe 
Musikanten" (Hanover, 1887) were 

F1%*1 (flU'-gel), (i) Gustav, Nienburg- 
on-Sa&le, July a, x Si a Stettin, 
xooo; cantor, organist, writer, and 
composer. (2) Ernest Paul, Stettin, 
Aug. 31, 1844 Breslau, Oct. 20. 
192 a; son and pupil of above: studied 
at the R. Inst. for Church-music, 
and the Akademie, Berlin; private 
pupil of von Billow; 1867, organist 
and teacher at the Prenxlau Gym- 
nasium; in 1879, cantor, Breslau, 
and founded a singing soc.; 1901, 
gained title of professor; writer and 

Fo'dor, (x) Jo*., Venice, 1733 1828, 
violinist and composer, (a) Jo* 
sephine, b. Paris, 1793; soprano; 
retired, 1833; daughter of above; 
m, the actor Mainvielle. 

Foenrter (fftr'-shter), Ad, Martin, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., Feb. a, 185* Aug, 10, 
1937; American composer; pupil of 
his mother and of i-cip*ig Cons,; 
1875-76, teacher at Ft. Wayne 
(IncL), Cons., then Pittsburgh as a 
teacher of singing and pf.; c. orch., 
chamber muic, choruses songs, etc. 

Fogg, Eric, b. Feb. 21, njo.*, at Manches- 
ter Ixmdun, Sept. 4, iQ4* studied 
with his father (a wcU-knovn or- 
ganint) am! BantfH'k; c. orch., 
chamber, piano music, $ong*, etc, 

Foggia (fdd'-Ja), Fran*, Home, 1605- 
I6S8, comrvjscr and conductor. 

Fogliani (fui-ya'-nc), (i) Ludovico, 1490 ca. 1559* theorist 
and composer, (j) Giacomo, Mo- 
dena, 1473 April 4, S4^> brother 
of Ludovico F., organist and comp. 



FSldesy (fttl'-dS-shg), Arnold, b. Buda- 
pest, Dec. 20, 1882; 'cellist, succ. in 
London, 1902; son of a military 
bandman at Budapest; pupil of 

Foley ("Signer Foli"), Allan Jas., 
Cahir, Tipperary, Ireland, 1835 
Southport, England, Oct. 20, 1899; 
concert and operatic bass. 

Polville (f61-ve"-yti), (Eugenie fimilie) 
Juliette, b. LiSge, Jan. 5, 1870; 
d. 1946; pianist, violinist; teacher; 
conductor and composer; pupil of 
her father, a distinguished lawyer; 
studied vln. with Malherbes, Musin, 
and C6sar Thomson; in 1879, d6but 
at Li6ge as concert- violinist; fre- 
quently directed her own orchestral 
works; annually conducted at Lie'ge 
Cons, a concert of ancient music, and 
gave clavecin-recitals; prod. 1893, 
succ. opera "Atala" (Lille, 1892*, 
Rouen, 1893); 1898, pf- prof, at Lie'ge 
Cons.; c. orchestral suites: "Sc&nes 
champ&res, de la, mer, d'kiver," etc. 

Fontana (f6n-ta'-na), Giov. Bat., d. 
Brescia, 1630; composer. 

Foote, Arthur Win., Salem, Mass., 
March 5, 1853 Boston, April 9, 
1937; composer; pupil of B. J. Lang 
(pf.), S. A. Emery, and J. K. Paine 
(comp.) 1875, A. M. Harvard (for 
mus.); 1878-1910, organist of the 
first Unitarian Ch., Boston; pub. 
overture, "In the Mountains" sym- 
phonic prologue, "Francesco* da Ri- 
mini" 'cello concerto; orch. suite and 
choral works, "Farewell of Hiawa- 
tha/' "The Wreck of the Hesperus," 
and "The Skeleton in Armour" \ pf.- 
quintet, quartet in C; pf.-trio in C 
min.; sonata for pf., and vln.; 2 
string-quartets; pcs. for vln. and 
'cello; prch. suite in D minor 
(played in Boston, London, N. Y., 
etc.) Suite for strings (do.); 4 
character pieces for orch. (Thomas 
Orch., Boston Symph., 1912, etc.) 
"Bedouin Song," male chorus^ sung 
very widely; organ suite in D 
(played by Guilmant on American 
tour) ; two piano suites, 5 poems from 
Omar Khayyam for piano, songs, etc. 

Forchhammer (fdrkh'-hSm-me'r), Th., 
Schiers, Gray Cantons, July 29, 
1 847 Magdeburg, Aug. 1,1923; pupil 
of Stuttgart Cons.; 1885, organist at 
Magdeburg Cath.; 1888 Royal Mus. 
Dir.; writer and composer. 

Ford, Thos., England, ca. 1580 
1048: composer and writer. 

For'kel, Jn. Nikolaus, Meeder, near 
Coburg, 1749 Gottingen, 1818; 
historian, organist, harpist, and 
teacher. Wrote biography of Bach, 

For'mes, (i) K. Jos., Mtilheim-on-Rhine, 
1816 San Francisco, 1889; opera- 
bass. (2) Theodor, Mulheim, 1826 
Endenich, near Bonn, 1874; tenor, 
bro. of above. 

Fornari (fdr-na'-rS), V., Naples, May 
n, 1848 Au^., 1900; pupil of Sira 
(pf.) and Battista (comp.); c. operas, 
"Maria di Torre" (Naples, 1872), 
"Sdlammbo,"' "Zuma" (Naples. 
1881), and i-act opera-seria "7 - 
Dramma in Vendemmia" (Florence, 
1896), succ. 

Forma, Rita (P. Newman), San Fran- 
cisco, July 17, 1879 Paris, Oct. 27, 
1922; soprano; pupil of Jean de 
Reszk and Frau Kempner; d6but, 
1901, Hamburg Stadttheater; sang 
at Co vent Garden and Met. Op., 
N. Y. 

'ForselT, John, b. Stockholm, Nov. 6, 
1868 Sept. 4, 1941; barytone; stud- 
ied at Cons, in native city with 
Giinther; mem. R. Op thre, also 
guest appearances in Paris, Berlin, 
and (190910) at Met. Op., N. Y., 
a notable exponent of Mozart r6Ves; 
also known as concert singer; after 
1913 he was dir. of the Stockholm 

Forster (f6r'-shtSr), G., (i) Amberg (?) 
Nurnberg, 1568; editor and coll. 
(2) G. (II), d. Dresden, 1587; 
double-bass; conductor. (3) Niko- 
laus (called Fortius), 1499 *535; 
contrapuntist. (4) (or Forster) Kas- 
par, Danzig, 1617 1673; composer, 
theorist and conductor. (5) Win. 
(Sr.), Brampton, Cumberland, 1739 
London, 1808; vln.-maker; his son 
and successor was (6), Win., Lon- 
don, 1764 1824. 

FSr'ster (f&r'-shter), (i) v. SORSTEE 
(4). (2) Chr., Bebra, Thuringia, 
1693 Rudolstadt, 17455 organist, 
conductor and composer. (3) Eman- 
uel Aloys, Neurath, Austrian Silesia, 
1748 Vienna, 1823; theorist and 
composer. (4) Jos., Osojnitz, Bo- 
hemia, Feb. 22, 1833 Prague, Jan. 
3, 1907; noted organist in various 
churches; since 1887, Prague Cath.; 
prof, of theory, Prague Cons.; 
c. masses and requiems, org.-pcs; 



wrote a treatise on harmony. (5) 
Vide FOES.STER. (6) Alban, Reichen- 
bach, Saxony, Oct. 23, 1849 Neu- 
strelitz, Jan. 18, 1916; violinist; 
pupil R. Blume, later of Dresden 
Cons.; leader at Carlsbad, Breslau, 
Stettin; 1871, court mus., and cond. 
Neustrelitz, 1881, teacher in Dres- 
den. (7) Josef B., b. Prague, Sept. 
30, 1859; son of (4); pupil of Prague 
Cons.; c. $ operas, 2 symphonies, 
chamber mus.; d. Prague, 195*- 

Fortlage (fdrt'-ia-gS), K., Osnabruck, 
1806 Jena, 1881; writer. 

Fortsch (tertsh), Jn. Ph., Wertheim, 
Franconia, 1652 Eutin, 1732; con- 
ductor, singer, and dram, composer, 

Fos'ter, (x) Stephen Collins, Law- 
renceville (Pittsburgh), Pa., July 4, 
1826 New York, Jan. 13, 1864; 
chiefly self-taught as flageolet-player 
and composer; a writer of words and 
music of genuine American folk-song; 
he enjoyed enormous vogue, receiv- 
ing $500 for the privilege of singing 
"Old Folks at Home" (or "Suwanee 
River**); died poor in the Bowery; c. 
160 songs, incL "My Old Kentucky 
Home," "Nellie Was a Lady," and 
many war-songs; his melody, though 
simple, was rarely banal and has 
dements of immortality. (2) (Myles) 
Birket, London, Nov, 39, 1851 
Dec. 18, 1922; organist and com- 
poser; pupil of Hamilton Clarke, 
and at R, A. M. of Sullivan, Prout, 
and Westlake; 1873-74, organist at 
Haweis* Church; 1880-92, at the 
Foundling Hospital; then mus*-<ed* 
for Boosey & Co.; c. a Evening 
Services; symphony, "Isle of Arran"} 
overtures, etc- (3) Muriel* Sunder- 
iand> Nov. 22, 1877 London, Dec. 
*3> 1937; contralto of remarkable 
range, g to b' ' flat: pupil of Anna 
Williams at the R. A. M., winning a 
scholarship, 1807: ddbut 1806 in 
oratorio; sang with her sister Hilda 
in 1899; and at festivals; also in 
Germany, Russia and America. 

Foulds, John* b. Manchester, Nov. a, 
x8&o Calcutta, April, 1030; con* 
ductor; early played iu Halll Orch.; 
after 19*1, dir. of Univ. of London 
Mus. Soc.: c. stage music, oreh, and 
piano works. 

Ifourdrain (ffior'-drftn), F6lir, Paris, 
Feb. 3, *88o Oct. as* 1933; com- 
poser; studied with widor at Cons., 
organist in several Paris churches; 
made eep, succ. with bis lighter 

operatic works; c, (stage works) 
"La Grippe 97 -, "Echo" (1906); *'La 
Ltgendede Point dPArgenten" (1907); 
also heard in America at Ravinia 
Op.; "La Glaneuse" (1909); "Vtr- 
Ging&oriy?'* (1912); "Madame Ro- 
land" (1913); **Le$ Conies dt 
Perraulf 9 (1913); well known for his 

Founder (foorn-ya), (i) P. Simon, 
Paris, 1712 1768; introducer of 
round-headed notes, and writer on 
history of music-types, (a) m!le 
Eugdne Alex., Paris, 1864 Joinville- 
le-Pont, 1897; pupil of DeTibes and 
Dubois at Cons.; 2891 took ad 
Grand prix de Rome, and 1893 Prix 
Cressent, for i-act opera "Straionice** 
(Or. Op^ra, Paris, 2893); c. opera 
"Carloman," etc. 

Fox, FSlix, b. Breslau, Germany, May 
25, 1876; pianist, pedagogue; brought 
to Boston as a child; studied there, 
in N. Y., and after 1893 at Leipzig 
with Reinecke and Jadassohn, also 
with Philipp in Paris; d^but, Leipzig, 
2896; Pans in 1897; same year 
returned to U, S. giving concerts; 
and in 1898 (with Carlo Buonamici) 
founded school of piano in Boston 
that continued under his own name 
for more than three decades; o dicier 
of French Academic; d. Boston, 1047. 

Fox-Strang'ways, Arthur Henry, Nor- 
wich, England, bept, 14, 14*59; d- 
194^; critic, writer on rnusir; ^tiuiied 
Wellington Coll., and Baltic!, Oxford, 
also at Berlin Hochscb.; dir. ol 
musk, Wellington Coll., 1893-1901; 
visited India and wrote "The Music 
of ffitt?ittla*f"; in 1990 he founded 
the quarterly periodical, "Afusic 
and Letter s"; was critic of London 
"Times" after 19 ti and co-editor o 
the London **J/rmry. f ' 

Fragerolle (fr^-rh*-rGl), George* 
Auguste, Paris, March iv, 1855 
Feb. 2i, 1920; pupil of Guiraua; c. 
patriotic aon5 operettas* panto* 
mimes, etc. 

Framery (fr&m-r*^ Nicolas fit., 1745 
Paris, iHio; writer, 

Fran'saix, Jean, b. Mans, May 33, 
1912: composer. 

Francescatti (fr&n~ch$*.k*t*-t), Zino, 
Fr. violinist; U, S, dhut, iy,*o. 

Frauchetti ifran-k^t'-t^K lu Alberto 
( Baron );b,Turin,ti<rio, pupil. Munich 
C"on,; 1016, dir. of rhrrubini Con^ ; 
Florence; prod. *'dram. legend'* 
* 4M i Bread*, iSSS); opera 



"Cristoforo Colombo" (Genoa, 1892), 
"Fior d'Alpe" (Milan, 1894), "II 
Signor di Pourceaugnac" (Milan, 
1897), all succ.; his opera "Germania"- 
(prod. Milan, 1902) has been per- 
formed widely, at Covent Garden 
1907 and 1911 at the Metropolitan 
Opera House, N. Y.; also "La 
Figlia di Jorio" (1006), " Notte di 
Leggenda" (1914); (with Giordano) 
"Giove a Pompei" (1921); "Glauco"' 
(1022), etc.; d. Viareggio, 1942. 
Franchinus (fran-ke'-noos). Vide 


Franchi-Verney (fran'-ke-ver'-na), Giu. 
Ip., Conte della Valetta; Turin, 
Feb. 17, 1848 Rome, May 15, 1911; 
1874 gave up law for music; 1875-77 
under the pen-name "Ippolito Va- 
letta" contributed to various papers; 
1889, m. Teresina Tua; c. succ. 
lyric sketch "II Valdese" (Turin, 
1885), and succ. ballet, "II Mulatto'* 
(Naples, 1896). 

Franchomme (fr&n-shtim), Auguste, 
Lille, April 10, 1808 Paris, Jan. 
21, 1884; 'cellist; teacher at the 
Cons, and composer. 

Franck (frank), (i) Melchior, Zittau, 
ca. 1573 Coburg, June i, 1639; 
from 1603 court-cond. at Coburg; 
a prolific and important c. of secular 
and church-music, a pioneer in im- 
proving instrumental accompani- 
ment; two of his chorales "Jerusalem, 
das hochgebaute Stadt," and "Wenn 
ich Todesnothen bin" are still sung; 
he is said to have written the text for 
many hymns. (2) Jn. W., Hamburg, 
1641 London, ca. 1696; opera- 
cond.; c. 14 operas. (3) (fran), 
Csar Auguste, Liege, Dec. 10, 1822 
Paris, Nov. 8, 1890; important and 
influential Belgian composer; pupil 
Liege Cons., then of Paris Cons., 
where he took ist prize for piano, 
and 2d for comp., also succeeding 
his organ- teacher, Benoist, as prof, 
there in 1872, and as organist at 
Ste. Clothilde; c. a notable symph. 
poem with chorus "Les beatitudes"- 
symph. poems "Le chasseur mau- 
dit,'* "Psyche" and "Les Bolides"; 
a universally popular symphony in 
D minor, a succ. com. opera "Hulda"' 
(Monte Carlo, 1804), 2 oratorios, an 
unfinished opera "Ghisella" a sonata 
for pf. and vln.; quintet for piano 
and strings; pf.-pcs.; organ-music, 
songs, etc.; biog. by Derepas (Paris, 
97), Destranges, the superb volume 

of Vincent d'Indy, one of the best 
estimates; and other studies by 
Coquard, Meyer, Garnier, Balden- 
sperger, Canudo, Van den Borren, 
Se"r6, de Rudder, etc. 
A peculiarly lovable figure in music, 
F. has gained a great discipleship 
since his death both among musicians 
and the general public. His mod- 
esty and nobility of soul were allied 
with a highly original musical equip- 
ment, in which the sensuous and 
mystical elements are balanced by a 
strong sense of form. He entirely 
revolutionised the pattern of French 
instrumental music by reviving the 
polyphony which had long ceased 
to be a prominent factor in it; his 
harmonic modulations were also 
much freer than those previously 
in vogue in France. Through his 
disciple, d'Indy, he set in motion a 
whole school of "Franckists," who 
were opposed in aim to the extreme 
modernists who took their start from 
Debussy. These two tendencies are 
still warring in French music. (See 
article, page 496.) (4) Eduard, Bres- 
lau, 1817 Berlin, 1893; professor 
and composer. (5) Jos., Li6ge, 1820 
Paris, 1891; bro. of (3); organist 
and teacher, Paris; pub. "Ode to 
St. Cecilia" (with orch.); cantatas, 

Franck'enstein, Clemens, Freiherr 
von, Wiesentheid, Lower Francbnia, 
July 14, 1875 Munich, Aug., 1942; 
impresario; pupil of Thume, also 
of Knorr at Hoch Cons.; visited 
America; cond. in London, 1902-07; 
then in Wiesbaden and Berlin; 
1912-18 and 1924-34, general in- 
tendant at Munich Op.; c. (operas) 
"Griseldis," "Rahab," "Fortunatus," 
"Li-Xai-Pe" (the last with succ. in 
Hamburg and Munich); also orch., 
chamber music, songs. 

Fran'co, a name honoured in mensural 
music and probably belonging to two, 

Perhaps three, men: (i) F. of Paris 
the elder), cond. at Ndtre-Dame, 
.Paris, ca. noo (?) A.D.; and (2) F. 
of Cologne, Dortmund and prior of 
the Benedictine Abbey ^at Cologne 
in 1190, author of 2 treatises. 
Francoeur (fran-kiir), (i) Franffois, 
Paris, 1698 1787; violinist and 
dram, composer. (2) Louis Jos., 
Paris, 1738 1804; nephew of above; 
violinist, conductor and dram, com- 



Frank (i) Melchior. Vide FRANCE. 
(2) Ernst, Munich, 1847 (insane), 
OberdSbling, near Vienna, 1889; 
court-organist and dram, composer. 

Frankenberger (frSnk'-Sn-bSrkn-er), 
H., Wiimbach, Schwarzburg- Sonders- 
hausen, 1824 Sondershausen, 1885; 
conductor, violinist, and dram, com- 

Franklin, Benj., Boston, Mass., 
1706 Philadelphia, 1790; the emi- 
nent philosopher; inv. the harmonica 
(v. D. D.)> and wrote wittily oa 
Scotch and contemporary music, etc. 

Frank 'o, (i) Sam, New Orleans, Jan. 
20, 1857 New York, May 6, 1937; 
violinist; pupil of Wilhelmj, Joachim 
and Vieuxtemps; toured with Patti; 
cond. concerts of ancient music in 
New York; 1912, Berlin; arr. music 
for orch., etc. (2) Nahan, New 
Orleans, July 23, 1861 Amityvlile, 
L. I., June 7, 1930; violinist and 
cond.; at 8, toured the world with 
Patti; later studied with Rappoldi, 
De Ahna, Wilhelmj, and Joachim; 
member of Met. Op. orchestra, 
N. Y.; from 1883 concert master; 
1905-07 conductor; later cond. his 
own orchestra. 

Franz (fronts), (x) K., Langenbielau, 
Sileaia, 1738 Munich, 1802; virtu- 
oso on the waldhorn, and th* bary- 
ton, (2) J. H., pen-name of Count 
B, von Hochberg. (3) Robt., Halte, 
June 38, 1815 Oct. 24, 1892; x$47> 
changed his family-name ICnauth, 
by royal permission; long opposed 
by his parents, he finished his musi- 
cal studies 1835-37, under Fr. 
Schneider, Dessau; returned to Halle, 
and spent six years studying Bach, 
etc.; 1843, his first album of 22 
songs appeared, and was cordially 
rec'd. by Liszt and Mendelssohn 
and by Schumann, who wrote about 
him in his periodical. He became 
organist at the Ulrichskirche, and 
later cond. of the Singakaderaie, and 
mus. dir. at Halle Univ., which made 
Mm Mus. Doc., 1861. Irv 1868, 
deafness attacked him, and nervous 
disorders prevented hb writing fur- 
ther. His distress was relieved by 
the receipt of $25*000, from a series 
of concerts organised 1872, in Ger- 
many, by Helene Magnus, Joachim, 
Liszt, and in America, by JDresel, 
Schlesinger, and B, J. Lang. His 
wife (4) Marie (ne Honrichs, 
1838-01) pub* many excellent songs. 

His supplementing of the old musical 
shorthand o* Bach and Handel, by 
full scores with modern instrumenta- 
tion has been of invaluable service. 
He also pub. essays and "open 
letters" to Hanslick on Bach and 
Hfindel. He pub. 257 songs; the 
1 1 7th Psalm, for double chorus a 
cappella; Kyrie for soli and 4- part 
chorus, a cappella, a liturgy for 
6 chorals, 6 part-songs for mixed 
chorus, and 6 do. for male chorus. 
Biog. sketches, by Ambrps, Liszt, 
Dr. W. Waldmana (Leipzig, 1895), 
Schuster, La Mara, Prcchajska, Gol- 
ther, Bethge, etc. 

Frfinzl (frfcnts'l), (i) Ignas, Mannheim, 
1736 1811; violinist, conductor and 
composer. (2) Fd., Schwetzingen, 
Palatinate, 1770 Mannheim, 1833; 
son and pupil of above; conductor 
and dram, composer. 

Fraschini (frs-k'-n6), Gaetano, 
Pavia, 1815 Naples, May 24, 1887; 
tenor in Italy and England. 

Frfcccia (f ra'-<hX-a) , Massimo, b. Flo- 
rence; cond- N. Orleans Symph M 1946. 

Frederick H. (the Great), of Prussia; 
Berlin, 1712 Potsdam, 1786; fiute* 
player and composer of remarkable 
skill for a king. 

Fr6d$ri* (fra-di-r6x), Gv., Lfege, 1834 
Brussels, 1894; critic. 

Freer, Eleanor Everest, b. Philadel- 
phia, May 14, 1864; composer; 
pupil of Marchesi and Godard; 
theory with Ziehn; c. operas, inch 
"The Court Jester" and "Tk* Lc&md 
of ik* Piper" (Amer. Op. Co., 
1028-29); d. Chi., Dec. 13, 1042. 

Frege (fra'-gS), Livia (n^e Gerhard), 
Gera, June 13* 1818 Leipzig, Aug. 
22, 1891; singer; pupil of Pohlenz; 
dbut at 15 with Clara Wieck, who 
was then 13, at the Gewandbaus, 

Freiberg (frf'-brkh)> Otto, Naum- 
birg, April 26, *&4& Gattingen, 
Nov. 2, 1926; studied, Leipzig Cons.; 
from 1865, violinist in court -orch., 
Carisruhe; studied with V. Lachner; 
became mus. dir, Marburg Univ.; 
1887, mus. dir. and prof. GSttingen. 

Fremstad (fr^m'-sUit), Olive, Stockhokft, 
1872 d. N, Y., April ji, $051; dra- 
matic soprano; at 9, a pianist; 
brought to America by her jiarents, 
at 12; 1890, soloist at St. Patrick's 
Cathedral, N. V.; x 893-941 pupil of 
Lilli Lehmann at Berlin; 1895, 
d4but; i8q6 sang at Bayreuth; 



1897-1900, Vienna Royal Opera; 
later at Munich, Covent Garden and 
1903-14 at Met. Op. House, N. Y.; 
officer of the French Academy, and 
1907 of Public Instruction. One of 
the most notable Isoldes of her 
generation, and a fine dram, artist, 
whose powers were superbly 
schooled. She toured as a concert 
singer, but for some years has lived 
in retirement; 1906, m. Edson 
Sutphen; 1916, Harry L. Brainard. 

Frere (frar), Marguerite Jeanne 
(called Hatto), b. Lyons, Jan. 30, 
1879; soprano; pupil of the Cons., 
took 2 opera prizes, 1899; debut 
Op6ra, 1899; created "Floria" in 
Saint-Saens' "Les Barbaras"; sang 
at Monte Carlo, etc. 

Freschi (frSs'-ke), Giov. Dom., Vi- 
cenza, 1640 1690; conductor and 
dram, composer. 

Frescobaldi (frs-k5-bSl'-d5), Girola- 
mo, Ferrara, 1583 (buried) Rome, 
March 2, 1644; the greatest organist 
of his time, a revolutionist in har- 
mony and important developer of 
fugue and notation; he was so famous 
that 30,000 people attended his 
first performance as organist of St. 
Peters, Rome (1610, or -14); purjil 
of Luzzacchi; organist at Mechlin 
probably 1607; c. org.-pcs., fugues, 
double-choir church-music, etc.; 
biog. by Haberl. 

Freudenberg (f roi '-dSn-bSrkh) , Win., 
Raubacher Hiitte, Prussia, March 
n, 1838 Schweidnitz, May 22, 
1928; studied in Leipzig; th.-cond. in 
various places; 1865, cond. of the 
Cecilia Singing Society, and the 
Synagogenverein, Wiesbaden; 1870, 
founded a Cons., and till 1886, cond. 
the Singakademie; later opera-cond. 
at Augsburg and (1889) Ratisbon; 
1895, choir dir. at Gedachtniskirche, 
Berlin; c. many operas, chiefly 
comic; symph. poem, etc. 

Frezzolini (frSd-zQ-lg'-nS), Erminia, 
Orvieto, 1818 Paris, 1884; soprano; 
d6but, 1838. 

Friberth (fri'bert), K., Wullersdorf, 
Lower Austria, 1736 Vienna, 1816, 
tenor; conductor. 

Frick (or Frike) (frlk, or frS'-ke), 
Ph. Jos., near Wtirzburg, 1740 
London, 1798; organist and com- 

Frick'er, Herbert Austin, b. Canter- 
bury, England, Feb. 12, 1868; con- 

ductor and organist; studied at 
Canterbury Cath. School, and lived 
in Leeds, 1898-1917, serving as civic 
org. and choral dir. at the fests. 
there; founded Leeds Orch. and led 
Mendelssohn Choir, Toronto, Can- 
ada, where d. Nov. 11, 1943. 

Fricsay (frek'-sl), Ferenc, Hungarian 
cond., RIAS Orch., Berlin; after 
1954 of Houston, Tex.. Symph. 

Friderici (or Friederich), Daniel, 
Eisleben (?) before 1600 after 1654; 
cantor at Rostock; c. madrigals, etc. 

Fried (fret), Oskar, b. Berlin, Aug. 
10, 1871; pupil of Humperdinck; 
since 1904 director Stern Gesang- 
verein and the Gesellschaft der 
Musikfreunde; later guest cond. in 
England, Russia and of N. Y. 
Symph., 1926; c. choral works with 
orch., double fugue for strings; a 
work for 13 wind instruments and 
two harps, etc.; d. 1949. 

Friedberg (frgd'-bSrkh), Carl, b. 
Bingen-on-Rhine, Germany, Sept. 
1 8, 1872; pianist; pupil of Clara 
Schumann and James Kwast; d6but 
with Vienna Philh. Orch., 1892; has- 
appeared widely with leading orches- 
tras in Europe and America, and as, 
recitalist; has taught at Juilliard 
School of Music, N. Y., and as heaa 
of piano dept., Inst. of Music. Art. 

Friedenthal (frS'-dSn-tal), Albert, 
Bromberg, Sept. 25, 1862 Batavia> 
Jan. 17, 1921; pianist; pupil of Fr. 
and W. Steinbrunn, and of Elullak; 
toured the world. 

Friedheim (frgt'-hlm), Arthur, St. 
Petersburg, Oct. 26, 1859 New- 
York, Oct. 19, 1932; pianist and 
conductor; pupil of Rubinstein one 
year, and of Liszt, 8 years; spent 
many years in America as teacher 
and pianist; prof, at R. C. M., Man- 
chester, England, till 1904; c. opera. 
"Die Ttinzerin" (Cologne, 1905); 
also pf. pieces and arrangements. 

FriedlSnder (frSt'-lSnt-er), Max., 
Brieg, Silesia, Oct. 12, 1852 Berlin, 
May 2, 1934; concert-bass and 
editor; pupil of Manuel Garcia and 
Stockhausen; d6but, 1880, London; 
1881-83, Frankfort; since in Berlin; 
1882, Dr. Phil. h. c. (Breslau); aftel 
1894, prof., Berlin Univ.; lectured 
at Harvard, 1911; LL.D., Univ. of 
Wis.; wrote works on Schubert, and 
discovered more than 100 of that 
composer's songs which were previ- 
ously unknown; with Bolte and 



Meier made valuable collection of 
German folk-songs. 

Friedman (fret '-man), Ignaz, b. 
Podgorze, near Cracow, Feb. 14, 
1882, pianist, pupil of ids father and 
of Leschetizky; toured with success; 
c. piano pieces and songs. One of 
most notable piano virtuosi, esp. in 
Chopin; d. Sydney, Jan. 26, 1948. 
IFrike. Vide FRICK. 
Jfohnl, Rudolf, b. Prague, Dec. 2, 1879; 
composer; studied Prague Cons.; in 
1901-06 toured with Kubelik; since 
latter year has lived in N. Y.; best 
known for a number of tuneful and 
musicianly light operas, among which 
are "The Firefly," "High Jinks," 
"Katinka," "Rose Marie," "The 
Vagabond King" and others, some of 
which have had internat'l. popular- 
ity; also piano concerto, and pieces 
for orch., piano, vln., 'cello, songs. 
Erimmel (frfcn'-mel), Th., Amstetten, 
Lower Austria, Dec. 15, 1853 
Vienna, Dec. 27, 1928; M. D. 
(Vienna); writer. 

^risldn, James, b. Glasgow, Mar. 
3, 1886; pianist; pupil of London 
R. C. M., winning scholarship in 
1900 and composition scholarship 
1905; member of faculty Inst. of 
Musical Art, New York; active as 
recitalist; c. piano quintet in C 
minor, 'cello sonata, etc. 
^rftzsch (frltsfc), Ernst Wm., Liitzen, 
Aug. 24, 1840 Leipzig, Aug. 14, 
1902; pupil Leipzig Cons.; acquired 
the music-pub, business of Bomnitz 
in Leipzig; 1870, ed. the radical 
"Mvsikalisches Wochenblatt," and 
1875 started the "Musikalische 
HausblWer"; a member of the 
Gewandhaus Orch.; pub. the works 
of Wagner, Grieg, etc. 
IFroberger (frd'-b&rkh-er), Jn. Jakob, 
1605 (?) H&ricourt, France, May 
7, 1667; chief German organist of 
the 1 7th cent.; son of a cantor at 
Hafle; studied in Rome with Fresco- 
baldi; court organist at Vienna; 
travelled, and in England, being 
robbed, became a bellows-treader; 
he overblew during Chas. It's mar- 
riage and was beaten by the organist 
Gibbons; he fell to improvising 
shortly after, and was recognised by a 
who presented him to the king. 
ch (fk-Hkh), (i) J OS ., Wiirt 
1780 1862; musical director; 
writer and dram, composer, (2) 
The name of three sisters b. Vienna, 

(a) Nanette (Anna), 1793 1880, 
pianist, teacher, and singer, (b) 
Barbara, 1797 1879; contralto and 
painter, m. F. Bogner. (c) Jose- 
phine, 1803 1878, notable singer 
and teacher. 

Fromm (frdm), Emil, Spremberg, 
Niederlausitz, Jan. 29, 1835 Flens- 
burg, Dec. 12, 1916; pupil of R. Inst. 
for Church- music, Berlin; 1866, 
Royal Mus. Dir.; 1869, organist 
and conductor at Flensburg; c. 2 
Passion cantatas, an oratorio, etc. 
Frontini (fr<5n-t5'-ne), F. Paolo, b. 
Catania, Aug. 6, 1860; pupil of P. 
Platania, and Lauro Rossi; dir. 
Catania Mus. Inst.; c. succ. opera 
61 M alia" (Bologna, 1893); oratorio 
"Sansone" (1882), etc. 
Frost, (i) Chas. Jos., Westbury-on- 
Tyne, Engl., June 20, 1848 London, 
1918; son and pupil of an organist at 
Tewkesbury, also pupil of Cooperj 
Goss, and Steggall; organist various 
churches; 1882, Mus. Doc. Cantab.; 
1880 prof, of organ Guildhall Sch, 
of Mus.; c. oratorio, "Nathan's 
Parable" (1878); a symphony, etc. 
(2) H. Fr., London, March 15, 1848 
June, 1901; studied organ with Seb 
Hart; 1865-91, organist of the 
Chapel Royal, Savoy; 1880-88, pf.- 
prof. Guildhall Sch. of Mus.; from 
1877 critic of (t Tke Academy," later 
of "The Athen&um," and "The 
Standard"; pub, biog. of Schubert, 
and the "Savoy Hymn-tunes and 

Fnigatta (froo-gat'-ta), Giu., Bergamo, 
May 26, 1860 Milan, May 30, 1933; 
pianist; pupil of Bazzmi (comp.) and 
Andreoli (pL) at Milan Cons.; prof, 
there; also at the "Collegio reale 
delle Fanciulle"; composer. 
Fruytiers (froi'-t6rs), Jan., Flemish 
composer at Antwerp i6th century. 
Fry, Wm. H., Philadelphia, 1813 
Santa Cruz, 1864; dram, composer: 
critic N. Y. Tribune. 
Fuchs (fookhs), (i) G. Fn, Mayence, 
1752 Paris. 1821; clarinettist and 
bandm. (2) Aloys, Raase, Austrian 
Silesia, 1799 Vienna. 1853; col- 
lector and writer. (3) K. Bonus 
Jn., Potsdam, Oct. 22, 1838 Dan- 
zig, Aug. 24, 1922; pupil of his father 
and v. Bulow, Weitzmano and Kiel: 
Dr. phil., Greifswald; 1871-75, con- 
cert pianist, teacher and critic, Ber- 
Hn; ,1875-79, Hirschberg; 1879. 
Danzig; '86, organist at the Petri- 



kirche, there. Pub. numerous 
valuable musical treatises. (4) Jn. 
Nepomtik, Frauenthal, Styria, May 
5, 1842 Vienna, Oct. 5, 1899; from 
1893, dir. of Vienna Cons,; dir. and 
dram, composer, (5) Robt., Frau- 
enthal, Feb. 15, 1847 Vienna, Feb. 
19, 1927; bro. of above; 1875 1912, 
prof, theory at Vienna Cons.; pub. 
3 symphonies, serenades, etc.; prod, 
succ. "Spieloper" "Die Teufelsglocke" 
(Leipzig, 1893) and the succ. com. 
opera "Die Konigsbraut" (Vienna, 
1889). (6) Albert, Basel, Aug. 6, 
1858 Dresden, Feb. 15, 1910; pupil 
of Leipzig Cons.; 1880, mus. dir. at 
Trier; 1889, owner and manager 
Wiesbaden Cons.; comp. 

Fttchs (ftiks), Fd. K., Vienna, 1811 
1848; dram, composer. 

Puenllana (fwSn-lI-an'-na), Miguel de, 
flourished 1554 in Spain; lute- virtuoso 
and court composer; blind from birth. 

Fuentes (foo-Sn'-tSs), Don Pasquale, 
b. Albayda, Valencia, d. there 1768; 
conductor and composer. 

Puertes, M. S. Vide SORIANO. 

Fttgere (fii-zhar), Lucien, Paris, March 
3, 1848 July 15, 1935; barytone; 
pupil of Raguenau; d6but, 1870; 
sang for many years with notable 
succ. at Paris Op. and Op.-Comique; 
occasionally made operatic appear- 
ances when over 80. 

Fiihrer (fu'-re'r), Robt., Prague, 1807 
Vienna, Nov., 1861; organ-composer. 

Fuhrmann (foor'-man), (i) G. Ld., 
wrote work on the lute, Niirnberg, 
1615. (2) Martin H., 1669 after 
1:740; theorist and writer. 

Fuller-Maitland. Vide MAIXXAND. 

Fumagalli (foo-ma-gaT-16), name of 
four bros. b. at Inzago, Italy: (i) 
Disma, 1826 Milan, 1893; profes- 
sor and composer. (2) Adolf o, 1828 
Florence, May 3, 1856; pianist. 

(3) Polibio, Nov. 2, 1830 Milan, 
June 21, 1901; pianist and composer. 

(4) Luca, Inzago, May 29, 1837 
Milan, June 5, 1908; pupil Milan 
Cons.; concert-pianist; prod, opera 
"Luigi XI" (Florence, 1875). 

Fumi (foo'-me), Vinceslao, Monte- 
pulciano, Tuscany, 1823 Florence, 
1880; conductor, violinist, dram, 
composer and collector. 

Furlanetto (foor-la-nSt'-tS), Bona- 
ventura (called Musin), Venice, 
1 73 8 1 817; singing-teacher, con- 
ductor and composer. 

Furno (foor'-nS), Giov., Capua, 1748 

Naples, 1837; professor and dram, 

Fursch-Madi (foorsh'-ma-dS), Emmy, 
Bayonne, France, 1847 Warren- 
ville, N. J., Sept. 20, 1894; pupil of 
Paris Cons., d6but, Paris; came to 
America, 1874, with the New Orleans 
French Opera Company; 1879-81, 
Co vent Garden, London; her final 
appearance was as "Ortrud,"* N. Y., 

Ffirstenau (fursht'-S-now), (i) Kaspar, 
Minister, Westphalia, 1772 Olden- 
burg, 1819; flute- virtuoso; com- 
poser. (2) Anton B., Munster, 1792 
Dresden, 1852; son and pupil of 
above; flutist and composer. (3) 
Moritz, Dresden, 1824 1889; son 
and pupil of (2); flutist and writer. 

Ftirstner (fiirsht'-nSr), Ad., Berlin. 1833 
Bad Nauheim, 1908; founded (1868) 
notable mus.-pub. house, Berlin. 

FurtwSngler (foort'-vang-lSr), WU- 
helm, b. Berlin, Jan. 25, 1886; con- 
ductor; pupil of Beer-Walbrunn, 
Rheinberger and Schillings; follow- 
ing early engagements as cond. in 
Zurich, Strasbourg, Liibeck, etc., 
succeeded Bodanzky at Mannheim 
Op., 1915; Vienna Tonktinstler Orch., 
1919; Berlin Op. and symph. concerts, 
after 1920; cond. Museum Concerts, 
Frankfort; Leipzig Gewandhaus, 
after 1922; N. Y. Philh. Orch., 
1925-26; Berlin Philh. Orch.. incl. 
tours to other countries with this 
organisation; Berlin State Op., also 
several seasons at Bayreuth; guest 
cond. at Vienna Op. and with Philh. 
Orch.; nominated to succeed Tosca- 
nini as cond. N. Y. Philh., 1936, but 
cancelled engagement owing to 
controversy among subscribers of 
this orch. as to his political and racial 
sympathies; has at times enjoyed 
titie highest honours from the Nat'l. 
Socialist regime in Germany, incL 
vice-presidency of Reich Music 
Chamber, as well as virtual dictator 
of music in Berlin, at other times has 
either resigned or been relieved of 
his posts; one of these instances 
occurred in 1934 following a stand 
which he took in championing the 
music of Paul Hindemith, outlawed 
by German Ministry of Culture and 
Propaganda as showing traits of 
"cultural Bolshevism"; later re- 
stored to his orchestral and operatic 
baton posts; appointed mus. dir. of 
Vienna Philh. Orchestra, 1950. 



Fox (fbox), Jn. Jos., Hirtenfeld, 
Upper Styria, 1660 Vienna, Feb. 
14, 1741; eminent theorist, organist, 
and court-conductor and writer; c. 
405 works (few pub.), incl. 18 operas, 
10 oratorios, 50 masses, incl. missa 
canonic a. He wrote the famous 
treatise on cpt. "Gradus ad Pantos- 
sum" in dialogue form; it is based 
on the church-modes, Biogr. by 
Kochel (Vienna, 1872}. 

Gabler (gap'-l&r), Jn., d. ca. 1784; or- 
gan builder at Ulm. 

Gabriel (i) (gS'-brl-el), Mary Ann 
Virginia, Banstead, Surrey, Engl., 
1825 London, 1877; c. cantatas, 
operas, etc. (2) (ga'-brf-el), Max, 
b. Elbing, 1861; 1890, cond. Residenz 
Th., Hanover; later in America, then 
at Rembrandt Theatre, Amsterdam; 
prod. succ. operettas. 

Gabrieli (ga-brf-5'-l5), (i) Andrea, 
Venice, ca. 1510 1586; eminent or- 
ganist and teacher and composer of 
the first "real" fugues (v. D, D.). 

(2) Giov., Venice, 1558 Aug. 12, 
1613 (ace. to his monument); nephew 
and pupil of above, and equally fa- 
mous; an extraordinary contrapun- 
tist, his "symphoniae sacrae" employ- 
ing 3 simultaneous choirs independ- 
ently handled; he has been called 
"the father of the chromatic style" 
because of his bold modulations. 

(3) Dom. (called "Menghino del 
violoncello"), Bologna, ca. 1640 
ca. 1690; 'cellist, conductor, and 

GabrielK (ga-brf-Sl'-ls), (i) Catterina, 
Rome, Nov. 12, 1730 April, 1796; 
daughter of Prince G 's cook (and 
hence called "La Cochetta," or 
"Codiettina"); onfe of the most 
beaatiful and brilliant of singers; her 
extraordinarily flexible voice had a 
"thrilling quality" (Burney); her 
caprices and her high-handed treat- 
ment of the nobility and royalty 
enamoured of her make her a most pic- 
turesque figure; she sang with great- 
est succ. all over Europe and retired 
wealthy. Her sister (2) Francesca 
(called "La Gabriellina," or "La 
Ferrarese"), Ferrara, 1755 Venice, 
I 79S> was a celebrated prima donna 
buffa. (3) Conte Nicolo, Naples, 
1814 1891; prod. 22 operas and 60 

Gabrielsld, (r) Jn. Wm., Berlin, 1791 
1846; flutist and composer. (2) 

Julius, Berlin, 1806 1878; bro. am 
pupil of above; flutist. 
Gabnlowitsch (gS-brS-lo'-vftsh), Ossip, 
St. Petersburg, Jan. 26, 1878 De- 
troit, Mich., Sept. 14, 1936; eminent 
pianist and conductor; studied at the 
Cons, with Glazounoff, LiadofT and 
Rubinstein; at 16 took the Rubin- 
stein prize; studied with Leschetizky 
at Vienna, 1894-96; 1896 began tour- 
ing with success; 1900, America. 
He was resident in Munich for the 
most part between 1004 and 1914, 
and cond. the Konzertverein con- 
certs there, 1910-14. From 1907 he 
also led orch. programmes in N. Y. 
Between 1912 and 1916 he gave a 
series of historical piano recitals in 
Eur. cities and U. S., illustrating 
growth of the concerto. He was 
appointed cond. of the Detroit 
Symph. Orch. in 1918, a post which 
he filled with distinction until 1935. 
He also served as one of the leaders 
of the Phila. Orch. for several seasons 
and appeared as guest with other 
orchs. in this country. A notable 
ensemble perf. as well as one of the 
most brilliant and scholarly soloists. 
He m. Clara Clemens, daughter of 
"Mark Twain," a mezzo-soprano. 
C. "Overture- Rhapsody" for orch.; 
"Elegy" for 'cello; piano pieces, 
songs, etc. 

Gabussi (g^-boos'-sg), V., Bologna, 
1800 London, 1846; teacher and 

Gade (ga'-dS), Niels Wm., Copen- 
hagen, Feb. 22, 1817 Dec. 21, 1890; 
son of an instr .-maker; at 15 refused 
to learn his father's trade, and be- 
came pupil of Wexschall (vln.) Berg- 
green (theory); at 16 a concert- 
violinist. His overture, " Nachklange 
von Ossian," took first prize at the 
Copenhagen Mus. Soc. competition 
(1841) and won for him a royal 
stipend. In 1842 the C min. sym- 



phony, and 1846 the cantata 
mala," were prod, by Mendelssohn 
at the Gewandhaus. He travelled in 
Italy; then, 1844, lived in Leipzig as 
sub-cond. to Mendelssohn, and reg- 
ular cond. at his death (1847); 1848, 
he returned to Copenhagen as cond. 
of the Mus. Soc. and as organist; 
1 86 1, court-cond., made Prof, by the 
King, and -Dr. Phil. h. c. by the 
Univ.; 1886, Commander in the 



Order of Danebrog; 1876 the govt. 
voted Mm a life-pension. Autobiog. 
"Aufzeichnungen und Brief e" (Basel, 
1893). Pub. 7 symphonies (D mi- 
nor, No. 5 with pf.); 4 overtures, 
" Nachkl&nge von Ossian," "Im Hoch- 
lande," "Hamlet," "Michelangelo, 9 * 
octet, sextet, and quartet for strings; 
7 cantatas, " Elvers kind" (Erl-King's 
Daughter) ,"FruhHngsbot$chaft" * ' Die 
Heilige Nacht," "Zion," " Kalanus," 
"Die Kreuzfahrer," "Psyche," etc.; 
2 vln. -concertos; pf. sonata and pcs., 
songs, etc. 

Gadsl>y, H. Robt., Hackney, London, 
Dec. 15, 1842 Putney, Nov. n, 
1 90 7; pupil of Wm. Bayley, but 
mainly self-taught; organist at St. 
Peter's, Brockley; 1884, prof, of 
harm. Queen's Coll., London; also at 
Guildhall Sch. of Mus.; c. "Festival 
Service"; 3 symphonies; 3 overtures, 
" Andromeda," "The Golden Legend"- 
and "The Witches' Frolic," etc. 

Gad 'ski, Johanna, An clam, Prussia,, 
June 15, 1871 Berlin, Feb. 23, 1932 
(in automobile accident); notable 
soprano, educated at Stettin,- 1892, 
m. H. Tauscher; sang in U. S. A. for 
many years, 1899 Co vent Garden 
and as "Eva" (Meister singer) at 
Bayreuth. She was a leading mem- 
ber of the Met. Op. Co., in Wagner- 
ian r61es, from 1898 to 1917, also 
appearing widely in concerts. Dur- 
ing the war she was accused pf anti- 
American activities and retired to 
Berlin. She was again heard in the 
United States as leading singer with 
the Wagnerian Op. Co. in two tours, 
1930 and 1931. A large and freely 
produced voice of striking dram, 
timbre and much dignity of stage 
deportment marked her interpreta- 
tions of a great variety of r6les, in- 
cluding "Senta" and "Brunnhilde." 

Gaforio (ga-f6'-rI-6) (or Gafori, Ga- 
furi, Gaffurio), Franchino (Latinised 
"Franchinus Gafurius," or "Fran- 
chinus"), Lodi, Jan. 14, 1451 
Milan, June 24, 1522; priest, emi- 
nent theorist, choirmaster and singer. 

Gagliano (gftl-ya'-na), (i) Marco di 
Zanobi da, b. Florence; d. there, 
Feb. 24, 1642; conductor and com- 
poser. (2) A family of Naples vln.- 
makers, (a) Alessandro, pupil of 
Stradivari, worked ca. 1695 1725. 
His sons, (b) Nicolo" (170040), and 
(c) Gennaro (1710-50), and his 
grandson, (d) Ferdinando (1736-81) 

succeeded him; later descendants est. 
factory of strings, still famous. 

Gahrich (ga'-rlkh), Wenzel, Zercho- 
witz, Bohemia, 1794 Berlin, 1864; 
violinist, ballet-master, and dram, 

Gafl (ga-el), EdmSe Sophia (ne'e 
Garre), Paris, Aug. 28, 1775 July 
24, 1819; singer and dram, composer. 

Gailhard (gl'-y&r), Pierre, Toulouse, 
Aug. i, 1848 Paris, Oct. 12, 1918; 
bassjpupil Paris Cons.; d6but, 1867, 
Op. Com., Paris; later at the Op6ra, 
of which he was director 1899-1907. 

Gal, Hans, b. Briinn, Austria, Aug. 5, 
1890; composer; Ph.D., Univ. of 
Vienna; pupil of Mandyczewski and 
Robert; c. (operas) "Der Arzt der 
Sobeide" (Breslau, 1919); "Die Heil- 
ige Ente" (Dtisseldorf, 1923); "Das 
Lied der Nacht" (Breslau, 1926); 
also orchestral and chamber music, 
choruses; won Austrian State Prize, 
1915, for his ist symphony; after 
1918 lecturer in counterpoint, har- 
mony and musical form at Univ. of 

Galeazzi (ga-la-ad'-zg), Fran., Turin, 
1758 Rome, 1819; violinist. 

Galeffi (ga-la'-fe), Carlo, b. Rome; 
barytone; dSbut in "A'ida" at Rome, 
1907; created r61e of Gianni Schicchi 
in Puccini's opera at Costanzi 
Theat.; has also sung in other Eur. 
countries, and North and South 

Gal'eotti, Cesare, b. Pietrasanta, June 
5, 1872; c. operas "Anton"' (La Scala, 
Milan, 1900) and "La Dorise'* 
(1910), etc.; d. Paris, Feb. 19, 1929. 

Galilei (ga-lHa'-e), V., Florence, ca. 
1533 1591; lutenist, violinist and 
theorist; father of the astronomer. 

Galin (g^-lan), P., Samatan Gers, 
France, 1786 Bordeaux, 1821; wrote 
pop. method "Meloplaste" (v. D. D.). 

Galitzin (ga-le'-tshen), (i) Nicolas 
Borissovitch, 1794 1866; a Russian 
prince, to whom Beethoven dedi- 
cated an overture, and 3 quartets; 
he advanced Beethoven liberal sums 
for his dedications; a skilful 'cellist. 
(2) G. (Prince), St. Petersburg, 1823 
1872; son of above; composer and 
cond.; maintained in Moscow (1842) 
a choir of 70 boys; later an orchestra. 

Gal'kin, Nikolai Vladimirovich, St. 
Petersburg, Dec. 6, 1856 May 21, 
1906; violinist and composer for 
violin; pupil of Kaminsky, Auer, 
Joachim, Sauret and Wieniawski; 



toured Europe and after 1877 was 
cond. in St. Petersburg and from 
1880 teacher at the Cons.; from 
1892, prof. 

Gall, (i) Jan, Warsaw, Aug. 18, 1856 
Lemberg, Oct. 30, 1912; pupil of 
Krennand Rheinberger 1886, teacher 
of song at Cracow Cons, then pupil 
of Mme. Lamperti, director of the 
Lemberg "Echo" society; composer 
of some 400 vocal numbers. (2) 
Yvonne, b. Paris, March 6, 1885; 
soprano; studied Paris Cons., d6but 
as "Marguerite," Paris Op.; has also 
sung with Op.-Comique, and widely 
in various Eur. countries and Amer- 
ica; several seasons with Ravinia Op. 
Co., after 1927; also as recitalist in 

Gallay (gal-lS), (i) Jacques Fran., Per- 
pignan, 1795 Paris, 1864: horn- 
virtuoso and composer. (2) Jules, 
Saint-Quentin, 1822 Paris, 1897; 
amateur 'cellist of wealth; made re- 
searches and pub. valuable treatises. 
GaHenberg (gl'-ISn-brkh), Wenzel 
Robt., Graf von, Vienna, 1783 
Rome, 1839; c. ballets. 
Gallet'ti-Gianoli (ja-na'-leO, Isabella, 
Bologna, Nov. n, 1835 Milan, 
Aug. 31, 1901; operatic soprano; later 

Gal Oi, Klippo, Rome, 1783 Paris, 
June 3, 1853; first most successful 
as a tenor; illness changed his voice, 
and he achieved great success as a 

GalH-Cttrci, Amelita (Sm-S-le'-ta 1 gSl- 
ll-koort'-che), b. Milan, Nov. 18, 
1889; coloratura soprano; studied 
piano, Milan Cons., in voice largely 
self-taught; dtbut as "Gilda," "Cos- 
tanzi," Rome, 1910; sang in various 
Etnr. theatres and in South America; 
American de"but with Chicago Op., 
with sensational success, as "Gilda, 
1916; member of this company until 
1924; Met. Op., N. Y., 1921-30; 
many concert tours in U. S., Great 
Britain, Australia and Orient; m. 
Homer Samuels, pianist-composer. 
Gallia, Vide HNE. 
GallUrd (gST-H-Srt), Jn* Ernst, Celle, 
Hanover, 1687 London, 1749; obo- 
ist and organist* 

Gallico, Paolo, b. Trieste, May 13, 
1868; at 15 gave a pf.-recital at 
Trieste; then studied Vienna Cons, 
witij Julius Epstein; at 18 graduat- 
ing with first prize and "Gesell- 
schafts" medal; toured Euror>e; 1892 

pianist and teacher, New York; his 
oratorio, "The Apocalypse," won 
Nat'l. Fed. of Mus. Clubs prize, 
1921; c. operettas, pf. -pieces, songs, 

Gallic 'ulus, Jns., contrapuntist at 
Leipzig, 1520-48. 

Gam-MariS (gal-li mfir-yS), Celstine 
(n6e Marie de 1'Isle), Paris, Nov., 
1840 Nice, 1905; mezzo-soprano; 
daughter of an opera-singer; dbut 
Strassburg, 1859; sang Toulouse, 
1860, Lisbon, 1861, Rouen, 1862; 
1862-78, and 1883-85, Paris Ope"ra 
Comique; she created "Mignon" 
(1866), "Carmen" (1875), etc. 

Gallus, (i) Jacobus (rightly Jacob 
HSndl, Handl or Hahnel); Carniola, 
ca. 1550 Prague, 1591; composei 
and conductor. (2) Jns. (Jean le 
Cocq, Maitre Jean, or Mestre Jhan), 
d. before 1543; a Dutch contra- 

Juntist, conductor and composer. 
x ston, Gottfried, b. Vienna, Aug. 31^ 
1879 St. Louis, Apr. 2, 1950; studied 
Vienna Cons., piano with Les- 
chetizky, theory with Jadassohn and 
Reinecke, Leipzig; toured Australia 
and (1913-14) U. S. as pianist; 
taught Stern Cons., Berlin, 1903-07, 
and again after 1921; also appeared 
in series of historical recitals and as 
orch. soloist in leading capitals, inch 
Russia; later active as pedagogue ir* 
America; author of "Studienbuch" 
Galuppi (ga-loop'-pl), Baldassare 
(called U Buranerio), Island of Bu- 
rano, near Venice, Oct. 18, 1706 
Venice, Jan. 3, 1785; harpsichord 
virtuoso; organist 1765-68; conduc- 
tor; c. 54 comic operas. 
Gambale (gam-ba'-lg), Emm., music- 
teacher, Milan; pub. "La riforma 
musicale" (1840), etc., advocating a 
scale of 12 semitones, 
Gambini (gam-bg'-nS), Carlo Andrea, 

Genoa, 1819 1865; c. operas, etc. 
Gamucci (ga-moot'-chg), Baldassare, 
Florence, 1822 1892; pianist and 

Ganassi (ga-naV-se), Silvestro, b. Fon- 
tego, near Venice, ca. 1500 (called 
"del Fontego"); editor and writer on 

Gand (gan), Ch. Nicolas Eugene, 
ca. 1826 Boulogne-sur-Seine, 1892; 
vln.-maker. V. LUPOT. 
Gandird (gan-da'-ne), (i) A., Modena, 
1786 Formigine, 1842; conductor 
and dram, composer. (2) Alessan* 



dro, Modena, ca. 1807 1871; son, 
pupil (1842) and successor of above; 
dram, composer and writer. 

Ganne (gan), L. Gaston, Buxifcres-les- 
Mines, Allier, April 5, 1862 Paris, 
July 14, 1923; pupil of Dubois and 
Franck, Paris Cons.; cond. at Monte 
Carlo; c. comic opera "Rabelais" 
(1892), vaudeville, operetta, ballets, 

GSnsbaclier (gns'-bakh-er), Jn., Sterz- 
ing, Tyrol, 1778 Vienna, 1844; con- 
ductor and composer. 

Ganz (gants), (i) Ad., Mayence, 1796 
London, 1870; violinist and cond.; 
his 2 brothers were, (2) Moritz, 
Mayence, 1806 Berlin, 1868; 'cel- 
list; (3) Ld., Mayence, 1810 Berlin, 
1869; violinist and composer; Adolf's 
2 sons were, (4) Eduard, Mayence, 
1827 1869; pianist. (5) Wiihelm, 
Mayence, Nov. 6, 1833 London, 
Sept. 12, 1914; pianist, professor, 
conductor. (6) Rudolph, b. Zurich, 
Feb. 24, 1877; d6but at 10 as 'cellist, 
at 12 as pianist; then pupil of his 
uncle, Eschmann-Dumur, and later 
of Busoni; d6but as pianist and 
composer Berlin, 1899; 1901-05 suc- 
ceeded Friedheim in Chicago; has 
toured widely; cond. St. Louis 
Symph., 192127; also guest cond. 
in New York Stadium series, Holly- 
wood Bowl, in Los Angeles, San 
Francisco, Denver, etc.; after 1929, 
dir. of Chicago Mus. Coll. and of 
modern music soc. in that city; c. 
orch., piano music, songs; mem. 
Legion of Honour. 

Garat (ga-ra), P. J., Ustaritz, Basses- 
Pyr6n6es, April 25, 1764 Paris, 
March i, 1823; most remarkable 
French singer of his time, a barytone 
of great compass and amazing mem- 
ory and mimicry; professor and com- 

Garaude* (gS.r-5-da), Alexis de, Nancy, 
1779 Paris, 1852; professor, com- 
poser and writer. 

Garbou'sova, Raya, b. Tiflis, 1909; 
'cellist; grad. State Cons, of Tiflis; 
pupil of Hugo Becker; d6but Mos- 
cow, 1923; has toured in European 
cities and America as orch. soloist 
and in recitals. 

Garbrecht (gar'-brSkht), Fr. F. W. 
(d. 1874), founded at Leipzig (1862) 

- a music engraving establishment, 
owned since 1880 by Os. Brand- 

Garcia (gar-thS'-a), a notable family of 

Spanish vocal teachers, (i) Don 
Fran. Saverio (Padre Garcia, called 
"lo Spagnoletto"), Nalda, Spain, 
1731 Saragossa, 1809; conductor 
and composer. (2) Manuel del Po- 
polo Vicente, Sevilla, Jan. 22, 1775 
Paris, June 2, 1832; eminent as 
tenor, teacher, and progenitor of 
singers; successful as manager, cond. 
and composer; took his family, his 
wife, son (3), and daughter (5) and 
others to America for a v. succ. 
opera season, 1825-26. Produced 43 
operas and c. o thers. (3) Manuel, 
Madrid, March 17, 1805 London, 
July i, 1906; son of above; bass (in 
Paris); he was a scientific investiga- 
tor, and inv. the laryngoscope, re- 
ceiving Dr. Phil. h. c. Konigsberg 
Univ.; 1847, prof, at the Cons., 1850, 
London, R. A. M. Jenny Lind was 
one of his pupils; pub. "Traite" 
complet de I' art du chant" 1847. 
(4) EugSnie (n6e Mayer), Paris, 1818 
1880; wife and pupil of (3); so- 
prano and teacher. (5) M. J^licitS, 
v. MALIBRAN. (6) Pauline, v. VIAR- 


Garcin (g&r-s&n), Jules Aug. Salomon, 
Bourges, 1830 Paris, 1896; violin- 
ist, conductor and professor. 

Gardano (gSr-da'-no), (i) A. (till 1557 
called himself Gardane), ca. 1500 
Venice, 1571 (?); early Italian mus.- 
printer, succeeded by sons, (2) Ales- 
sandro and (3) Angelo. 

Gar 'den, Mary, b. Aberdeen, Feb. 20, 
1877; notable soprano; as a child 
brought to America; pupil of Mrs. 
Duff; (1896) Paris with Trabadello 
and Fug&re; d6but, 1900, Paris Op. 
Com.; has created various r61es there, 
including "Mlisande" in Debussy's 
"Pelleas et Melisande," 1902; sang at 
Covent Garden, 1902; leading singer 
with Manhattan Op. Co., N. Y. 3 
after 1907, in French rdles; 1910-30, 
one of the guiding artistic personali- 
ties in the Chicago Op. Co., of which 
she was also artistic dir,," 1921-22. 
Sang in Amer. premieres of many 
operas; an outstanding concert singer; 
in later years has taught, lectured. 

Gar 'diner, H. Balfour, b. London, 
Nov. 7, 1877 1950; pupil of Knorr, 
Frankfort; also studied with Uzielli, 
and 1895 at New Coll. Oxford; he 
was for a short time a singing teacher 
in Winchester, then for the most part 
devoting himself to composition; dir. 
of concert series in London, 1912-13, 



of modern English orch. and choral 
music; c. popular "Shepherd Fennel 9 s 
Dance"-, overture; Suite and Fantasy 
for orch.; Humoresque for small 
orch.; string quintet and quartet; 
piano pieces, songs, choral works, 

Gard'ner, Samuel, b. Elizabethgrad, 
Russia, 1892; violinist, composer; 
studied vln. with Winternitz and 
Kjaeisel, composition with Goets- 
chius; dbut, N. Y., 1912; res. in 
U. S.; has appeared as soloist and 
guest cond. in his works with leading 
Amer. orchestras. 

Gardo'ni, Italo, b. Parma, 1821; re- 
tired, 1874: operatic singer; d. 1882. 
Gartan/dia, Johannes de, ca. 1210-32; 

French theorist. 

Gamier (grn-ya), Fran. Jos., Lauris, 
Vaucluse, 1759 ca. 1825; oboist and 

Gar'rett, Geo. Mursell, Winchester, 
England, 1834 Cambridge, 1897; 
pianist, conductor, composer and 

Gar'rison, Mabel, b. Baltimore, Md.; 
coloratura soprano; studied Peabody 
Cons. ; debut as "Filina" in "Mignon, 
Boston, 1912; sang with Met. Op. 
Co., N". Y., for 6 yejars after 1914; 
also as concert artist in U. S.; toured 
Orient; m. George Siemonn, con- 

Gas'par van Weerbeke (v&r'-b$-kS), 
b, pudenarde, Flanders, ca. 1440; 
eminent contrapuntist and teacher. 
Gaspari (gas-pa *-rS), Gaetano, Bo- 
logna, 1807 1881; librarian, pro- 
fessor and composer. 
Gasparini (or Guasparini) (gas-pa-r5'- 
n5), (i) Fran., Camaiore, near Lucca, 
1668 Rome, 1727; director, con- 
ductor and theorist. (2) Michelan- 
gelo, Lucca, 1685 Venice, 1732; 
male contralto and dram, composer. 
(3) Don Qttirino, 'cellist at Turin; 
1749-70; conductor and composer. 
Gasparp da Salo (gS,s-pa'-r6 da saM6) 
(family name Bertolot'ti), Salo, 
Brescia, Italy, ca. 1542 Brescia <?), 
1609; famous maker of viols. 
Gassier (gas-ya), L. Ed., France, 1822 

Havana, 1871; barytone. 
Gassmann (gas'-mSn), Florian L., 
Brux, Bohemia, 1723 Vienna, 1774; 
court-conductor and dram, com- 

Gass'ner, F. Simon, Vienna, 1798 
Carlsruhe, 1851; violinist, teacher, 
editor and composer. 

Gast, Peter. Vide KdsELixz. 

Gastaldon (gas-tal'-dSn), Stanislas, b. 

Turin, 1 86 1 Florence, March, 1939; 

pub. nocturnes, ballabili, songs, etc., 

some of them v. pop.; c. succ. i-act 

opera-seria, "II Pater" (Milan, 1894). 

Gastinel (gas-tl-nel), LSon G. Cyprien, 

Villers, near Auxonne, Aug. 15, 1823 

Paris, Nov., 190** ~npil of Hal6vy, 

Paris Cons.; took nrst Gr. prix de 

Rome with cantata "Velasquez"^ 

prod, comic operas; ballet "Le R&ve- 

(Gr. Opera, 1890), etc. 

Gastoldi (gS,s-tol'-de), Giov. Giacomo, 

Caravaggio, ca. 1556 Milan (?), 

1622; conductor, contrapuntist and 


Gastoue (gas-too 'a), Amadee, b. Paris, 
March 13, 1873; writer; prof, of 
church music; a. Clamart, 1943. 
Gatayes (g^-tSzO, (i) GuilL P. A., 
Paris, 1774 1846; guitar-player and 
composer. (2) Jos. Leon, Paris, 
1805 1877; son of above; harpist, 
critic and composer. (3) Felix, b, 
Paris, 1809; bro. of above; pianist, 
chiefly self-taught; for 20 years 
toured Europe, America, Australia. 
Gathy (gft-te), Aug., Li6ge, 1800 
Paris, 1858; editor, teacher and com- 

Gat'ti, Guido M., b. Chieti, May 30, 
1893; writer on music; ed. monthly 
pub., "II Pianoforte" (Turin) which 
he founded 1920; also organized 
modern chamber music and orch, 
concerts in that city; author of many 
articles on music. 

Gatti-Casazza (gat'-tl ka-sat'-sa), Giu- 
lio, Udine, Feb. 5, 1869 Ferrara, 
Sept. 2, 1940; operatic impresario; 
Naval engineer; 1894-08 dir. Muni- 
cipal Theatre at Ferrara; 1898-1909, 
dir. La Scala, Milan; 1909 co-director 
with A. Dippel of the Metropolitan 
Opera House, N. Y.; 1910-35, in full 
charge; he gave a number of native 
American operas, and the first prods, 
anywhere of Humperdinck's " Kd- 
nigskinder," and Puccini's "Girl of 
the Golden West."- 

Gat'ty, (x) Sir Alfred Scott, Ecclesfield, 
Yorks., April 25, 1847^ London, 
1919; 1880 Poursuivant of Arms, 
Heralds' Coll. London; c. operettas, 
many pop. songs, particularly in 
imitation of American Plantation 
songs, pf.-pieces. (2) Nicholas Co- 
myn, b. Bradfield, Sept. 13, 1874; 
d. 1946; critic, organist and comp.. 
pupil K. C. M., where he produced 



crdi.- variations on "Old King Cole"; 
1907-14, critic on "Pall Mall Ga- 
zette"', assistant at Covent Garden; 
c. i-act operas "Grey steel" (Sheffield, 
1906}, and "Duke or Devil" (Man- 
chester, 1909); Milton's "Ode on 
Time" for chorus w. orch., (Sheffield 
Festival, 1905); operas "Prince Fere- 
Ion" (Old Vic, London, 1921); "The 
Tempest" (1920); "Macbeth," etc. 

Gaubert (go-bar 0, Philippe, b. Cahors, 
1879; Paris, 1941; pupil at Paris 
Cons, of Taffanel; won 2 Rome 
prizes, 1905; i9*9> chosen to succeed 
Messager as cond. of Soci6te" des 
Concerts du Conservatoire; after 
1920, ist cond. at Ope*ra; c. opera, 
ballets, chamber and orch. music. 

Gaucquier (gok-ya), Alard (rightly 
Dunoyer Latinized Nuceus), called 
du Gaucquier and Insulanus from 
Lille-l'isle, court-bandm. to Maxi- 
milian II. ; famous i6th cent, contra- 

Gaul (g6l), (i) Alfred Robt., Norwich, 
England, April 30, 1837 Birming- 
ham, Sept. 13, 1913; at 9 a cath. 
chorister articled to Dr. Buck; 1863, 
Mus. Bac. Contab.; 1887, cond. Wal- 
sall Philh.; later teacher and cond. 
at the Birmingham and Midland 
Tnst., etc.; c. oratorio "Hezekiah"; 
cantatas, incl. "Ruth" and "The 
Holy City," etc. (2) Harvey Bart- 
lett, b. New York, April n, 1881; 
organist and composer; pupil of 
Lejeune; later in Paris with Decaux 
and d'Indy at Schola Cantorum, 
with Widor and Guilmant; res. in 
Pittsburgh after 1910 as church org.; 
mem. faculty, Pittsburgh Inst.; critic 
on several newspapers of that city; c. 
choral, org. works; d. Dec. i, 1945- 

Gau(l)tier (g5t-ya), CO Jacques (G. 
d Angleterre, or I'ancien), Lyons, 
ca. 1600 Paris, ca. 1670; lutenist, 
(2) Denis (le jeune, or I'illustre), 
Marseilles, ca. 1610 Paris, 1672; 
cousin of above, and his partner in 
a lutenist school; famous lutenist and 
collector of lute-music. 

Gaunt'lett, H. J., Wellington, Shrop- 
shire, 1805 London, 1876; organist 
and composer. 

Gauthier (g5t-ya), (i) Gabriel, b. in 
Sa6ne-et-Loire, France, 1808; be- 
came blind when n months old; was 
pupil and (1827-40) teacher Paris 
Inst. for the Blind, then organist of 
St. Etienne-du-Mont, Paris; pub. 
treatises. (2) Eva* b. Ottawa, Can., 

Sept. 20, 1886; soprano; studied with 
Bouhy, Shakespeare, Carigiani and 
Oxilla; d6but in Carmen, Pa via, 
Italy; sang r61e of "Yniold" in Lon- 
don premi&re of "Pelleas"' 9 best 
known as soloist and recitalist in Drp- 
grammes of modern music; active in 
U. S. for some years; made researches 
in Javanese and Malay folk-songs. 

Gautier (got-ya), (i) y. GAULTIER. 
(2) J. Fran. Bug., Vaugirard n. Paris, 
1822 Paris, 1878; conductor and 
dram, composer. 

Gaveaux (g-vo). P., BSziers, HSrault, 
Aug., 1761 insane, Paris, 1825: 
tenor; c. operas, incl. "Leonore'* 
(1788), the same subject afterwards 
used in Beethoven's "Fidelio." 

Gavinies (g&-v5n-ySs), P., Bordeaux, 
1726 Paris, 1800; violinist, pro- 
fessor and dram, composer. 

Gavron'ski, Woitech, b. Seimony near 
Wilna, June 27, 1868; pupil Warsaw 
Mus. Inst.; toured Russia, taught in 
Orel and Warsaw; c. symph.; 2 
operas and a string quartet (Pade- 
rewski prize, Leipzig, 1898); d. 1913. 

Cray (gi)? Maria, Barcelona, Sp., June 
13, 1879 N. Y., July 29, 1943; con- 
tralto; ist studied vln.; self-taught 
voice; sang at some of Pugno's con- 
certs, and while in Brussels was heard 
by director of La Monnaie, where 
she made her dbut as "Carmen" in 
IQ. 02 on five days' notice; studied 
with Madame Adiny in Paris; toured 
Europe; sang Co vent Garden as 
"Carmen," 1906; Met. Op. Co. 1908- 
09; Boston Op. Co. 191012; 1913, 
Chicago Op. and later again Boston; 
m. Giovanni Zenatello, tenor. 

GayarrS (gg-yr-rS/), Julian, Roncal, 
Jan. 9, 1844 Madrid, Jan. 2, 1890; 
operatic tenor, son of a blacksmith. 

Gaztambide (gath-tam-bS'-dhS), Joa- 
quin, Tudela, Navarra, 1822 Madrid, 
1870; composer, teacher and con- 

Gazzaniga (gad-zn-5'-ga), Giu., Ve- 
rona, 1743 Crema, 1818; conductor 
and dram, composer. 

Gear (ger), Geo. Fr., b. London, May 
21, 1857; pianist; pupil of Dr. Wylde 
and J. F. Barnett; 1872 scholarship 
London Acad. of Mus., later prof, 
there; 1876-92 mus.-dir. German-' 
Reed Company; composed scena for 
sopr. solo and orch.; d. (?). 

Gebauer (zhti-bo-a), (i) Michel Jos., 
La F&re, Aisne, 1763 1812, on the 
retreat, from Moscow; oboist a violin- 



ist and viol-player; also extraordi- 
nary virtuoso on the Jew's harp. 
He had 3 brothers, (2) Francois 
Rne\ Versailles, 1773 -Paris, 1844; 
bassoonist, prof., writer, and com- 
poser. (3) P. Paul, b. Versailles, 
1775; died young, pub. 20 horn- 
duets. (4) Et. Fran., Versailles, 177? 
Paris, 1823, flutist and composer. 
(5) (gS-bow'-Sr), Fz. X., Eckersdorf, 
near Glatz, 1784 Vienna, 1822; 
*cellist, conductor, teacher and com- 

(i) Georg (Sr.), 
Breslau, 1685 1750; organist; inv. 
clavichord with quarter tones and 
clavicymbalum with pedal-keyboard; 
composer; he had 2 sons, (2) Georg 
(Jr.), Brieg, Silesia, 1709 Rudol- 
stadt, 1753; son of above; conductor, 
organist and composer. (3) Georg 
Sigisnnind, d. 1775; organist and 
composer. (4) Fz. X., Fiirstenau, 
near Breslau, 1787 Moscow, 1843; 
conductor, pf.-teacher, and com- 

(gSp'-hSrt), Heinrich, b. 
Sobernheim, near Bingen, July 25, 
1878; pianist; taken to America at 
10; pupil of Clayton Johns, d6but, 
1896, Boston, playing his violin and 
piano sonata, then studied with 
Leschetizky and Heuberger; 1899 
reappeared Boston with symph. orch. 
1900-04, pianist of Longy Club; c. 
quartet, piano pieces, etc. 

Gebfcar'di, Ludwig Ernst, Nottleben, 
Thuringia, 1787 Erfurt, 1862; or- 
ganist, composer and teacher. 

GSdalge (zha-dSlzh), AndrS, Paris, 
Pec. 27, 1856 Feb. 26, 1926; pupil 
of Guiraud at the Cons.; took 2nd 
Grand prix de Rome, 1885; prof, of 
theory at Paris Cons, for many years, 
his pupils including Ravel, Milhaud, 
Honegger, Florent Schmitt and many 
others who attained eminence; wrote 
notable treatise on fugue; lyric 
drama "H&faf''\ pantomime "Le 
PetU Savoyard" (Paris, 1891); a succ. 
i-act opera-boufFe "Pris au Ptige" 
(Paris, 1895); 2 symphonies, etc. 

treating (g'-rfng), F., 1838 Pen zing, 
near Vienna, 1884; writer. 

Sefer'kens, Karl Wilson; b. Kelleys 
Island, O., April 19, 1882; educator; 
A, M., Oberlin Coll. and Cons., prof. 
at this inst., author of many works 
on music; has served as pres. of 
Music Supervisors Nat'l. Conference 
and Music Teachers Nat'l. Ass'n., 

ed. of School Music, periodical ol 
latter organization. 

Gehnnann (gftr'-mfin), Hermann, Wer- 
nigerode, Dec. 22, 1861 Cassel, 
July 8, 1916; historian and theorist; 
pupil Stern Cons., Berlin; 1908, 
Royal Pror.; c. string-quartet and 

Geiringer, Karl, b. Vienna, 1899; 
musicologist; later in TJ. S.; biog. of 
Haydn, etc. ^ r 

Geisler (gis'-ler), (i) Jn. (?. <T. Zittau, 
1827; writer. (2) Paul, Stolp, Pom- 
erania, Aug. 10, 1856 Posen, April 
3, 1919; grandson and pupil or a 
mus.-dir. at Mecklenburg; studied 
also with K. Decker; 1881-82 
chorusm. Leipzig City Th., then 
with Neumann's Wagner Co.; 1883- 
85 at Bremen (under Seidl); then 
lived in Leipzig; prod. 5 operas; c. 
12 symphonic poems, ind. "Der 
Rattenf anger von Hamdn,'* "Titt 
Eulenspiegel^ etc. 

Geistinger feis'-ting-er), Maria ("Ma- 
rie*') Charlotte Cecilia, Graz, Styria, 
July 26, 1836 Rastenfield, Sept. 29, 
1903; soprano; sang at Vienna Op,, 
1865-75; in U. S., 1807-99. 
Gelinek (ga'-H-ngk), (i) Hh. Anton 
(called Cervetti), Horzeniowecs, Bo- 
hemia, 1709 Milan, 1779; ex-priest, 
violinist and composer. (2) Joseph, 
Abbe"; Selcz, Bohemia, 1758 Vienna, 
1825; teacher and composer. 
Geminiani (jgm-$-nI-L -ne), Fran., 
Lucca, 1687 Dublin, Dec. 17, 1762; 
brilliant and original violinist or 
great importance in English progress, 
author of the first vln. method pub. 
(1740), c. concerti, sonatas, etc. 
Gemfinder (gg-munt'-e'r), Aug. Martin, 
Wurtemberg, March 22, 1814 New 
York, Sept. 7, 1805; a maker whose 
vlns. were of the very highest per- 
fection; his sons succeeded him. 
Genast (gg-nast'), Ed., Weimar, 1797 
Wiesbaden, 1866; barytone and 

Gen6e (zhti-n5), Franz ^riedrich Rich- 
ard, Danzig, Feb. 7, 1823 Baden, 
near Vienna, June 15, 1895; pupil of 
Stalleknacht, Berlin; theatre con- 
ductor various cities; a student, then 
conductor and operatic composer; 
1868-78 at Th. an der Wien, Vienna; 
wrote libretti for many of his own 
works and for Strauss and others; 
c. light operas with succ., incl. "Det 
Geiger aus Tirol," " Nanon," etc. 
General! Cia-n-rS/-le), Pietro (rightly 



Mercandet'ti), Masserano, Pied- 
mont, 1783 Novara, 1832; conduc- 
tor and dram, composer. 

Genet (zhtt-nS,), Eleazar (called il Car- 
pentras 'so, or Carpentras (kar-pan- 
tras) ), Carpentras Vaucluse, ca. 1470 
Avignon, June 14, 1548; singer, 
then cond., then bishop; his admired 
masses, etc., were the first printed in 
round notes without ligature. 

Genss (ge*ns), Hermann, b. Tilsit, Jan. 
6, 1856; pianist; pupil of the Royal 
Hochsch. fttr Mus., Berlin; teacher 
in various cities; 1893, co-dir. 
Scharwenka-Klindworth Cons., Ber- 
lin; after 1899 teacher in and 1905 
dir. of Irving Inst., San Francisco, 
Cal.; c. orch. wks., etc.; d. (?). 

Georges (zhorzh), Alex., Arras, France, 
Feb. 25, 1850 Paris, Jan. 19, 1938; 
pupil, later prof, of harm., Nieder- 
meyer Sch., Paris; c. operas "Le 
Printemps" (1888) and "Poemes 
d' Amour" (1892); "Charlotte Corday" 
(1901); 2 oratorios, a mystery "La 
Passion" (1902); symph. poem, 
songs, etc. 

GSrard (zh&-rr), H. P., Lige, 1763 
Versailles, 1848; teacher and writer. 

GSrardy (zha-rS-r-de), Jean, Spa, Bel- 
gium, Dec, 7, 1877 July 4, 1929; 
notable 'cellist; studied with Bell- 
mann; a pupil of Grtitzmacher; 
played as a child in England; at 13 
in Dresden; 1899, etc., toured 

Ger'ber, (i) H. Nikolaus, Wenigen- 
Ehrich, near Sondershausen, 1702 
Sondershausen, 1775; organist and 
composer, (2) Ernst L., Sonders- 
hausen, 1746 1819; son, pupil and 
successor (1775) of above; ^cellist, 
organist, lexicographer and com- 

Gerbert (gSr'-bSrt), (von Hornau) 
Martin, Harb-on-Neckar, Aug. 12, 
1720 St. Blaise, May 13, 1793; col- 
lector of the invaluable "Scriptorest 
ecclesiaslici de mi4sica sacra potissi- 
mum" noteworthy treatises of the 
Middle Ages, reproduced exactly 
(the compilation was continued by 
Coussemaker) . The work is briefly 
referred to in this book as "Gerbert."' 
He became in 1736 cond. at St. 
Blaise; when he died, the peasants 
erecting a statue to him; pub. also 
other very important works, and c. 
offertories, etc, 

Ger'hardt, (i) Paul, b. Leipzig, Nov. 
10. 1867; organ- virtuoso; pupil at the 

Cons.; since 1898 org. at Zwickau; 

c. organ works, etc. (2) Elena, b, 
Leipzig, Nov. 11, 1883; soprano, esp. 
noted as a Lieder singer; pupil of 
cons, in native city, with Madame 
Hedmondt; after 1903 appeared in 
many recitals with Nikisch; sang at 
Leipzig Op., but gave up stage career 
for concert activity; has toured 
widely in Europe, England, and in 
America after 1912. 

Gericke (ga'-rl-ke 1 ), Wilhelm, Graz, 
Styria, April 18, 1845 Vienna, 
Oct. 27, 1925; pupil of DessofE, 
Vienna, Cons., then cond. at Linz; 
1874, 2d. cond. Vienna ct.-opera 
(with Hans Richter); 1880, cond. of 
the "Gesellschaftsconcerte" (vice 
Brahms); also cond. the Singerve- 
rein; 1884-89, cond. Boston (Mass.) 
Symphony Orch., resuming the post 
1898-1908, (vice Emil Paur) after 
being dir. "Gesellschaftsconcerte" at 
Vienna until 1895; pub. several cho- 
ruses, pf.-pcs. and songs; also c. 
operetta "Schtin Rannchen" (Linz, 
1865); a Requiem; a concert-over- 
ture, etc. 

Gerlach (gSr'-lakh), (i) Dietrich, d. 
Nttrnberg. 1574; music-printer, 1566- 
1571. (2; Theodor, b. Dresden, 
June 25, 1861; pupil of Wiillner; at 
22 prod, a notable cantata, "Luther's 
Lob der Musica" 1884; Italy, 1885; 
cond. Sondershausen Th., then of 
German Opera in Posen; his "Epic 
Symphony" caused his appointment 
as ct.-cond. in Coburg, 1891; 1894, 
cond. at Cassel; then living in Dres- 
den and Berlin; after 1904 dir. of 
a mus. school at Carlsruhe; c. succ. 
opera (book and music) "Matteo Fal- 
cone" (Hanover, '98, Berlin, 1902); 
orch. pieces, etc. 

Gerle (gSr'-le*), (i) Konrad, d. Nttrn- 
berg, 1521; lute- maker. (2) Hans, 

d. Niirnberg, 1570; probably son of 
above; violinist and vln. -maker. 

Ger'man, Sir Edward (rightly Jones), 
Whitechurch, Feb. 17, 1862 Lon- 
don, Nov. ii, 1936; violin pupil of 
R. A. M.; 1889, dir. Globe Th., 
London; 1901 completed Arthur Sul- 
livan's unfinished opera "The Emer- 
ald Isle" prod, with succ. London, 
1901; c. operas, 2 symphonies: vari- 
ous suites, including the "uipsy" 
suite, chamber-music, songs, etc. 
His incidental music to Shakespeare' g 
plays is especially notable, and much 
popularity has been won by his suites 



for "Ndl Gwynne" and "Henry 
VIII." Knighted, 1928. 
Genner (g^r'-mSr), H., Sommersdorf, 
Province of Saxony, Dec. 30, 1837 

Dxesdeaa, Jan. 4, 1913; pupil 
Berlin Akademie; teacher, pianist 


ueim (gSras'-hlm), Fr, Worms, 
r- *7 1839 Berlin, Sept. ix, 
Jio; of Hebrew parents; pupil of 

osenhain and Hauff, Frankfort, and 
Leipzig Cons.; 1865, teacher of comp. 
and pf. Cologne Cons.; 1872, Prof.; 
1874, dir. of the Cons, at Rotterdam 
and cond. "Winter Concerts"; 1890 
at Stern Cons,, Berlin; c. 4 sym- 
phonies, overtures, etc, 

Gero (g5'-r6), Jhan (Johann) (caUed 
Maister Jan or Jehan, or Joannes 
Galhis), conductor and composer at 
Orvieto Cath., i6th cent. 
Geffs&'wm, George, Brooklyn, N. Y., 
Sept, 26, 1898 HoUywood, July 12, 
1937; one of the most talented 
pioneers in the creation of music with 
jazz idiom as basis, incl. orchestral 
works OB *vmph, scale; studied piano 
with flambitzer, composition with 
ELilenyi and Rubin Goldmark; c* 
many pop. operettas and musical 
tevues; came into internat'L promi- 
nence with his "Rhapsody in Blue," 
first heard at a Paul Whiteman con- 
cert in N. Y. y a work written for 
piano and orchestra, exploiting jazz 
idiom treated in elaborate form; this 
work heard widely in TJ. S. and in 
Europe; also c. "An American in 
Paris," symph. poem; piano con- 
certo in F (latter commissioned by 
Walter Damrosch for N. Y. Symph. 
Och.), and a Negro folk opera, 
"Porgy and Bess," presented by 
N. Y. Theatre Guild, 1935, (See 
article, page 498.) 

Serster (g&r-shtSr), Etelka, Kaschau, 
Hungary, June r6, 1857 near Bo- 
logna, Aug. 20, 1920; one of the most 
remarkable coloratura-sopranos of 
her time; 1874-75, a pupil of Mar- 
chesi, Vienna Cons.; v. succ. dbut 
Venice, Jan. 8, 1876; m. her im- 
presario Dr. Carlo Gardini and 
toured Europe and America after 
1878 until her retirement in 1890; 
lost her voice suddenly and opened 
(1896) a singing-school in Berlin. 
Genrasoni (j&>vS-so'-ne), Carlo, Mi- 
1762-1819; writer and theorist. 

Jeanne, Orthez, France, 1882 New 

York, 1915; contralto; studied with 
Laborde, Madame Viardot-Garcia 
and Criticos; after 1900 sang at 
Paris Op.-Comique; 1902, Brussels; 
1907-10, Manhattan Op. Co., New 
York; 1911-12, Chicago Op.; 1913- 
14, Gr. Op. of Canada. 
Gervinus (g&r-ve'-noos), Georg Gf. f 
Darmstadt, 1805 Heidelberg, 1871; 
professor and writer. 
Geselschap (g-zgl'~shap), Marie, b. 
Batavia, Java, Dec. 15, 1874; pianist; 
pupil of X. Scharwenka, Berlin; 
played in America, etc.; 1895 in 

Gesius (rightly G8ss) (ga'-sX-oos; ge*s), 
Bartholom&us, Mlincheberg, ca. 1555 
Frankfort-on-Oder, 1613; cantor 
and composer. 

Gesualdo (ja-zoo-al'-do), Don Carlo, 
Prince of Venosa, d. 1614; one of 
the most intellectual and progressive 
mus. of his time; wishing to revive 
the chromatic and enharmonic gen- 
era of the Greeks, he strayed out of 
the old church-modes and, becoming 
one of the "chromaticista," wrote 
almost in modern style. 
Gevaert (zM-v&rt'), Francois Atiguste, 
Huysse, near Oudenarde, July 31. 
1828 Brussels, Dec. 24, 1908; pupil 
of Sommere (pf.) and Men^a] 
(comp.) at Ghent Cons., taking Gr. 
prix de Rome for comp.; 1843, organ- 
ist at the Jesuit church; he prod. 
2 operas; lived in Paris (1849-50); 
then went to Spain and c. "Fantasia 
sobre motives espanoles," still pop. 
there, for which he was given the 
order of Isabella la Catolica; he sent 
back reports on Spanish music (pub. 
by the Academy, 1851); he returned 
to Ghent 1852, prod. 9 operas, 2 of 
them, "Georgette* and "Le UUet de 
Marguerite," with much success; in 
1857 his festival cantata "De Nation- 
ale Verjaerdag" brought him the 
Order of Leopold; 1867-70 chef de 
chant Gr. Op6ra, Paris; 1871, dir. 
Brussels Cons, (vice F6tis); created 
a baron by Belgian Government, 
1908; pub. colls, of Italian music, 
also the valuable fruits of much re- 
search in old plain-song. His * * Traite 
^instrumentation" (1863) revised as 
"Nouveau traice,"> etc. ''1885): ne 
prod, also cantatas, "Missa pro 
Defunctis'i and "Super Flumina 
Babyloms 9 -'' for male chorus and 
orch.; overture "Flandre &u Lion? 



Oeyer lgi-Sr), Flodoard, Berlin, 18x1 
1872; prof., critic, theorist and 
dram, composer. 

Gheyn (g&a), Matthias van den, Tirle- 
mont, Brabant, 1721 Louvain, 
3785; one of a Flemish family of bell 
founders; organist. Of his 17 chil- 
dren his son Josse* Thos. (b. 1752) 
was his successor as organist. 

Ghione (ge-O'-na), Franco, Italian 
cond., appointed to lead Detroit 
Symph. Orch., 1937. 

Ghiselin(g) (gg-zS-liing) (or Ghiseli- 
nus), Jean, Netherlandish; contra- 
puntist 15- 1 6th cent. 

Ghislanzoni (ges-l2n-ts5'-ne), A., Lecca, 
1824 - Caprino-Bergamasco, 1893; 
barytone and writer; wrote more 
than 60 opera librettos, incl. that of 

Ghizeghem. Vide HEYNE. 

Ghizzolo (gSd'-z5-lo), Gio., b. Brescia, 
1560 (?); monk and composer. 

Ghys (ges), Joseph, Ghent, 1801 St. 
Petersburg, 1848; violinist, teacher 
and composer. 

Giacomelli (jak-6-ml'le), Geminiano, 
Parma, 1686 Naples, 1743; dram. 

GUmelli (ja-nelMe), Pietro, (Abbate) 
Friulia Italy, ca. 1770 Venice, 1822 
(JO; lexicographer. 

Gianettini 0a-nt-tS'-nS) (or Zanet- 
tini), A., Venice, 1649 Modena, 
1721; dram, composer. 

<3iannini, (*) Dusolina (dods-5-l'-na 
"a-ng'-n$), b. Philadelphia, Dec. 19, 
2902; soprano; studied with Marcella 
Sembrich; de*but, New York, in con- 
cert, x^23; has appeared widely in 
opera ia Europe, including Hamburg, 
Berlin, Paris, Budapest, also at 
Co vent Garden; Met. Op. Co., N. Y., 
d6but as "ASda," 1935-36; has made 
concert tours of U. S., Europe, 
Australia, New Zealand; also sang in 
opera at Salzburg Fest. (2) Vitto- 
lio, bfo. of Busolina; b. 1903, 
Philadelphia; composer; studied com- 
position with Rubin Goldmark; also 
trained as violinist; c. (operas) 
"Lucedia" (Munich, 1934), "The 
Scarlet Letter'*; "Symphony in Me- 
moriam X. Roosevelt"; Requiem; 
songs; awarded fellowship at Amer. 
Acad. in Rome. 

Gianotti (ja-nat'-tg), P., Lucca Paris, 
1765; double-bassist, composer and 

Giarda (jSr'-da), Luigi Stefano, b. 

Castelnuovo, Pavia, March 19, 1868; 
'cellist; pupil Milan Cons.; teacher at 
Padua, 1893-07; 1897-1920, at Royal 
Cons., Naples; then at Santiago 
Cons., vice-dir.; c. opera "Reietto"* 
(Naples, 1898), ? cello-music and 

Giardini (jar-de'-ne"), Felice de, Turin, 
i7i6-^-Moscow, 1796; violinist and 
dram, composer. 

Gibbons, (i) Orlando, Cambridge, 
England, 1583 Canterbury, June 5, 
1625; esteemed as one of the fore- 
most of Engl. organists and com- 
posers; Mus. Doc. Oxon; 1604, or- 
ganist Chapel Royal; 1623, organist 
Westminster Abbey. (2) Christo- 
pher, London, 1615 Oct. 20, 1676; 
son of (i), organist and composer. 

Gibbs, Cecil Armstrong, b. Great 
Baddow, Engl., Aug. 10, 1889; com- 
poser; studied at Winchester and 
Trinity Coll., Cambridge, with Dent 
and Wood; also with Vaughan Wil- 
liams and Boult; teacher of composi- 
tion and theory at R. Coll, of Mus.; 
c. many orch., chamber music and 
other works, in conservative style, 
well constructed and imagina- 

Gibert (zhg-bar), Paul Cesar, Ver- 
sailles, 1717 Paris, 1787; dram, 

Gibert (hg-brt) (or Gisbert, Gispert), 
Francisco Xavier, Granadella, Spain 
Madrid, 1848; priest, cond. and 

Gide (zhgd), Casimir, Paris, 1804 
1868; composer. 

Gieseking (gg'-sS-kSng), Walter, b. 
Lyons, France, Nov. 5, 1895; Ger- 
man pianist; trained at Hanover 
Cons., study with Karl Leimer; 
d6but, 1920; has made many tours 
of Germany, Switzerland and other 
Eur. countries; Amer. de*but 1926; 
a brilliant virtuoso, with reputation 
as interpreter of modern music, par- 
ticularly Debussy; c. quintet fop 
piano and wind instruments, piano 
pieces, songs. 

Gigli, Beniamino (bgn-ya-mn'-5 J5l- 
ye"), b. Recanati, Italy, March 20, 
1890; operatic tenor; studied at 
Rome Liceo di Santa Cecilia with 
Cotogni and Enrico Rosati; dbut 
as "Enzo," Rovigo, 1914; sang widely 
in Italian opera houses, incl, Rome, 
Naples, Milan, also in South Amer- 
ica; Met. Op. Co., N. Y., d6but in 



"Afejistpfele," 1920; sang leading 
r61es with this co. until 1934; has also 
sung in London, Berlin and else- 
where, enjoying internat'l. reputa- 
tion; concert tours in U. S. and 
Europe; Grand Ufficiale, Order of the 
Crown of Italy. 

Gigout (zh-goo). Eugene, Nancy, 
France, March 23, 1844 Paris, 
Dec. 9, 1^25; organ- virtuoso, critic, 
etc*; pupil in the maitrise of Nancy 
cathu; at 13 entered Niedermeyer 
Sch., Paris, and was later teacher 
there for over 20 years; studied also 
with Saint-Saens; 1863, organist at 
the Ch, of St. Augustin; succ. concert 
organist throughout Europe; 1885, 
founded an organ-sob., subsidized by 
the govt.; commander of the order 
of Isabella la Catolica; 1885, officier 
of pub. instruction; 1895, Chev. of 
the Legion of Honour; pub. over 300 
Gregorian and plain-song composi- 

GflTert (i) Alfred, Salisbury, Oct. 21, 
1828 London, Feb. 6, 1902; organ- 
ist and composer; his brother, 
(2) Ernest Thos. Bennett, Salisbury, 
Oct. 22, 1833 London, May ir, 
1885; organist, teacher and com- 
poser. (3) Walter Bond, Exeter, 
April 21, 1829 Oxford, 1910; or- 
ganist: pupil of Wesley and Bishop; 
1886, Mus. Doc. Oxford; 1889, came 
to New York; c. oratorios, etc. 
(4) Henry Franklin Belknap, Somer- 
viHe, Mass., Sept. 26, 1868 Cam- 
bridge, Mass., May 19, 1928; violin, 
pupil of Mollenhauer; studied har- 
mony with. G. H. Howard and for 
3 years with MacDowell; 1892-1901 
in business, then took up composi- 
tion. Hfs work is full of originality 
and character; c. Comedy Overture 
on Negro Themes (Boston Symph., 
x<9x); Americanesque, Cwo Episodes, 
/> Legend; II, Negro Episode, 
Boston (1896, and often elsewhere): 
"Salavimbo's Invocation to Tanith>> 
for soprano and orch. (1906); "Amer- 
ican Dances in Rag-Time" for orch.; 
symph. poem, "The Dance in Place 
C#ngo"i for piano "Indian Scenes,"- 
"Negro Episode," etc., many beauti- 
fal songs, including the well-known 
"Pirate Song"- also "Negro Rhap- 
y&* (1013), and symph. prologue 
"mfors to the Sea"' (1915). He lee- 
toed at Harvard and Columbia 
IJri&rs.; liis "Place Congo" was given 
Si ballet at Met. Op., 1918. 

Gil'christ, W. Wallace, Jersey City/ 

N. J-> Jan. 8, 1846 Easton, Pa., 
Dec. 20, 1916; pupil of H. A. Clarke 
at the U. of Penn.; from 1877 organ- 
ist and choirm. Christ Ch., German- 
town; from 1882 teacher Phila. Mus. 
Acad.; cond. of orch. and choral so- 
cieties; c. prize Psalm xlvi. for soli, 
chorus, orch. and org. (Cincinnati 
Festival, 1882), "Song of Thanks- 
giving" for chorus and orch.; a can- 
tata "The Rose," etc. 
Giles (jllz), Nathaniel, near Worcester, 
EngL, ca. 1550 Windsor, Jan. 24, 
1633; organist; Mus. Doc. Oxon; 
writer and composer. 
Gilibert (zhSl-e-bar'), Chas., Paris, 
1866 New York, 1910; barytone; 
pupil of Paris Cons.; after about 1888 
sang at Brussels; 1900-03, Met. Op. 
Co.; 1906-10, Manhattan Op. Co.j 
was to have returned to Met. but 
died suddenly; an excellent song 

Gille (gn"-15), Karl, Eldagsen, Hanover, 
Sept. 30, 1 86 1 Hanover, June 14, 
1917; pupil of J. Fischer, Bott and 
Metadorf; theatre-cond. in various 
cities; 1891-97 court cond., Schwerin; 
1897 succeeded Mahler at Hamburg 
Stadttheater; 1906, first cond. Vienna 
Volksoper; after 1910 in Hanover. 
Gilly (zhe'-lS), Dinh, Algeria London, 
May 19, 1940; barytone; Met. Op. 

Gil'man, Lawrence, b. Flushing, N. Y., 
July 5, 1878 Franconia, N. H., 
Sept. 8, 1939; ed. Collins St. Clas- 
sical School, Hartford, Conn.; self- 
trained in music; 1901-13, music 
critic for Harper's Weekly; after 
1913, music and dram, critic, The 
North American Review; beginning 
r923, music critic of N. Y. Tribune 
(later Herald-Tribune), succeeding 
the late H. E. Krehbiel; for some 
seasons he has written the annota- 
tions for the N. Y. Philh. Orch. 
programmes, in which he has shown 
distinguished literary and musical 
taste; author, "Phases of Modern 
Music," "Edward MacDowell," "The 
Music of Tomorrow," "Guide to 
Strauss' Salome," "Stories of Sym- 
phonic Music," "Guide to Debussy's 
* Pelleas et Melisande"; "Aspects oj 
Modern Music," "Life of Edward 
MacDowell," "Nature in Music"* 
etc.; c. "A Dream of Youth," etc. 
GiPmore, Patrick Sarsfield, near Dub- 
lin, Dec. 25, 1829 St. Louis, Mo, 



Sept. 24, 1892; an immensely popular 
conductor, some of whose influence 
went to the popularising of good 
music; on occasions he cond. an orch. 
of 1,000 and a chorus of 10,000, also 
an orch. of 2,000 and a chorus of 
20,000, reinforced with cannon fired 
by electricity, an organ, anvils, 
chimes, etc. (cf. Sarti); he c. pop. 
military and dance music. 

Wilson (zhel-son), Paul, b, Brussels, 
June 15, 1865; self-taught; his can- 
tata "Sinai" won the Grand prix de 
Rome, 1892; 1896 prod, opera 
"Alvar," Brussels; completed Ragg- 
hianti's opera "Jean-Marie"; 1904, 
teacher of harmony Antwerp Cons., 
and critic of the "Soir"; composed 
operas, "Gens de mer" (based on 
Victor Hugo's novel, Brussels, 1902; 
Antwerp, 1904) and "Prinses Zon- 
nenschijn" (Antwerp, 1903); ballet, 
"La Captive," Brussels, 1902; symph. 
"La Mer" 1892; orch. fantasy on 
Canadian folk-songs, symph. poems, 
etc.; d. Brussels, 1042. 

Giner (he-nar'),- Salvador, Valencia, 
Jan. 17, 1832 Nov. 3, 1911; pupil 
of Gascons; dir. Valencia Cons.; c. 
a, symph. "The Four Seasons" 
operas, etc. 

Ginguene (zhan-gti-na), P. L., Renne , 
1748 Paris, 1816; writer. 

Giordan! (jdr-da'-nS), name of a family, 
father, 3 sisters and 2 brothers, all 
singers in comic opera at Naples, till 
1762 when they came to London (exr- 
cept Giuseppe); one of the brothers 
wrote the still pop. song "Caro mio 
ben." (i) Tommaso (rightly Car- 
mine), Naples, ca. 1740 Dublin 
after 18x6; dram, composer. (2) 
Giuseppe (called Giordanello), Na- 
ples, 1744 Fermo, 1798; bro. of 
above; conductor; c. 30 operas. 

Giordano (jor-<la'-n5), Umberto, b. 
Foggia, Aug. 27, 1867; studied with 
Paolo Serrao at the Naples Cons.; 
c. operas; very succ. "Andrea 
Ch$nfer"< (La Scala, Milan, 1896; in 
Berlin, 1898, and U. S.); also 
"Miranda," unsucc., "Regina 

(Naples, 1894); and succ. 3-act melo- 
drama "Mala Vita"' (Rome, 1892, 
prod, as "II Voto," Milan, 1897); 
*'Fedora" (Milan, 1898), "Siberia, 99 - 
(do, 1903, Leipzig, 1007), and "Mar- 
cclld"> (Milan, 1907); " 

> , Mme. Sans 

Gene" (Met. Op., 1915); mus. com- 
edy, "Giove a Pompei" (Rome, 1921); 
"La Cena delle Bejf&" (La Scala, 

1924, at Met. Op., 1926) and "II 
Re" (1928); d. Milan, Nov. 12, 1948. 

Giorgetti (j6r-jt-t6), Ferdinando, Flor- 
ence, 1796-1867; violinist, teacher 
and comp. 

Giorgi (j6r'-je*). Vide BANTI. 

Giorni (jor'-nS), Aurelio, Perugia, Italy, 
Sept. 15, 1895, Pittsfield, Mass., Sept. 
23, 1-938; composer pianist; studied St. 
Cecilia Acad., Rome, piano with Sgam- 
bati, composition with Humperdinck, 
piano with Busoni, Gabrilowitsch, Lhe- 
vinne and Da Motta; d6but as orch. 
soloist, Rome, 1:912; appeared also 
in Berlin, London and U. S. (after 
1914); mem. of Elshuco Trio; taught 
formerly at Inst. of Music. Art, 
N. Y., later at Phila. Cons. ; composed 
orchestral, chamber music, choral 
and piano works. 

Giornovichi. Vide JARNOVIC. 

Giorza (j6r'-tsa), Paolo, Milan, Nov. 
n, 1838 Seattle, Wash., May 4, 
1914; son and pupil of an organist 
and dram, singer; studied cpt. with 
La Croix; lived New York some 
years, later London; prod, unsucc. 
opera "Corrado" (Milan, 1869), and 
many succ. ballets. 

GiovanelH (je-va-neT-lS), Ruggiero, 
Velletri, ca. 1560 Rome, 1625; 
1599 successor of Pales trina as con- 
ductor at St. Peter's, Rome; an im- 
portant composer. 

Giraldoni (zhe-r&l-dS'-nS), Leone, 
Paris, 1824 Moscow, 1897; bary- 

Girard (zh5-r&r), Narcisse, Nantes, 
France, 1797 Paris, 1860; conduc- 
tor and violin professor. 

Girardeau (zhe-ra.r-d5), Isabella, called 
la Isabella, Italian singer in London, 
ca. 1700. 

Gizziello (gXd-z*-Sl'-lo), Gioacchino. 
Vide CONTI. 

Glad 'stone, Francis Edw., Summer- 
town, near Oxford, May 2, 1845 
Hereford, Sept. 5, 1928; pupil of 
S. Wesley; organist various churches; 
1879 Mus. Doc., Contab; 1881, prof, 
of cpt. Trinity Coll., London; prof, 
of harm, and cpt. R. C. M.; c. an 
overture, chamber-music, etc. 

Glarea'nus, Henricus (rightly Hein- 
rich Lo'ris, Latinized, Lori'tus), 
Glarus, 1488 Freiburg, Baden, 
March 28, 1563; poet and important 

Glasenapp (gla'-zS-nap), Karl Fr M 



Riga, October 3, 1847 April 14; 
1915; studied philosophy at Dorpat, 
since 1875 head-master at Riga; 
wrote on Wagner, a biography in 

3 vols., a lexicon, and a Wagner 
Encyclopaedia, etc. 

GlSser (gU'-zftrj, (i) K. G., Weissen- 
fels, 1784 Barmen, 1829; mus. dir. 
and later dealer, composer , and 
writer, (2) Fz., Obergeorgenthal, 
Bohemia, 1798 Copenhagen, 1861; 
conductor, violinist, and dram, com- 

Glkz(o)unow (glS'-tsoo-nof), Alex., St. 
Petersburg, Aug. 10, 1865 Paris, 
March 21, 1936; eminent Russian 
composer; studied till 1883 at Poly- 
technic Inst., then took up music; 
studied with Rimsky-Korsakov; 1881 
his first symphony was produced, 
repeated under Liszt in 1884 at 
Weimarj he cond. his second sym- 
phony in Paris, 1889; his fourth 
symphony, London PML; 1896-97, 
with Rimsky-Korsakov and Liadov, 
cond. Russian Symphony Concerts 
at St. P.; from 1899 he was prof, 
of instrumentation, St. Petersburg 
Cons,; 1909-12 director; honoured by 
Soviets but lived Paris after 1930. 
He c. 8 symphs. 5 suites, ballets, 

4 overtures, a symph. poem, "Sten- 
ka Rosin," a symphonic fantasy. 
"Through Night to Light," and a 
great number of other orch. works, 
chamber music in large quantity and 
high quality, cantatas, the "Me- 
ittorial" (Leeds, Fest., 1901), ballets, 
violin concerto (1904), etc. 

Gleason (gls'-sttn), Fr. Grant, Middle- 
town, Conn., Dec. 17, 1848 Chica- 
go, June 12, 1903; pupil of Dudley 
Buck and at Leipzig Cons.; later at 
Berlin, of Loeschorn, Weitzmann and 
Haupt; later with Beringer (pf.) in 
London; 1875 organist Hartford; 
1877, teacher Hershey Sch. of Music, 
Chicago; critic for years of Chicago 
Tribune*, c. (text and music) grand 
operas "Otko Visconti" and "Monte- 
vuma"} cantata "The Culprit Fay,'? 
with orch.; "Praise-song to Har- 
mony," symphonic cantata; "Audi- 
torium Festival Ode/' symph. can- 
tata with orch.; op. 21, "Edris,"* 
symphonic poem (after the prologue 
to t'Ardath" by Marie Corelli), 

Gieich (gfckh), Fd., Erfurt, 1816 
Langebruck, near Dresden, 1808; 
critic a*d writer; c. symphonies. 

Gleissner (gUs'-nSr), Fz,, Neustadt-on- 
the-Waldnab, 1760 Munich, aftei 
1815; printed songs of his own by 
lithographic process, the first music 
so printed. 

Gleitz (glits), K., Hetzerode, near 
Cassel, Sept. 13, 1862 Torgau, 
June, 1920; studied Leipzig Cor*s. 
and Munich Music School, and 
in Berlin; c. symph.-poem "Fata 
Morgana" (played by Nikisch at 
the Berlin Philh. concerts, 1898); 
"Ahasuerus, 9 * "Venus and Bettona,"- 
etc., for orch.; " H of bur and Signild,"* 
for chorus; "Inlichter," a pf. -fantasy 
with orch.; vln.-sonata, etc. 

Gli&re (gl-&r), Reinhold Moritzovich, 
composer; b. Kiev, Dec. 30, 1874 
(O. S.), or Jan. zi, 1875, (N. S.); 
pupil of Moscow Cons., winning gold 
medal; in 1913, prof. Kiev Cons.j 
1914, dir. of same; after 1920, prof, 
of comp., Moscow Cons. He has 
enjoyed honours under the Soviet 
regime, and has striven to embody 
revolutionary and proletarian ideals 
in his later productions. His ballet, 
"The Red Poppy, 39 - became for a 
time most popular on the stages of 
the U. S. S. R., and a lively "Sailor's 
Dance"- from this work has been 
perf. widely in other countries, incl. 
U. S. His^ principal works include 

2 symphonies, "Les Sir&nes," "Ilya 
Mourpmettf*', and "Triana" for orch.; 

3 string quartets, 3 string sextets, 
octet for strings; the ballet "Chrysis,"* 

Glinka (glfcik'-a), Michail Ivanovitch, 
Novospaskoi, near Smolensk, Russia, 
June i (new style), 1804 Berlin, 
Feb. 15, 1857; piano-virtuoso and 
composer, father of the new nation- 
alistic Russian Musical School; of 
noble birth; pupil of Bohm (vln.), 
Mayer (theory and pf.), John Field 
(pf.). Of very weak health, he 
studied vocal composition in Italy; 
1834 with Dehn in Berlin; prod, at 
St. Petersburg, 1836, the first Rus- 
sian national opera "A Life for the 
Czar" (Zarskaja Skisu or Ivan Sussa- 
nina), with succ. still lasting; the 
next opera "Russian and Ludmilla"* 
(St. P., 1842) was also succ. (book 
by Pushkin); 1844 ia Paris he gave 
orch. concerts strongly praised by 
Berlioz; 1845-47, Madrid and Se- 
ville, where he c. "Jota Aragonese,"- 
a "Capriccio brillante" for orch., and 
"Souvenir d j une nuit d'M a Madrid," 



for orch.; 1851, Paris; 1854-55, near 
St. Petersburg writing his autobiog- 
raphy, planning a never-attempted 
opera; he visited Derm at Berlin in 
1856, and died there suddenly; Glin- 
ka's other comp. incL 2 unfinished 
symphonies; 2 polonaises for orch.; a 
fantasia, "La Kamarinskaja"; a 
septet; 2 string-quartets; trio for 
pf., clar. and oboe; dramatic scenes; 
vocal-quartets, songs and pf.-pcs. 

Gloggl (glfig'-gl), d) Fz. X., Lmz-on- 
Danube, 1764 Julyi6, 1839; con- 
ductor, mus. dir.; writer. (2) Fz., 
Linz, 1797 Vienna, 1872; son of 
above; est. music business, 1843; 
writer and mus. director. 

Glover (gluv'-Sr), (i) Sarah. Ami, Nor- 
wich, Engl., 1785 Malvern, 1867; 
inv. the Tonic Sol-fa system of nota- 
tion and wrote about it. (2) Chas. 
W., Feb., 1806 London, 1863; vio- 
linist, etc. (3) Stephen, London, 
1812 Dec. 7, 1870; teacher and 
composer. (4) "W. Howard, London, 
1819 New York, 1875; violinist and 
critic; sang in opera. (5) John Win., 
Dublin, June 19, 1815 Jan. 15, 
1900; violinist and choirmaster at 
the Cathedral from 1860; c. opera 
"The Deserted Village" (London, 
1880), etc. 

<*luck (glook), (i) Christoph Wilibald 
(Bitter von), Weidenwang, near Neu- 
markt, Upper Palatinate, July 2, 
1714 Vienna, Nov. 15, 1787; son of 
tead-gamekeeper to Prince Lobko- 
witz; at twelve sent to the Jesuit 
Coll. at Komotau (1726-32), where 
he learnt the violin, clayecin, and 
organ, and was chorister in the Ch. 
of St. Ignaz; at eighteen he went to 
Prague, earning a living by playing 
at rural dances, giving concerts and 
singing and playing in various 
churches; under the tuition of Father 
Czernohorsky he mastered singing 
and the 'cello, his favourite instr.; 
1736 entered the service of Prince 
Melzi, Vienna, who took him to 
Milan and had him study harm, and 
cpt. with Sammartini. After four 
years' study he prod. "Artaserse" 
(La Scala, 1741) with great succ. and 
was commissioned to c. for other 
theatres; prod. 8 operas 1742-45. 
On invitation he went to London 
1745 as comp os erf or the Hay market, 
in opposition to HandeL "La Ca- 
duca dei Giganti" was given on the 
defeat of the Pretender, 1746, 

"Artamene" followed by "Piramp 8 
Tisbe" a pasticcio of his best arias, 
had no succ. and led Handel to say 
that the music was detestable, and 
that Gluck knew no more counter- 
point than his cook. The operas G. 
had written up to this time were 
thoroughly Italian. The influence 
of Handel and Rameau's works heard 
at Paris awakened him, and led him 
to that gradual reform which made 
him immortal, though it brought on 
him the most ferocious opposition. 
"La S emir amide Riconosciuta" (Vi- 
enna, 1748) began the change to 
more serious power. 1750-62 he 
prod. "Telemaco" (Rome, 1750), 
"La Clemenza di Tito" (Naples, 
1751), and 4 others. 175464 he 
was dir. court-opera Vienna ana 
prod. 6 more works. He made great 
succ. in spite of opposition with 
"Orfeo ed Euridice" (1762), "Alceste"* 
(1767), "Paride ed Elena" (i76p), 
libretti by Calzabigi. 2 other in- 
ferior works were performed by 
members of the royal family (1765). 
In the dedicatory prefaces to "Al- 
ceste" and "Paride ed Elena," G. 
expressed his protest against the 
Italian school, and declared for 
dramatic consistency unhampered by 
rigid formulae for arias, duets, etc., 
and interpolated cadenzas. He had 
such harsh criticism at home and 
such encouragement from du Rollet 
pf the French Embassy at Vienna 
in 1772 that he went to Paris. But 
here also he met such opposition 
that all his diplomacy and all the 
power of his former pupil, Queen 
Marie Antoinette, hardly availed to 
bring about the presentation of 
"Iphigenie en Aulide" (1774); its 
great succ. was repeated in "Or- 
phet" (Aug., i 7 74),"^fcfc" (1776), 
and "Armide" (1777). Piccinni was 
brought to Paris as a rival, and prod. 
"Roland" while Gluck was preparing 
the same subject. Gluck burned his 
score and published a letter which 
precipitated an unimaginably fierce 
war of pamphlets. Both men now 
set to composing "Iphigenie en Tau- 
tide"\ here Gluck forestalled his rival 
by two years (1779), and Piccinni's 
work on appearing was not a succ., 
while Gluck' s succeeded enormously. 
His last opera, "Echo et Narcisse"- 
was not succ. (Sept. 21, 1779); I 78o, 
he retired to Vienna and lived on his 



well-earned wealth, till apoplexy 
carried him off. He wrote a De 
profundis for chorus and orch., 6 
overtures and an incomplete can- 
tata, "Das Jiingste Gericht" finished 
by Salieri, and 7 odes for solo voice 
and pf. Biog. by A. Schmidt (1854); 
Marx (1863); Desnoiresterre^, (1872) ; 
also studies of his operas by Berlioz 
and Newman. (2) Alma (ne'e Reba 
Fierson), Bucharest, Roumania, 
May 11, 1866 New York, Oct. 26, 
*938; pupil of Buzzi-Peceia; dbut 
New Theatre, N. Y., 1909; the same 
year at the Met. Op.; of which" mem. 
until 1912; sang widely in concert; 
m. Ef rem Zimbalist, violinist. 

Gluth (gloot), Victor, Pilsen, May 6, 
1852 Munich, Jan. 17, 1917; taught 
Akademie der Tonkunst, Munich; c. 
operas "Zlatorog" and " Horand und 

Gmeiner (g'mi'nSr), Irula, Mysz-, b. 
Kronstadt, Aug. 16, 1876; alto; 
studied vln. witt Olga Grigorourcz; 
then studied voice with Gr. Walter 
and Emilie Herzog; noted Lieder 

Gneccni (ny'-ka), Vittorio, b. Milan, 
July 17, 1876; composer; private 
pupil of Saladino, Coronaro, Serafin 
and Gatti; c. (operas) "Virtu 
d*Amore" (1895); "Cassandra" (Bo- 
logna, 1905, also heard in Phila., 
1914): "La Rosiera" (prod, in Ger- 
many) ; " Judith" ; orch. works, songs; 
his 'Cassandra" is asserted by 
Giovanni Tebaldini to have sug- 
gested certain details of Strauss's 

Gnecco (n'ygk'-ks), Francesco, Genoa, 
1769 Milan, 1810; dram, composer. 

Gniessfci (gny&s'-Sn), Michael, b. Ros- 
toff, Russia, Jan. 23, 1883; composer; 
studied at Moscow and Petrograd 
Cons.; since 1923 teacher at the 
State Cons, in Moscow; his music 
utilises Jewish folk themes and 
shows an impressionistic manner; c* 
(opera) "The Youth of Abraham," 
symphonic, choral and chamber 
music, songs. 

Gobbaearts (gttV-barts), Jean Louis, 
Antwerp, 1835 Saint Gilles, near 
Brussels, 1886; pianist and composer. 

GSbel (ga'-bel), K. H., Berlin, 1815 
Bromberg, 1879; pianist, conductor, 
aad dram, composer, 

Gockel (gdk'el), Aug., WiUibadessen, 
Westphalia, 1831 1861; pianist and 


Godard (g6-da,r), Benjamin (Louis 
Paul), Paris, Aug. 18, 1849 Cannes, 
Jan. n, 1895; studied vln. with 
Hammer and played in public at 9; 
then studied with Reber (comp.) and 
Vieuxtemps (vln.), Paris Cons.; 1865 
pub. a vln.-sonata, later other 
chamber-compositions; rec'd the Prix 
Chartier from the Institut de France 
for merit in the department of 
chamber-music; prod. 5 operas, incl. 
"Jocelyn" (Brussels, 1888), and. the 
very succ. posthumous "La Vi\an- 
diere" (Paris Op.-Com., 1895), the 

" ~last 2 acts orchestrated by Paul 
Vidal; 2 operas not prod.; he c. also 
incid. mus. and 6 symphonies; "Le 
Tasse" (Tasso), dram, symphony 
with soli and chorus took the city of 
Paris prize in 1878; concerto for vln.; 
a pf .-concerto, songs and pf.-pcs. 

God^dard (Davison), Arabella, St. 
Servan, near Saint Malo, Brittany, 
Jan. 12, 1836 Boulogne,^ April 6, 
1922; pianist; at 4 played in public, 
at 6 studied with Kalkbrenner at 
Paris, at 8 played to Queen Victoria; 
pub. 6 waltzes and studied with Mrs. 
Anderson and Thalberg; at 1 2 played 
at the Grand National Concerts; 
1850-53 pupil of J. W. Davison, 
whom she m. (1860); toured Ger- 
many and at 17 played at Leipzig 
Gewandhaus 1855; 1873-76 toured 
the world; retired 1880 and lived in 
Tunbridge Wells. 

Godebrye. Vide JACOTIN. 

Godefroid (g6d-fwa), (i) Jules Joseph, 
Namur, Belgium, 1811 Paris, 1840, 
harpist and dram, composer. (2) 
Dieudonne* Jos. Gull. Fhx, Namur, 
1818 Villers-sur-mer, 1897; bro. of 
above; harpist and dram, composer. 

God'frey, (i) Chas., Kingston, Surrey, 
1790 1863; bassoonist and con- 
ductor. (2; Daniel, Westminster, 
Engl., Sept. 4, 1831 Beeston, near 
Nottingham, June 30, 1903; con- 
ductor; son of above; pupil R. A. M., 
later Fellow and Prof, of Military 
Mus.; 1856 bandm. of the Grenadier 
Guards; 1872 and 1898 toured the 
U. S. with his band, composer. 
(3) Sir Daniel Eyers, b. London, 
1868; son of (2); noted conductor; 
after 1894 led symph. concerts at 
Bournemouth for more than 40 years, 
presenting series of eminent soloists 
and also organising fests. there; re- 
tired 1934; d. Bournemouth, July 20, 



GodowsKy (g5-d6f'-ske), Leopold, b. 
Wilna (Vilno), Russian Poland, Feb. 
13, 1870 N. Y., Nov. 21, 1938; 
pianist; pupil of Rudorff; 1881-84 R. 
Hpchschule, Berlin; 188790 studied 
with Saint-Saens; 1890-91 toured 
America again; 1894 dir. pf.-dept., 
Broad St. Cons., Phila.; 1895-99 
head of pf.-dept., Chicago Cons.; 
then toured Europe; 1902 lived in 
Berlin; succeeded Busoni in 1910, as 
head of the Master-School of the 
Vienna Imperial Academy; 1904, 
married Frieda Saxe; after 1912 made 
home in U. S.; c. symphonic Dance- 
pictures from Strauss "Fledermaus"; 
sonata E minor, for piano; left-hand 
transcriptions of Chopin Etudes, 50 
6tudes on Chopin's Etudes, and 
many brilliant piano works, incL 
"Java" suite, etc. 

Soedicke (gSd'-S-ks), Alex. Fedoro- 
vitch, b. Moscow, March 3, 1877; 
composer, pianist and organist; pupil 
of Pabst and Safonoff at the Cons, 
in his native city; won Vienna Rubin- 
stein prize in 1900 for his piano 
concerto; after 1907 taught at Mos- 
cow Cons.; c. orch., chamber and 
piano works of classical trend. 

Goepfart (gSp'-fart), (i) Chr. H., Wei- 
mar, 1835 Baltimore, Md., 1890; 
organist and composer. (2) Karl 
Eouard, b. Weimar, March 8, 1859; 
son of above; 1891, cond. Baden- 
Baden Mus. Union; 1909-27, active 
in Potsdam; after 1928 in Weimar; 
c. "Sarastro" a sequel to Mozart's 
"Magic Flute," etc. (3) Otto Ernst, 
Weimar, July 31, 1864 Jan. 33, 
1911; bro. of above; since 1888 
Weimar town cantor and composer. 

Goepp (gp), Philip Henry, New York, 
June 23, 1864 Philadelphia, Aug., 
2 S> I 93^J composer, writer; grad., 
Harvard Univ., studied comp. with 
Paine; 1892, founded Manuscript 
Soc. ; after 1900 wrote programme notes 
for Phila. Orch.; prof, of theory, 
Temple Univ.; c. orch., chamber 
music, choral works, songs; author, 
"Symphonies and Their Meaning" 

Coes (gS'-Ss), DamiSo de, Alemquer, 
Portugal, 1501 Lisbon, 1572; am- 
bassador, theorist and composer. 

Goethe (gS'-tS), Walther Wg. von, 
Weimar, 1818 Leipzig, 1885; grand- 
son of the poet; c. 3 operettas, etc. 

Goetschius (gSt'-shl-oos) , Percy, Pater- 
son, N. J., Aug. 30, 1853 N. Y., 
Oct. 29, 1943; pupil Stuttgart Cons.; 

1885, Royal Prof.; critic for various 
German music papers; 1890-92, prof. 
Syracuse (N. Y.) Univ. and Mus. 
Doc.; 1892-96, taught comp. and 
lectured on mus., hist., etc., N. E, 
Cons., Boston; 1896, private teacher 
Boston, and essayist; 1897, organist 
First Parish Ch., Brookline; 1905-25, 
prof, at Inst. of Music. Art, N. Y.; 
pub. important and original treatises; 
ed. piano works of Mendelssohn; c. 
piano pieces and songs. 

Goetz (gSts), Hn., K6nigsberg, Prussia, 
1840 Hottingen, near Zurich, 1876; 
1863, organist and conductor; c. 
operas, notably "Taming of the 
Shrew*' '; orch., chamber music, cho- 
ruses, songs, etc. 

GShler (ga'-ler), Karl Georg, b. 
Zwickau, June 29, 1874; author and 
comp.; pupil of Vollhardt and Leip- 
zig Cons.; 1896, Ph.D.; from 1898 
director of the Riedelverein, also 
from 1903 court cond. at Altenburg; 
190709 at Carlsruhe; 190913, 

Leipzig; 1913-14, Hamburg Op.; 
1915-18, cond. Philh. Chorus and 
Orch., Lubeck; 1922-33, cond. Halle 

Philh. Orch.; c. 2 symphs.; orch. 
suite "Indian Songs." 

Goldbeck (golt'-bSk), Robert, Pots- 
dam, April 19, 1839 St. Louis, 
May 1 6, 1908; pupil of Kohler and 
H. Litolff; gave succ. concerts in 
London and prod, operetta; 1857-67 
in New York as teacher; 1868 
founded a Cons* at Chicago; dir. till 
1873; cond. St. Louis Harmonic Soc. 

Goldberg (golt'-bSrkh) , (i) Jn. G, 
(Theophilus) , Konigsberg, ca. 1730 
Dresden (?), 1760 (?); organ and 
clavichord player. (2) Jos. Pas- 
quale, Vienna, 1825 1890; vln.- 
pupil of Mayseder and Seyfried, then 
operatic bass and teacher. His 2 
sisters, (3) Fanny G.-Marini and 
(4) Catherine G.-Strossi, were singers 

Gold'man, Edwin Franko, Amer. band- 
master, composer; led Goldman Band 
in N. Y. park concerts after 1912. 

Goldmark (gSlt'-mSrk), () Karl, Kesz- 
thely, Hungary, May 18, 1830 
Vienna, Jan. 2, 1915; noted com- 
poser; violinist and pianist, pupil of 
Jansa (vln.), later of Bohm (theory) 
at the Vienna Cons., then mainly 
self-taught; d6but 1858 Vienna, with 
his own pf. -concerto; the popular 
overture "Sakuntala" (op. 13); and 
a Scherzo, Andante, and Finale for 
Orch. (op. 19) won him success 



strengthened by his opera "Die 
K&nigin von Saba" (Vienna, 1875); 
c. also operas "Merlin" (Vienna, 
1886) v. succ.; "Das Heimchen am 
Herd" based on Dickens* "Cricket 
on the Hearth" (Vienna, 18^6) ; "Die 


_ f also 

2 symphonies, incl."Landliche Hoch- 
zeit"; overtures, "Im Frilhling," 
"Prometheus Bound," and "Sappho,"* 
also a pop. vln. concerto, suite for 
vln, and piano, choruses, songs, piano 
works; author, "Reminiscences of 
My Life." (2) Rubin, New York 
City, Aug. 15, 1872 March 6, 1936; 
composer; nephew of above; at 7 
began to study with A. M. Livonius, 
with whom he went to Vienna, 1889; 
studied there also with Door and 
Fuchs; later in New York with Jp- 
seffy and Dvofak; 1892-1901, in 
Colorado Springs, Colorado; founder 
and dir. of a Coll. of Mus. there, 
"Theme and Variations" for orch. 
(performed by Seidl, 1895); c. a 
pf ,-trio, cantata with orch. "Pilgrim- 
age to Kevlaar" overture "Hiawa- 
tha" (played by Boston Symph. 
Orch.), vln.-sonata, etc.; after 1902 
lived again in N. Y. as teacher and 
cornp.; 1924 until his death, head of 
cornp. dept., Juilliard Grad. School; 
c. "Gettysburg Requiem" (N. Y. 
Philh., 1917); "Negro Rhapsody" 
(1922, played by many orchs.); 
founder and long pres., N. Y. 
Bohemians' Club. 

Goldner (gOlt'-n&r), Wm., Hamburg, 
June 30, 1839 Paris, Feb. 8, 1907; 
pupil Leipzig Cons.; lived in Paris 
as a pianist and composer. 

Gddschmidt (gslt-shmlt), (i) Sigis- 
mund, Prague, 1815 Vienna, 1877, 
pianist and composer. (2) Otto, 
Hamburg, Aug. 21, 1829 London, 
Feb. 24, 1907; pianist; pupil of 
Jakob Schmitt and F. W. Grand, 
Mendelssohn, and Chopin; 1849 
London with Jenny Lind, whom he 
accompanied on her American tour 
and m. (Boston, 1852); 1852-55 
Dresden; 1858-87 London; 1863 vice- 
principal of the R, A. M,, 1875 
founded Bach Choir, also cond. mus. 
festivals at Dusseldorf (1863) and 
Hamburg (1866); c. oratorio "Ruth" 
(Hereford, 1867); pf. -concerto and 
trio, etc. (3) Adalbert von, Vienna, 
May 5, 1848 Dec. 21, 1906; pupil 


Vienna Cpns.; amateur 
prod, with great succ. cantata "Die 
Sieben Todsunden" (Berlin, 1875), 
and succ. opera " Helianthus" (Leip- 
zig, 1884); prod, trilogy "Gaea" 1889. 
(4) Hugo, Breslau, Sept. 19, 1859-^ 
Wiesbaden, Dec. 26, 1920; 1884 Dr. 
jur.; studied singing with Stock' 
hausen (1887-90); 1893-1905, co-dir, 
Scharwenka-Klindworth Cons., Ber* 
lin; writer. 

Gold 'win, John, d. Nov., 1719; EngU 
organist and composer. 

Golinelli, Stefano, Bologna, Oct., 26, 
1818 July 3, 1891; pianist; pupil of 
B. Donelli and N. Vaccai; pf.-prof. 
Liceo Musicale till 1870; c. 5 pf.- 
sonatas, etc. 

Gollmick (gdl'-nrfk), (i) Fr. K., Ber- 
lin, 1774 Frankfort-on-Main, 1852; 
tenor. (2) Karl, Dessau, 1796 
Frankfort-on-Main, 1866; son of 
above; theorist and writer. (3) 
Adolf, Frankfort-on-M., 1825 Lon- 
don, 1883; pianist; son and pupil of 
(2); studied also with Riefstahl, 
1844; c. comic operas, etc. , 

Golsch'mann, Vladimir, b. Paris, Dec. 
1 6, 1893; conductor; studied vln. 
with MSller, Berthelier, piano with 
de Saunieres and Braud, comp. with 
Dumas, and Caussade; founded 
Golschmann Orch., Paris, 1919, and. 
led this series until 1923; guest cond* 
in other European cities; came to 
America as musical dir. of Swedish. 
Ballet, invited to lead N. Y. Symph % 
as guest by Damrosch; cond. St^ 
Louis Symph. Orch. after 1:934. 

M'-t&r-man), (i) G-. Ed.* 


Hanover, 1824 Frankfbrt-on-M^ 
1898; 'cellist and composer. (2) Jn. 
Aug. Julius, Hamburg. 1825 Stutt- 

art, 1876; 'cellist. (3) Aug., 1826 
chwerin, 1890; court pianist. 

Gombert (g6nv-b5rt), Nicolas, Bruges > 
ca. 1495 after 1570; a most impor- 
tant 1 6th cent, composer, one of thet 
first to take up secular music 
seriously; a lover of Nature and a 
writer of descriptive and pastoral!, 
songs of much beauty; his- motet 
"Paster Noster" was prod, at Paris-. 
by FStis with impressive effect. 

Gomes (or Gomez) (gS'-mas), Antonio- 
Carlos, Campinas, Brazil, July n,. 
1839 Para, Sept. 16, 1896; pupil of 
Rossi, Milan Cons.; Dir. of Para. 
Cons.; c. succ. operas "II Guarany,"' 
"Safoaior Rosa," "Lo Schiavo,"' 
"Maria Tudor," etc. 



(g5'-mSth) Jose Melchior, 
Valencia, Jan. 6, 1791 Paris, July 
26* 1836; military bandmaster and 
singing teacher at Paris; c. operas 
and patriotic songs. 
Gem'pertz, Richard, Cologne, April 27, 
1859 Dresden, 1921; violinist; pupil 
aft the Cons., and of Joachim; toured, 
them invited to teach at Cambridge 
University; from 1883, teacher at 
R. C. M., 1895, prof.; from 1899 at 
Dresden; c. violin sonatas, etc. 
Good'rieh, (i) Alfred John, Chile, Ohio, 
May 8, 1847 Paris, April 25, 1920; 
eminent theorist; except for a year's 
instruction from his father, wholly 
self-taught; teacher theory Grand 
C*ms., N. Y., 1876; voice, pf. and 
theory Fort Wayne Cons., Ind.; dir. 
voeal-dept. Beethoven Cons., St. 
Loais; 2 years at Martha Washington 
Coll., Va.; lived in Chicago, New 
York as teacher; pub. theoretical 
issays and books of radical and 
scholarly nature, the important 
proctacts of research and individual- 
ity, inel. "Complete Musical Analy- 
sis" (1889), "Analytical Harmony" 
(1894), "Theory of Interpretation" 
(1898), "Counterpoint." (2) (John) 
Wallace, b. Newton, Mass., M_ay 27, 
Z&7I Boston, June 6, 1952; eon- 
dt*ctor; studied in Boston arid 
Munich, and with Widor, Paris; 
taught New England Cons.; dean 
after 1907; became dir., succeeding 
Claud wick, 1931; 1897-1909, org. lor 
Boston Symph., also in various 
churches in that city; 1902-08, cond. 
and founder, Boston Choral Art. 
Sac.; until 1907, dir. of choral work, 
Worcester Fest.; 1907-10, cond. Ce- 
cilia Soc. ; in latter year also of osrch. 
concerts; cond. with Boston Op. Co., 
Z907-I2, when it disbanded; c. cfeocal 
music; also author and translator of 
TOarks on organ, etc. 

Gaod'son, Katharine, b. Watford, 
Englatad, June 18, 1872; pianist; at 
*2 paipil at the R. A. M., till 1892, 
then four years with Leschetizky 
ttetj 1=896, London Pop. Concerts; 
has toured widely; 1903, married 
Artfemr Hinton (q.v.). 

Goos'sens, (i) Eugene, b. Lon<Jon, 
May 26, 1893; conductor, composer: 
studied Bruges Cons, and Liverpool 
Coll. of Mus., later grad. R. CoS. of 
MHS,, London; 191115, played in 
Queen's HaU Orch. and Philh. String 
7916, cond. Stanford's 

opera, "The Critic"; 1915-20, cond. 
in association with enterprises of 
Beecham; 1921, founded own orch. 
in London for a season; later with 
Brit. Nat'l. Op. Co. and Carl Rosa 
Co., the Russian Ballet, and London 
Symph.; 1923-31, cond. Rochester 
Symph. Orch. in U. S.; founded 
chamber music concerts in London; 
after 1931 cond. Cincinnati Symph. 
until 1948; then dir. Sydney Cons., 
cond. Symph. there; c. op. "Judith" 
to libretto by Arnold Bennett, 
(Co vent Garden, 1929); "Don Juan 
de Manara"; (orch.) "Tam o' Shan- 
ter"; "Four Conceits"', "The Eternal 
Rhythm"; "Kaleidoscope"; "Rhyth- 
mic Dance"; Sinfonietta; Fantasy for 
9 wind instruments; 3 Greek Dances; 
Concertino for double string orch.; 
Poem for viola and orch. ; Rhapsody 
for 'cello and orch.; "By the Tarn 
for strings and clarinet; "Silence" for 
chorus and orch.; (chamber music) 
Fantasy Quartet; Sextet (commis- 
sioned for Berkshire Fest., 1923); 
Spanish Serenade; String Quartet in 
C; sonata for piano and vln.; piano 
sonatas, songs, piano pieces; *'Five 
Impressions of a Holiday" for piano, 
flute (or vln.) and 'cello; (ballet) 
"UEcele en Crinoline." (2) L6on, 
htfCh. of Eugene; oboist; pupil of 
1L Coll. of Mus.; mem. Philh. Trio; 
soloist in Covent Garden, Philh. and 
Queen's Hall orchs.; later active as 
solo performer; gave N. Y. recital, 

Goovaerts (g6'-v5.rts), Alphonse, J. M. 
Andre, Antwerp, May 25, 1847 
Brussels, Dec. 25, 1922; 1866, assist. 
librarian, Antwerp; founded an ama- 
teur cathedral choir to cultivate 
Palestrina and the Netherland cpt- 
ists; 1887 royal archivist., Brussels; 
writer and composer. 

GSpfiert (gSp'-fert), (i) K. And., Rim- 
par, near Wurzburg, 1768 Meining- 
ca, 1818; clarinetist and dram, com- 
poser. (2) K. G., Weesenstein, near 
Dresden, 1733 Weimar, 1798; vln. 
virtuoso; conductor and composer. 

Gordigiani (gdr-dSd-ja'-nS), (i) Giov. 
Bat., Mantua, 1795 Prague, 1871; 
son of a musician; dram, composer. 
(2) Antonio, a singer. (3) Luigi, 
Modena, 1806 Florence, 1860; bro. 
of (i); dram, composer. 

Goria (gS-rS'-a), Alex, fid., Paris, 1823 
1860; teacher and composer. 

Go/ritz, Otto, Berlin, June 8, 1870 



Hamburg, April n, 1929; barytone; 
studied with his mother; dSbut, 
Neustrelitz, 1895; thereafter at Bres- 
lau and Hamburg Ops.; Met. Op. 
Co., N. Y., 1903-17; noted for 
Wagnerian character r61es. 
GSrner (gr'-ner), (i) Jno. Gottlieb, 
Penig, 1697 Leipzig, 1778; organ- 
ist; his brother, (2) J. N. Valentin, 
b, Penig, 1702, cond. at Hamburg 
Cathedral: c. songs. 
Gomo (gdr'-no), Albino, Cassalmorano, 
Italy, i859~^Cincinnati, Oct. 29, 
1944; pupil Milan Cons., graduating 
with 3 gold medals; pianist; accom- 
panist Adelina Patti on Amer. tour 
1881-1882; then pf.-prof. Cincinnati 
Coll. of Music; c. opera, cantata 
"Garibaldi," etc. 

GSroldt (g&'-r61t), Jn. EL, Stempeda 
near Stolberg (Harz), 1773 after 
1835; mus. dir., writer and composer. 
Gonia, Tobio. Vide BOITO, AKRIGO. 
Garter (g6r'-tr), Albert, Ntirnberg, 
Nov. 23, 1862 March 14, 1936; 
studied medicine; then music at R. 
Mus. Sch., Munich; took 3 prizes for 
composition; studied a year in Italy; 
assist, cond. Bayreuth Festivals; 
cond. Breslau, etc.; 1894-99 assist. 
cond. Carlsruhe Ct.-Th., then cond. 
Leipzig City Th.; 1903, Strasbourg, 
1910-25, munic. cond. in Mainz; 
c. (text and mus.) opera "Harold" 
and comic opera "Der Schatz des 
Rkampsinnif* (Mannheim, 1894); 2 
symphonic poems, etc. 
Goss, (i) John Jeremiah, Salisbury, 
1770 1817; alto. (2) Sir John, 
Fareham, Hants, England; 1800 
London, 1880; organist; knighted, 
1872; composer and writer. 
Gossec (goVsSk) (rightly GossS, Gos- 
set or Gossez) (g6s-sa), Francois 
Jesejili, Vergniers, Belgium, Jan, 17, 
1734 Passy, near Paris, Feb. 16, 
1829; 1741-49 chorister Antwerp 
cathu; for 2 years he then studied 
vln. and comp.; 1751 Paris, cond. 
private orch. of La Pouplinifcre; then 
ferimer-g&neral; 1754 he pub. his first 
symphonies (5 years before Haydn's); 
Z7S9 k*s first string-quartets which 
became pop.; 1769 his "Messe des 
> made a sensation (the "Tuba 
> being written for 2 orch., 
for wind, instrs., concealed, a 
new effect he repeated in his first 
1762 cond. of Prince 


Ccmti's orch. at Chantilly; from 1764 
iP$r 3-ac operas "Le Faux LordJ* 

etc., incl. succ. "Les Ttcheurs* 
(Com6die It., 1766); 1770 founded 
Concerts des Amateurs; 1773 re- 
organised and cond. the Concerts 
Spirituels till 1777; 1780^82 assist, 
cond. Academic de Musique (later 
Gr. Opera); 1784 founded and dir. 
ficole Royale de Chant, the begin- 
ning of the Cons, of which (1795) he 
was an inspector and p r of. of comp.; 
c. 26 symphonies, 3 symphonies for 
wind, "Symphonie concertante" for n 
insts., overtures, 3 oratorios, etc.; 
masses with orch.; string-quartets, 

Gottschalg (g6t '-shaikh), Alex. W. 9 
Mechelrode, near Weimar, Feb. 14, 
1827 Weimar, May 31, 1908; pupil 
Teachers' Seminary, Weimar; suc- 
ceeding GSpfer there later; court 
organist, teacher, editor and writer. 
Gottschalk (gdts'-ch61k), (i) Louis 
Moreau, New Orleans, La., May 8, 
1829 Rio de Janeiro, Dec. 18, 1869; 
brilfiant and original pianist and 
composer; studied in Paris; began c. 
at 10; c. operas, etc., and 90 pf .-pcs. 
of distinct and tropical charm. 
(2) Gaston, bro. of above, singer and 
for years teacher in Chicago. 
Gatze (gSt'-zS), (i) Jn. Kik. K., Wei- 
mar, 1791 1861; violinist and dram, 
composer. (2) Fz., Neustadt-on- 
Orla, 1814 Leipzig, 1888; tenor, 
teacher and composer. (3) Karl, 
Weimar, 1836 Magdeburg, 1887; 
pianist and dram, composer. (4) H., 
Wartha, Silesia, April 7, 1836 
Breslau, Dec. 14, 1906; studied sing- 
ing with (2); lost his voice; teacher 
in Russia and Breslau; 1885 Ziegen- 
hals, Silesia; 1889 Royal Mus. Dir.; 
wrote 2 technical books; c. a mass 
with orch., etc. (5) Attguste, Wei- 
mar, Feb. 24, 1840 Leipzig, April 
29, 1908; daughter of (2); teacher 
Cons., Dresden; founded a school 
there; 1891 taught at Leipzig Cons.; 
wrote under name "Auguste Wei- 
mar." (6) Emil, Leipzig, July 19, 
1856 Charlottenburg, Berlin, Sept. 
28, 1901; pupil of Scharfe, Dresden; 
1878-81, tenor Dresden Ct.-Th., then 
at Cologne Th., then toured as 
"star,"- 1900 lived in Berlin as court- 
singer. (7) Otto, 1886, conductor at 
Essen-on-Ruhr; prod. succ. opera 
"Riscatto" (Sondershausen, 1896). 
1 T *?> / 8o2 > Prod. Volksoper 
"Utopia* (Stettin, 1892) and i-act 
opera "Die Rose von Thiessow* 



(Glogau, 1895). (9) Marie, Berlin, 
Nov. 2, 1865 Feb. 18, 1922; alto, 
studied Stern Cons, and with Jenny 
Meyer and Levysohn; sang Berlin 
opera, then at Hamburg City Th.; 
2 years in America; 1892 Berlin ct.- 

Goudimel (goo-dl-mel), Claude, Vai- 
son, near Avignon, ca. 1505 killed 
in St. Bartholomew massacre, Lyons, 
Aug. 24, 1572; pupil perhaps of Jos- 
quin Despres; est. a school and 
formed Palestrina and other pupils, 
winning name "Father of the Ro- 
man School"; a music printer for a 
time; his important comp. incl. "The 
Psalms of David," complete. 

Gould, Nathaniel Duren, Chelmsford, 
Mass., 1781 Boston, 1864; con- 
ductor and writer. 

Gounod (goo-nS), Charles Francois, 
Paris, June 17, 1818 Oct. 17, 1893; 
son of a _ talented painter and en- 
graver; his mother taught him the 
pf. and he entered the LycSe Saint- 
Louis; 1836 studied at the Paris 
Cons, with Reicha (harm.), Hal6vy 

Sept. and fugue), Lesueur and Paer 
comp.); took 2nd Prix de Rome 
with cantata "Marie Stuart et Rizzio"> 
in 1837; his cantata "Fernanda" won 
the Grand Prix de Rome in 1839, 
and he studied church music at 
Rome; 1841 his orch. mass was per- 
formed; in 1842 he cond. his Requiem 
at Vienna with great succ.; returned 
to Paris as precentor and organist of 
the Missions fitrang&res; studied 
theology 2 years, intended to take 
orders and was called 1'Abbe Gounod 
by a publisher in 1846; after 5 years 
of seclusion, parts of his Messe 
Solennelle were played with profound 
succ. in London; he prod, a sym- 
phony, but his opera *' Sappho" failed 
(Gr. Op&ra, 1851); revised 1884, it 
failed again; a gr. opera, "La Nonne 
Sanglante" (1854), and a comic 
opera, "Le M&decin MaLgre Lui" 
(played in London as "The Mock 
Doctor") (1858), both failed; 1852- 
5o cond. the "OrphSon," Paris, and 
c. choruses and 2 masses. The opera 
"Faust" (Tk. Lyrique, 1859) was and 
still is a great succ. "Philemon et 
Baucis" (1860); "La Reine de Sabtt" 
(in London as "Irene") (1862); 
"Mireille" (1864), "La Colombe"< 
(1866), were not great works, but 
"Romeo et Juliette" (1867) still holds 
the stage; 1866 member of the Insti- 

tut de France and commander of the 
Legion of Honour. In 1870, during 
the war he lived in London; founded 
Gounod's Choir. In 1871 he prod. 
"Gallia" a cantata based on "Lam- 
entations"; 1875 returned to Paris, 
prod. "Cinq Mars" (Op6ra Comique, 
1877), "Polyeucte" (Gr. Op6ra, 1878), 
and "Le Tribut de Zamora" (1881), 
none succ. The sacred trilogy "La 
Redemption* ' (Birmingham, 1 88 2) 
(music and French words), and 
"Mors et Vita" (Birmingham, 1885) 
(Latin text arranged by Gounod) are 
standard. He also c. "Messe Solen- 
nelle a Ste. Cecile"; masses; "Angeli 
custo des" (1882); "Jeanne d'Arc" 
(1887); a Stabat Mater with orch.; 
the oratorios "Tobie," "Les Sept 
Paroles de J&sus" "Jtsus sur le Lac 
de Tibtriade"; the cantatas "A la 
FrontUre" (1870, Gr. OpSra), "Le 
Vin des Gaulois" and "La Danse de 
VfLpee," the French and English 
songs, etc. He left 2 operas, "Maitre 
Pierre" (incomplete) and "Georges 
Dandin" (said to be the first comic 
opera set to prose text, cf . Bruneau). 
He wrote "M&thode de cor a pistons" 
essays, etc. Biog. by Jules Claretie 
(Paris, 1875); Mme. Weldon (Lon- 
don, 1875); Paul Voss (Leipzig, 
1895); "M&moires" (Paris, 1895). 

Gouvy (gpo-vS), Louis Theodore, 
Goffontaine, Rhenish Prussia, 1819 
Leipzig, 1898; pianist and composer. 

Gow, (i) Niel, Strathband, 1727 
Inver, Scotland, 1807; violinist and 
composer. (2) Nathaniel, 1763 
1831; son of above, also violinist and 
composer. (3) Donald, brother of 
(i), was a 'cellist. And (4) Niel, Jr., 
1795-1823, son of (2), was violinist 
and composer. (5) George Cole- 
man, b. Ayer Junction, Mass., 
Nov. 27, 1860 Jan. 12, 1938; pupil 
of Blodgett, Pittsfield and Story 
(Worcester); graduate Brown Univ., 
1884, and Newton Theol. Seminary, 
1889; then teacher of harm, and pf. 
Smith College; studied with Bussler 
in Berlin; 1895 prof, of music Vassar 
Coll.; composer and writer. 

Grab en-Hoffmann (grS'-bSn h6f '-mS,n), 
Gustav (rightly Gustav Hoffmann), 
Bnin, near Posen, March 7, 1820 
Potsdam, May 21, 1900; singing 
teacher, writer and composer. 

GrSdener (gra'-d-ner), (i) K. G. P., 
Rostock, 1812 Hamburg, 1883; dir., 
conductor, writer, and dram, com- 



poser, (2) Hermann (Th. Otto), 
Kiel, May 8, 1844 Vienna, Sept. 18, 
1929; son and pupil of above; later 
studied Vienna Cons.; 1873 teacher 
harmony Horak's Pf. Sen., later 
Vienna Cons.; from 1890 lecturer on 
harm, and cpt. Vienna Univ.; cond. 
Singakademie; c. Capriccietta and 
Sinfonietta for orch. (op. 14), etc. 
Graen'er, Paul, Berlin, Jan. 11, 1872^ 
Nov., 1944; studied Berlin Music. 
Acad,; mus. dir., Haymarket Theat. 
and teacher at Royal Acad., London, 
1896-1904; principal, Mozarteum, 
Salzburg, 1910-14; taught master 
class in comp., Leipzig Cons., 1920 
24; dir. of Stern Cons., Berlin, 
1930-33; until 1935 mem. of the 
presiding council of the German 
Music Chamber; associate of the 
Berlin Acad. of Arts; c. (operas) 
"Don Juans Letztes Abenteuer," 
"Schirin und Gertraude," "Friede- 
mann Bach," " Hanneles Himmel- 
fahrt" (after Hauptmann drama), 
"Der Print von Homburg"; also 
symphonic works, piano and 'cello 
concertos, chamber music, and many 

Graew (grv). Vide BACFAB.T. 
Graf (grSf), (i) Fr. Hartman, Rudolf- 
stadt, 1727 Augsburg, 1795; flutist 
and comp. (2) Max, b. Vienna, 
Oct. i, 1873; music critic; grad. 
Vienna Univ.; critic of Wiener 
Allgemeine ^eitung, and prof, of 
mus. hist, and aesthetics, State Acad. 
of Mus.; author of books on Wagner, 
etc. His son (3) Herbert, b. Vienna, 
April 10, 1903; noted stage director; 
studied at State Acad. of Mus. and 
Vienna Univ., Ph.D,; filled early 
posts as operatic rfgisseur at Miins- 
ter, Breslau and Frankfort-am-Main; 

> stage manager, Munic. Theat., 
Basel; then with German Theat., 
Prague; staged opera perfs. ot Phila. 
Orch., 1934-35; at Florentine Musi- 
cal May Fest., 1935; Salzburg Fest., 
1936; engaged for Met. Op., N. Y., 



^Bgna (graf-fen'-ya), Achilla, San 
Martino del? Argine, Italy, i8r6 
.Padua, 1896; conductor, teacher, and 
dram, composer. 

ra o^ am Geo * F *> Edinburgh, 1789 
1867; composer and writer. 
ahl (gral), Heinrich, Stralsund 
Nov. 30, 1860 Berlin, March 


Grainger (gran'-jer), Percy, b. Brigh- 
ton, Australia, July 8, 1882; com- 
poser and pianist; pupil of Leeds 
Pabst, Melbourne, and James Kw&st, 
Frankfort; after 1900, appeared in 
London and other centres withsucc.; 
1907, chosen by Grieg to play his 
pian concerto at Leeds Fest.; 1909, 
made tour of Scandinavia and other 
parts of Europe; after 1915 made his 
home for the most part in the U. S., 
becoming an Amer. citizen in 1917; 
he was for a time dir. of the mus. 
dept., N. Y. Univ., but resigned in 
1934 to engage in a world tour; his 
compositions include many arrange- 
ments of folk-song material; c, 
(orch.) "Molly on the Shore' 9 ; "Shep- 
herd's Hey"; "Colonial Song"; "Mock 
Morris"; "Irish Tune from County 
D&ry" for strings; "Handel t the 
Strand" for piano and orch.; (chorus) 
"The Bride's Tragedy," "Father and 
Daughter,"* "Sir Eglamore^- "Two 
Welsh War Songs"; "The Hunter in 
His Career"; "Marching Song of 
Democracy,"' "Brigg Fair, 9 * "The 
Warriors,"' "Hill-Songs" Nos. i and 
2; "To a Nordic Princess"; and 
many settings of British folk music: 
m. Ella Viola Strom, sculptress, 
1928, the marriage ceremony taking 
place after a concert at the Holly* 
wood Bowl in view of the audience. 
Gramxnann (gram'-man), Karl, Lu- 
beck, 1844 Dresden, 1897; dram, 
composer and writer, 
Granados y Campina (gra-nS/-dh5s 
kam-p'-na), Enrique, Lerida, July 
27, 1867 March 24, 1916, perisbed 
on torpedoed ship, Sussex, when re- 
turning from a visit to the U. S.* 
Spanish composer of strong nation- 
alistic leanings and marked individ- 
uality; son of a military officer, he 
had his first musical instruction from 
the army conductor Junceda; later 
studied piano with Jurnet and Pujol 
in Barcelona, also comp. with Felipe 
P ? r ^ and had further piano work 
witfi de Benot in Paris. He founded 
and dir. (after 1900) the Sociedad de 
Conciertos Clasicos; toured Spain 
aad France as an excellent pianist, 
llis opera, "Goyescas," was composed 
m his latter years, using material 
irom some of his pop. piano works, 
a^d was premiered at the Met. Op., 
JN. Y\, in the presence of the com- 
poser, 1915-16. His output included 
also the operas "Petrarc^"* "Foilet " 



** Maria, del Carmen" as well as 
numerous zarzuelas; (orcli.) "Dante"', 
"Elisenda" Suite; "La Nit del 
Mort"\ "Serenata"; Suites Gallega 
and Arabe; "Marcha de los Venci- 
dos"y "Tres Danzas Espagnoles" ; 
piano trio; works for 'cello and piano, 
piano and orch., songs with piano 
ace. ; but Ms princ. legacy remains his 
large collection of keyboard music, 
which has won a wide popularity 
with performers. 

Grand! (gran'-ds), Ales, de, Venice (?) 
Bergamo, 1630; singer and com- 

Grandval (gr&n-val), Mme. Marie 
Felicie Clemence de Reiset, Vi- 
comtesse de, Saint-R6my-des-Monts 
(Sarthe), France, Jan. 20, 1830 
Paris, Jan., 1907; pupil of Flo tow and 
Saint-Saens (comp.) ; prod, the operas 
"Piccolini" (Op.-Com., 1868), "Les 
Fiances des Rosa" (Th.-Lyr., 1863), 
"Atala" (Paris, 1888), "Mazeppa* 
(Bordeaux, 1892) and others; won the 
Prix Rossini with oratorio "La Fille 
de Jane? "drame sacre"," "Sainte- 
Agnis" in MS.; had prod, symph. 
works and songs; sometimes wrote 
under pen names "Tesier, Valgrand, 
Jasper, Banger," etc. 

Gras (dortt-gras), Mme. Julia Aimee 
Dorus, Valenciennes, 1807 retired, 
t&5o; operatic singer Paris and Lon- 

Grasse (gras), Edwin, b. New York 
City, Aug. 13, 1884; blind violinist, 
pianist and composer; pupil of Carl 
Hauser, N. Y.; at 13, of C6sar Thom- 
son, Brussels, then at the Cons., 
taking ist prize; 1901 took "Prix de 
Capacite*"; d6but Berlin, Feb. 22, 
1902, with succ. N. Y., 1903; has 
given many concerts in U. S., incl. 
his own works for piano, vln., org., 

Grasset (grits-sa), J. Jacques, Paris, 
ca. 1767 1839; violinist, conductor, 
professor, etc. 

Grassioi (gras-s5'-n5), Josephina, Va- 
rese, Lombardy, 1773 Milan, 1850; 
Italian soprano of remarkable talent 
and beauty. 

Gratiani. Vide GRAZIANI. 

Grau (grow), Maurice, Brttnn, Austria, 
1849 Paris, March 13, 1907; im- 
presario of Met. Op., 1883, 1891- 

Graumann (grow'-man), Mathilde. 

Graun (grown), (i) Aug. Fr., 1727-71* 

tenor, cantor. (2) Jn. GL, 1698 
Berlin, 1771; bro. of above; violinist; 
pupil of Pisendel and Tartini; in 
service of Fredk. the Great and cond. 
of Royal band; c. 40 symphonies, 
etc. (3) K. H., Wahrenbruck, Prus- 
sian Saxony, May 7, 1701 Berlin, 
Aug. 8, 1759; bro. of above; organist, 
singer, court-conductor, and com- 

Graupner (growp'-nSr), Chp., Kirch- 
berg, Saxony, 1687 Darmstadt, 
1760; dram, composer. 

Graveure (grav-SrO, Louis, American 
tenor; originally sang as barytone; 
N. Y. d6but, 1915; has appeared 
widely as Lieder singer; formerly fac- 
ulty member, Mich. State Inst. of 
Mus. and Allied Arts; held private 
classes in several Amer. cities; now 
res. in Europe; m. Eleanor Painter, 
soprano; divorced, 

Gray, Alan, York, Dec. 23, 1855 
Cambridge, England, Sept. 27, 1935; 
organist; studied law, then music 
under Dr. E. G. Monk; 1883-92, 
musical dir. Wellington College; then 
org. Trinity College, Cambridge, and 
cond. of the University Musical 
Society; c. cantatas "Arethusa" 
(Leeds Festival, 1892) and "A Song 
of Redemption" (do., 1898), 4 organ 
sonatas, string quartet, piano quur- 
tet, violin sonata, part-songs, etc , 

Graziani (grS-tse-a'-nS), (i) (Parlre) 
Tommaso, b. Bagnacavallo, Papal 
States; conductor and composer of 
i6th cent. (2) (or Gratiani) Boni- 
face, Marino, Papal States, ca. 1606 
Rome, 1664; cond. and composer. 
(3) Ludovico, Fermo, Italy, 1823 
1885; tenor. (4) Francesco, Fermo, 
April 16, 1829 Fermo, June 30, 
1901, bro. of above; barytone, sang 
in Italy, Paris, New York. 

Grazzini (grad-ze'-ng), Reginaldo, Flor- 
ence, Oct. 15, 1848 Oct. 6, 1006; 
studied R. Cons, with T. Mabellini; 
op .-cond. in Florence, later prof, of 
mus. theory and artistic dir. Liceo 
Benedetto Marcello, Venice; c. sym- 
phonies; a mass with orch., etc. 

Great'orex, Thos., North Wingfield, 
Derby, EngL, 1758 Hampton, near 
London, 1831; organist, teacher, and 
composer (1789-93); then conductor. 

Green, Samuel, London, 1740 Isle- 
worth, 1796; organ-builder. 

Greene, (i) Maurice, London, 1696 
(1695 ? ) I 7SS5 teacher and com- 
poser. (2) (Harry) Pltrnket, Old 



Connaught House, Co. Wicklow, 
Ireland, June 24, 1865 London, 
Aug. 19, 1936; basso; studied with 
Hromada and Goetschius, Stuttgart, 
1883-86, and 6 months with Van- 
nuccini of Florence; later with J. B. 
Welch and Alf. Blume, London; 
dbut, Jan. ai, 1688, in "Messiah"; 
dbut in opera at Covent Garden, 
1890; heard widely in recitals; sang 
frequently in America. 
Grefinger (or GrSfinger) (gra'-flng-er), 
Jn. w., Vienna, i6th cent, composer. 
Gregh (grg), Lotiis, Paris, 1843 
Dourdan, 1915; Paris music-pub- 
lisher; 1894 prod, pantomime; vaude- 
ville operettas, etc. 

Gregoir (grfcg-war), (i) Jacques Ma- 
thieu Joseph, Antwerp, 1817 
Brussels, 1876; teacher and dram, 
composer. (2) Ed., Turnhout, near 
Antwerp, Nov, 7, 1822 Wyneghem, 
June 28, 1890; bro. and pupil of 
above; pianist, drain, composer and 

Gregoro'vitch, Charles, St. Petersburg, 
Oct. 25, 1867 (suicide) 1926 (?); 
violinist; pupil of Wieniawski, Dont 
and Joachim; 1896-97 toured Europe 
and America. 

Gregory L ("The Great"), Rome, 
540604; Pope from 590; reformer 
and reviser of Roman Catholic ritual. 
Greith (grit), Karl, Aarau, Feb. 21, 
-828 Munich, Nov. 17, 1887; org. 
and comp. of church music. 
Grell, Ed. Aug., Berlin, 1800 Steglitz, 
near Berlin, 1886; organist, con- 
ductor, prof, and composer. 
Greni (grttn-yS) Gabriel Jos., Bor- 
deaux, 1756 Paris, 1837; inv. of 
the orgue expressij (v. HARMONIUM, 
D. D.), which Erard improved. 
Grea'vffie, Lillian, b. New York, 
Nov. 20, 1888; soprano; studied with 
Atgier, Aramis, Rossi and Sebastiani; 
dbut as"" Juliette," Nic.e, 1906; sang 
also in Milan, Brussels, Naples, 
Genoa and Lisbon; mem. Chicago 
Op., 191011; d. Paris, 1928. 
Sressieh (grSn-rsh), Ant. FrSdSric, 
LiSge, 1755 Paris, 1799; conductor 
: -and dram, composer. 

(gra-ch2'-ng-n6f), Alex. 
, b. Moscow, Oct. 26, 
; composer; pupil of Safonoff at 
; later at St. Petersburg 
er Rachmaninoff; prof, of 
Moscow Cons, until 1928; 

visited U. S. 1930, and now reside* 
in N. Y.; appeared in concerts of 
his works; c. succ. opera "Dobringa 
Nikitich" (Moscow, 1903); inciden- 
tal music to Tolstoi's "Fepdor" and 
"Ivan," and to Ostroski's "Snoiv- 
Maiden"', 2 symphonies; 3 string 
quartets; (opera) "Sceur Beatrice" 
after Maeterlinck play (prod. Mos- 
cow, 1912, but later withdrawn be- 
cause appearance of the Virgin on 
stage considered racrilegious) ; also 
sacred choruses and liturgies; "At the 
Cross-roads" for bass and orch.; vln. 
works, songs, chamber comps., etc. 
Grtry (gra-trw), (i) Andre* Ernest 
Modeste, Li6ge, Feb. 9, 1741 
Montmorency, near Paris, Sept. 24, 
1813; dram, composer; son of a vio- 
linist. Chorister at 6, but dismissed 
for incapacity at 11, then pupil of 
Leclerc and Renekin. R- failing to 
keep him to the strict course of cpt. 
Moreau later tried with equal failure; 

1758 he prod. 6 symphonies at Li6ge; 

1759 a mass for which the Canon du 
Harlez sent him to study in Rome, 
to which he walked; he studied cpt. 
and comp. with Casali and Martini 
for 5 years, but was again dismissed 
as impossible; a dramatic intermezzo, 
"Le Vendemmiatrice" was succ. 
1765, but reading Monsigny's "Rose 
et Colas" he decided that his restless 
dramatic longings were best adapted 
for French op&ra comique. He was a 
long time finding a fit librettist (Vol- 
taire declining his invitation). He 
reached Paris slowly via Geneva, 
where he taught singing a year and 
prod, the succ, i-act "Isabella et 
Gertrude." In Paris after 2 years' 
hardships his "Les Mariages Sam- 
nites" was rehearsed, and though not 
prod., won him a patron in Count 
Creutz, the Swedish Minister, who 
secured him as libretto MarmontePs 
comedy "Le Huron." This was 
prod. (Op.-com., 1768) with a great 
succ., enjoyed also in extraordinary 
degree by an astounding series of 
works, mostly comic and mostly suc- 
cessful, the best of which are "Lu- 
cile," "Le Tableau Parian?* (1760), 
"Les Deux Avares," "Zemire et 
Ator" (i77i)>_ "Le Magnifique* 

** T n 

he satirised the old French music 
and its rendition at the Acadmis), 



and "UAmant Jaloux" (1778); 
the grand opera "Andromaque" 
(1780) (in which the chief r61e is ac- 
companied by^ 3 flutes throughout) ; 
"La Double Epreuve" (or "Colinette 
d la cour") (1782); "Theodore et 
Pauline"- (or "L'Epreuve villa- 
geoise"'); and "Richard C&ur dz 
Lion" (his best work, still played in 
Paris); the gr. opera "La Caravane 
du Ca$re" (1785) performed 506 times; 
(libretto by the Comte de Provence, 
later Louis XVIII.); "La Rosiere 
Republicaine" (1793); "La F&e de 
la Raison" (prod. 1794 during the 
Revolution) ; t ' Lisbeth" ; "Anacreon 
ckez Polycrate" (1797); c. 50 operas 
in all, remarkable for spontaneity, 
grace and fervour of melody, dra- 
matic effect and general charm, but 
open to serious criticism as works 
of formal art. He was called "the 
Moliere of music." Mozart and 
B eetho ven wrote Variations on themes 
of his. Once launched, his progress 
was a triumph of honour of all kinds; 
in 1802 Napoleon made him Chev- 
alier of the Legion of Honour with 
a pension of 4,000 francs. He bought 
Rousseau's former residence at 
Montmorency and retired there; 
wrote Memoirs, etc. He had several 
children, including the gifted Lucille 

&: infra), all of whom he outlived, 
e left 6 unprod. operas and c. also 
6 symphonies; 6 pf. -sonatas, 6 string- 
quartets, church-mus.. etc. Biog. by 
his nephew, A. J. G. (1815); Gr^goir 
(1883); Brunet (1884), etc. (2) Lu- 
cille, Paris, 1773-93; daughter of 
above, who instrumented her opera 
"Le Mariage d' Antonio," written 
and prod, at the Op.-Com., with 
succ. when she was only 13; the next 
year her opera "Toinette et Louis"' 
was not a success; she married un- 
happily and died at 20. 

Greulfch (groi'-ttkh), (i) K. W., 
Kunzendorf, Silesia, 1796 1837; 
teacher and composer. (2) Ad., 
Posen, 1819 Moscow, 1868; teacher 
and composer. (3) Ad., Schmiede- 
berg, Silesia, 1836 Breslau, 1890; 
conductor, bass., organist and com- 

Grey, Madeleine, b. Villaines, France, 
June n, 1897; soprano; studied 
piano with Cortot, voice with 
Hettlich; d6but, Paris, ip2i; appear- 
ances in recital and with orch.^ in 
many Eur. countries, South America, 

Egypt, U. S.; specialist in modern 
French and Spanish music and folk- 

Grieg (greg), Edvard Hagerup, 
Bergen, June 15, 1843 Sept, 4, 
1907; pupil of his mother, a pianist; 
at 15 entered Leipzig Cons.; pupil 
of Hauptmann and Richter (harm, 
and cpt.); Rietz and Reinecke 
(comp.); Wenzel and Moscheles 
(pf.); then with Gade, Copenhagen. 
With the young Norwegian composer 
Rikard Nordraak, he conspired, as 
he said, "Against the effeminate 
Mendelssohnian-Gade Scandinavian- 
ism, turning with enthusiasm into 
the new, well-defined path along 
which the Northern School is now 
travelling." 1867 Grieg founded 
a Musical Union in Christiania and 
wa^ cond. till 1880; 1865 visited 
Ita y, again in 1870, meeting Liszt in 
Rome. 1879 he performed his j>f.- 
cpncerto at the Gewandhaus, Leip- 
zig. After 1880 lived chiefly 141 
Bergen; cond. the Christiania Phil.; 
1888 played his concerto and cond. 
his 2 melodies for string-orch. at Lon- 
don Phil. 1894 Mus. Doc. Cantab. 
C. concert-overture "In Autumn"^ 
op. 20, "Vor der Klosterpforte" for 
solo, female voices and orch.; 
" Lander kennung" for male chorus 
with orch.; "Der Einsame" for bary- 
tone, string orch. and 2 horns; op. 
35, "Norivegische T&nze" for orch.; 
op. 40, "Aus Holzberg's Zeit" suite 
for string orch.; "Bergliot" melo- 
drama with orch.; "Peer Gynt,"> 
suites i and 2 for orch.; op. 50, 
"Olav Trygvason," for solo, chorus, 
and orch.; "Sigurd Jorsalfar" for 
orch., etc.; op. 22, 2 songs for male 
voices and orch.; various pcs. for 
string orch., string-quartet in G min.; 
pf. -concerto; pf. -sonatas, 3 vln.- 
sonatas, a 'cello-sonata, also for pf.- 
"Poetiscke Tonbilder," Romanzent 
and Balladen; several sets of "Ly^ 
rische Stucke" "Symphonische 
Stucke" (4 hands), " Norwegische 
VolksUeder und Tttnze," "Bilder 
oxis dem Volksleben,"- Peer Gynt suite 
No. i (4 hands), and many songs, 
incl. song-cycle to Garborg's "Haug- 
Pussa." Biog. by Ernest Closson, 
Mason, Schelderup, Finck, Lee, La 

Griepenkerl (gre'-pSnk-Srl), (i) F. 
K., Peine, Brunswick, 1782 Bruns- 
wick, 1849; Prof. (2) W. Rob., 



Holwyl, 1810 Brunswick, 1868; son 
of above; teacher and writer. 
Griesbach (gres'-bakh), (i) John Hy., 
Windsor, 1798 London, 1875; son 
of the 'cellist. (2) J. C. G., pianist, 
'cellist, dir. and writer. 
Griesbacher (grs'-bakh-er) Peter, 
Bgglham, March 25, 1864 Regens- 
burg, Jan. 29, 1933; priest and 
teacher at Regensburg; c. 40 masses, 
and other church music, also can- 
tatas, etc. 
Griesinger (grS'-zfog-er), G. Aug., d. 

Leipzig, 1828; writer. 
Giiffes (grff'-es), Charles Tomlinson, 
Elmira, N. Y., Sept. 7, 1884 New 
York, April 8, 1920; composer; one 
of the most gifted and individual 
creators of Amer. impressionistic 
music, particularly for orch. and 
piano; studied with Jedliczka, Gal- 
ston, Klatte, Loewengard and Hum- 
perdinck; taught in Berlin, later at 
Tarrytown, N. Y., and N. Y.; c. 
"The Pleasure Dome of KuUa 
Kkan"> for orch.; Poem for flute 
and orch.; (dance-drama) "The 
Ra&rn of Koridwen" for wind, harp, 
celesta and piano; Japanese mime- 
play, "Sckojo"\ 2 pieces for string 
quartet; piano sonata, and many 
shorter works for this instrument, 
incl. "Four Roman Sketches" {among 
which "The White Peacock" is 
particularly pop. in its orchestrated 
version); and a quantity of original 
songs, incl. Japanese poems set in 
pentatonic scale; his early death 
was a deep loss to Amer, music. 
Gxif'fin, (i) Thos., English organ 
builder i8th cent. (2) George Eu- 
gene, 1781 London, 1863; Engl. 
pianist and composer. 
G&fft&t Frederick, Swansea, Nov. 12, 
1867 London, May, 1917; at 14 
won prize at a Welsh national 
Eisteddfod; pupil at R. A. M.; 
1889-91 with Svendsen, later with 
Jaffanel, Paris; toured widely; flutist 
at Covent Garden, and prof, at 
R. A. M. 
felgny (grSn'-ye), Nicolas de, Reims, 

16711703; organist and comp. 
Griaet (gr&-ya), Laurent, Sancoins, 
Cher, France, May 22, 1851 Paris, 
Kov. - *' * - -- - 

theatres; 1886 Nbuveau-Cirque, 
writer; c. comic opera "Graci- 
(Paris, 1892), ballets, etc. 

GrilTparzer, Fz., Vienna, Jan. 15: 
1791 Jan. 21, 1871; friend of 
Beethoven and Schubert. Comp. 
Grimm, (i) FT. Melchior, Baron von, 
Ratisbon, 1723 Gotha, 1807; one 
of the advocates and controversial- 
ists for the ItaL opera buff a. (2) 
Karl, Hildburghausen, 1819 Frei- 
burg, Silesia, 1888; 'cellist and com- 
poser. (3) K. Konst., lived in Ber- 
lin, 1820 1882; harpist. (4) Ju- 
lius Otto, Pernau, Livonia, March 
6-j 1827 Munster, Dec. 7, 1903; 
pianist; pupil of Leipzig Cons.; 
founded vocal society at Gottingen, 
then R. Mus. Dir. Miinster Acad- 
emy and cond.; c. a symphony, 2 
suites in canon-form, etc. 
Grixn'mer, Chr. Fr., Mulda, Saxony, 

1798 1850; composer. 
Grisar (gre-zar), Albert, Antwerp, 
Dec. 26, 1808 Asni&res, near Paris, 
June 15, 1869; prolific dram, com- 
poser; biog. by Pougin, Paris. 
Grisart (gre-zar), Chas. J. Bapt., 
prod, light operas in minor theatres, 
the last "Le Petit Bois"> (1893) and 
"Voilale Roi" (1894). 
Grisi (gre'-z5), (i) Giuditta, Milan, 
July 28, 1805 near Cremona, May 
i, 1840; famous mezzo-soprano; 
pupil of Milan Cons.; mu Count 
Barni, 1834. (2) Giulia, Milan, 
July 28, 1811 Berlin, Nov. 29, 1869; 
sister and pupil of above; famous 
dramatic soprano; pupil of Giaco- 
melli, Pasta and Marliani; m. Count 
Melcy. later m. Mario. 
Griswold, Putnam, Minneapolis, Dec. 
23* 1875 New York, Feb. 20, 1914; 
bass; pupil of Randegger, Bouhy, 
Stockhausen and Emerich; d^but, 
Covent Garden, 1901; sang in Ber- 
lin and with Savage Op. Co. in 
"Parsifal"; Berlin R. Op., 1906-11; 
Met. Op. Co., after latter year, 
winning succ. in Wagnerian r61es. 
GrofS (gr5'-fa), Ferde (rightly Ferdi- 
nand Rudolph von Grofe), b. New 
York, 1892; conductor and composer; 
studied harmony and theory with 
his mother, Elsa von Grofe, a grad. 
of Leipzig Cons.; at 16 pub. first 
composition; following year mem. 
of Los Angeles Symph.; won in- 
creasing reputation as cond. of 
modern syncopated music; known 
as comp. particularly of picturesque 
descriptive suites, in which he has 
employed novel jazz scoring devices. 
Gronmgen (grs'-nlng-gn), Stefan van, 



Deventer, Holland, June 23, 1851 
Laren, March 25, 1926; pupil of 
Raif and Kiel, Berlin; pianist; 
teacher in Zwolle, The Hague, 
Leyden; composer. 
Qrosheim (gros'-hlm), G. Chr., Cassel, 

1764 1847; dram, composer. 
Grosjean (gro-^Mn), J. Romary, 
Rochesson, Vosges, France, 1815 
St. Die", 1888; org. composer and 

Gross (grds), Jh. Benj., Elbing, West 
Prussia, 1809 St. Petersburg, 1848; 
'cellist and composer. 
Grosz, Wilhelm, b. Vienna, Aug. n, 
1894 N. Y., 1939; pupil of Schreker 
and Guido Adler; Ph. D.; c. (opera) 
"Sganarell"-, chamber and vocal 
music in modern, satiric style. 
Gross 'man, Ludwig, Kalisz, Poland, 
1835 Warsaw, July 15, 1915; c- 
overtures "Lear" and "Marie," and 
succ. operas * 'Fisherman of Palermo^ 
{Warsaw, 1866) and "Woyewoda's 
Ghost" (1872). 

Grove, Sir George, Clapham, Surrey, 
Aug. 13, 1820 London, May 28, 
1900; civil engineer; Sec. to the So- 
ciety of Arts; 1852, Sec., and 1873 a 
member of the Board of Directors, 
Crystal Palace; edited Macmillan's 
Magazine; later dir. of the Royal 
Coll. of Mus.; 1883, knighted; 1875 
D.C.L. Univ. of Durham; 1885 
LL.D., Glasgow; wrote important 
book "Beethoven and His Nine 
Symphonies" (1896), etc., and was 
the editor-in-chief 1879-89 of the mu- 
sical dictionary known by his name. 
Groviez ^grd v'-laz) , Gabriel, Lille, 
April 4, 1879 Paris, Oct. 24, 1944; 
pianist; educated ^Paris Cons., ist 
prize in piano; studied with Diemer, 
Lavignac, Faur6; cond. at Paris 
Op.-Comique, Chicago Op.; c. inci- 
dental music for plays, orchestral 
and piano works, songs, also a ballet, 
"La Fete a Robinson," given by 
Chicago Op., 1921. 

Grua (groo'-a), (i) C. L. P., court- 
conductor at Mannheim and com- 
poser, 1700 1755. ( 2 ) Paul, Mann- 
heim, 1754 Munich, 1833; son of 
above; conductor and dram, com- 

Gruber (groo'-b&r), Jn. Sigismund, 
Nurnberg, 1759 1805; lawyer and 

Gruen'berg, Louis, b. Russia, Aug. 3, 
1883; composer, pianist; taken to 
America, at age of 2; studied Vienna 

Cons, and with Busoni and Friedrich 
Koch; c. (orch.) "The Hill cf 
Dreams" (N. Y. Symph. Orch. prize, 
1919); "The Enchanted Isle 
(Worcester Fest.); "The Valley cf 
Voices,"' "The Blue Castle , "Vaga- 
bondia"' (Prague Philh., under 
comp.); "Jazz Suite"- (Boston 
Symph.); symph. "Music to an 
Imaginary Ballet"; "Daniel Jazz"< 
for tenor and 8 instruments 
(Internat'l. Soc. for Contemporary 
Music Fest.); "The Creation" lor 
barytone and 8 instruments (N. Y. 
League of Comp.); 2 suites for vku 
and piano, 2 vm. sonatas; "Indis- 
cretions" and "Diversions" for 
string quartet; (operas) "Jack and 
the Beanstalk" (Juilliard Op. School, 
N. Y., and Chicago Op., 1936-37); 
"Emperor Jones" (after O'Neill 
drama), Met. Op. Co., 1932, one 
of the most graphic and stageworthy 
of Amer. operas, in impressionistic 
modern idiom; his music in general 
has many colourful elements, strik- 
ingly orchestrated and dissonantal 
in harmony; mem., board of direc- 
tors, N. Y. League of Comp.; has 
taught at Chicago Musical College. 

Griin (griin), Friederike, Mannheim, 
June 14, 1836 Jan., 1917; soprano, 
at first in the opera-chorus, then 
sang solo parts at Frankfort, later 
(1863) at Cassel and 1866-69 Berlin; 
1869 m. Russian Baron von Sadder; 
studied with Lamperti at Milan 
and continued to sing with success. 

Grunberger (griin '-bSrkh-Sr), Ludwig, 
Prague, 1839 1896; pianist and 

Grund (groont), Fr. Wm,, Hamburg, 
1791 1874; conductor and dram. 

Grunfeld (griin '-f git), (i) Alfred, 
Prague, July 4, 1852 Vienna, Jan. 
5, 1924; pianist and composer; pupil 
of Hoger and Krejci, later at Kullak's 
Academy, Berlin; 1873, chamber- 
virtuoso, Vienna; toured Europe 
and the U. S. (2) Heinrich, Prague, 
April 21, 1855 Berlin, Aug. 26, 
I93 1 ; bro. of above; 'cellist; pupil 
of Prague Cons.; 1876, teacher in 
Kullak's Academy; 1886 ^cellist to 
the Emperor; wrote memoirs, "Zn 
DurundMott" (1924). 

Grtttzmacher (griits'-makh-e'r), (i) 
Fr. Wm. L., Dessau, March i, 1832 
Dresden, Feb. 23, 1903; eminent 
'cellist; son and pupil of a chamber-* 



musician at Dessau: later studied 
with Drechsler ('cello) and Schneider 
(theory) ; at ,16 joined a small Leipzig 
orch.; was "discovered"- by David, 
and at 17 made ist 'cello, Gewand- 
haus orch. and teacher at the Cons.; 
1869 Dresden, later Cologne; 1902 
Philadelphia; c. concerto for 'cello, 
orch.-and chamber-music, pf.-pcs. 3 

- - - ' . O___A 

Drechsler *('cello) and Schneider 
(theory); played in the Gewandhaus 
orch., Leipzig; then ist 'cello Schwerin 
court-orch.; 1876 chamber virtu- 
oso at Weimar. (3) Friedricli, 
Meiningen, July 20, 1866 Cologne, 
July 25, 1919; son and pupil of (2); 
ist 'cello Sondershausen court-orch., 
then Pesth (1890); 1892-94 prof, at 
the Cons., Pesth; 1894 in the Giirze- 
nich Orch. and teacher at the Cons., 
Gaadagni (goo-a-dSn'-yg). Gaetano, 

Lodi, 17^5 (?)i785 (97?); ^e 
contralto (later a soprano) of i8th 
cent.; Gluck wrote "Telemaco"> for 

Guadagnini (goo-a-dan-yg'-ne), family 
of vln.-makers of the Cremona 
school, (i) Lorenzo and (2) John 
Baptiste, worked 1690-1740. (3) 
J, B,, the younger (son of Lorenzo), 
also made excellent violins. 

Guarducci (goo-ar-doot'-chg), Monte- 
fiascone, ca. 1720 (?); Italian singer 
in London, 176671. 

Guarneri (goo-Sr-na'-rg) (Latinized 
Guarne'rius), family of famous vln.- 
makers at Cremona, (i) Pietro An- 
drea, b. ca. 1626; worked 1650-95; 
pupil of N. Amati; his label Andreas 
Guarnerius Cremona sub titolo San- 
ta Theresia 16 . (2) Giuseppe, 
b. 1666; son of above; worked 1690- 
1730; his label Joseph Guarnerius 
ff&is Andreas fecit Cremona sub 
titolo St. Theresia 16 . (3) P., b. 
ca. 1670; son of (i); worked 1690- 
1700. (4) P., son of (2); worked 
1725-40. (5) Giuseppe Antonio 
(known as Guarneri del Gesu, i.e.. 
<*the Jesus,* from the "I H S'^ on 
Ills labels), Oct. 16, 1687 ca. 1745; 
the best of the family, nephew of 
(i); his label, Joseph Guarnerius 
Andrea Nepos Cremona 17 , I H S. 
(goo'-dfc-hoos), iL, Alten- 
Hanover, March 30, 1845 
sn, Oct. 9, 1909; tenor, son 

of a village schoolmaster, pupil of 
Frau Schnorr von Karolsfeld at 
Brunswick; 1870-73 engaged for the 
court opera, Berlin; 1872, studied 
with Louise Ress, Dresden; re- 
appeared 1875; 1880-90 at Dresden 
ct.-opera, creating l *Pamfal" at 
Bayreuth, 1882; in New York 
1890-91, later at Berlin c --opera. 

Gtt^nin (ga-n2.n), Marie Alex., Mau- 
beuge (Nord), France, 1744 Paris, 
1819; violinist and composer. 

Guercia (goo-ar-chS'-a), Alphonso, b. 
Naples, Nov. 13, 1831 June, 1890; 
pupil of Mercadante; dram, barytone 
for a time; after 1859 vocal teacher, 
Naples; c. succ. opera "Rita 9 * 

(Naples, 1875), etc. 
Guirin (ga-r&n), Emmanuel, 

T/r>r/-k *r* 

rf b. Ver- 
sailles/ 1 779; 'cellist. 

Guerrero (gSr-ra'-ro), Francisco, Se- 
^dlla, Spain, 1528 1599; conductor, 
singer and composer. 

Gueymard (g^'-mar), Louis, Chap- 
ponay (Is&re), France, 1822 Cor- 
beil, near Paris, 1880; tenor, 1848- 
68 at the Gr. OpSra. 

GugHelmi (gool-ySl'-mS), (i) Pietro 
cond. to Duke of Modena. His son 
(2) P., Massa di Carrara, Italy, Dec. 
9, 1728 Rome, Nov. 19, 1804; 
conductor, teacher and composer of 
over 200 operas. (Perhaps the (3) 
Signora G. who sang in London 
177072 was the wife he treated so 
shamefully.) Rival of Paisiello and 
Cimarosa; 1793 cond. at the Vatican, 
composed only church-music. (4) 
Pietro Carlo (called Guglielmini), 
Naples, ca. 1763 Massa di Carrara, 
1827; son of above; dram, compose^' 
teacher and conductor. 

Gtd (goo-5')j Vittorio, b. Rome, Sept, 
14, 1885; conductor, composer; pupil 
of Santa Cecilia Liceo, Rome, with 
Setaccioli and Falchi; d6but at 
Teatro Adriano in that city, 1907; 
later cond. in Parma, Turin, at 
Naples San Carlo Op., Bergamo, 
La Scala, at Augusteo (Rome), and 
at Lisbon; c. (lyric fable) "Fata 
Malerba,"' also orch. music, can- 
tatas, song cycles. 

Guicciardi (goo-et-cMr'-dg), Giulietta 
(or Julie), Countess (or GrSfin), 
Nov. 24, 1784 March 22, 1855? 
pianist; pupil of Beethoven and his 
enamoured inamorata; a Viennese 
woman, m. Count Gallenberg, 1803, 

GUI de Chalis (g dtt shal-es) (Guido), 
end of the i2th cent.* writer; 



Guidetti (goo-e-dSt'-te), Giov., Bo- 
logna, 1530 Rome, 1592; pupil and 
assistant of Pales trina; conductor 
and composer. 

eminent revolutionist in music; a 
Benedictine monk at Pomposo, near 
Ferrara, later perhaps at Arezzo; 
some investigators identify him with 
a Benedictine monk in tie Monas- 
tery of St. Maur des Fosses, a 
Frenchman who went to Italy, not 
an Italian; his abilities as a singing- 
teacher and musician led Pope John 
XIX. to summon him to Rome; he 
was later probably a Prior at Avel- 
lano; though he is being stripped of 
many of his early honours, it seems 
true that he introd. the 4-line staff, 
and ledger-lines and Solmisation 
XION, D. D.). 

Guido de Chilis. Vide GUI DE cnAus. 

Guignon (gSn-y6n), J. P., Turin, 1702 
Versailles, 1774; violinist and 

Guilbert, Yvette (gel-bar, g-vt'), 
Paris, 1867 Aix-la-Provence, Feb. 
2, 1944; d6but as actress, 1885, as 
singer, 1890; especially noted for her 
dram, gifts and as singer of chansons; 
appeared in leading Eur. capitals, 
also in America at various times 
after 1906; estab. school for dram. 
artists with branch in N. Y. 

Guillemain (gg'-yu-man), Gabriel, 
Paris, Nov. 15, 1705 (suicide) Oct. 
i, 1770; c. violin pieces. 

Guilmant (gel-man), (i) Felix Alex., 
Boulogne, March 12, 1837 Meudon 
near Paris, March 29, 1911; son 
and pupil of the org. (2) Jean Bap- 
tiste G. (Boulogne, 1793 1800); 

later pupil of Lemmens and 
Carulli (harm.); at 12 substitute for 
his father at the church of St. Nico- 
las; at 1 6 organist at St. Joseph; at 
1 8 prod, a solemn mass; at 20 choirm. 
at St. Nicholas, teacher in Boulogne 
Cons, and cond. of a mus. soc.; 1871 
organist of Ste. Trinit6; 1893 chev. 
of Legion of Honour; 1896 org.- 
prof., Paris Cons.; 1893, 1897-98, 
toured Europe and U. S. with much 
succ.; 1901 resigned from Ste. Tri- 
nite"; made concert tours of England, 
Italy, Russia; one of the founders 
of the Schola Cantorum; after 1906 
prof, of org., Paris Cons.; c. "lyric 

scene" "Belsazar" for soli, chorus 
and orch.; "Christus Vincit," hymn 
for chorus, orch., harps and org.; 
org. sonatas, symphonies for organ 
and orch., etc., wrote treatise on 
instrumentation; ed. collection of 
Gregorian music. 

Guiraud (gS-ro), (i) Ernest, New 
Orleans, June 23, 1837 Paris, May 
6, 1892; son of (2) Jean Baptiste 
G. (Prix de Rome, Paris Cons., 1827), 
at 12 in Paris; at 15 prod, opera 
"Le roi David" at New Orleans; 
studied Paris Cons., and took Grand 
Prix de Rome; later prof, of Paris 
Cons, and dram, composer. 

Gulbranson (goor-brS,n-z6n), Ellen, 
b. Stockholm, March 3, 1863; notable 
soprano; studied with Marchesi, sang 
in concert; 1889 entered opera, sing- 
ing "Briinnhilde," 1899 "Kundry" at 
Bayreuth and other rdles in other 
cities; lived on her estate near 
Chris tiania; d. Nov., 1948. 

Gumbert (goom'-b&rt), Fd., Berlin, 
1818 1896; tenor and barytone; 
also critic and dram, composer. 

Gumpeltzhaimer (goom'-pSlts-hl-me'r), 
Adam, Trostberg, Bavaria, 1559 
Augsburg, 1625; composer and theo- 

Gumpert (goom'-pSrt), Fr. Ad., 
Lichtenau, Thuringia, April 27, 
1841 Leipzig, Dec. 31, 1906; pupil 
of Hammann; from 1864 ist horn 
Gewandhaus Orch., Leipzig; writer 
and composer. 

Gumprecht (goom'-prSkht), Otto, b. 
Erfurt, April 4, 1823 Merano, 1900; 
Dr. jur.; 1849 critic and writer. 

Gungl (or Giing'l) (goong'-l), (i) Jo- 
seph, Zsmb6k, Hungary, Dec. i, 
1810 Weimar, Jan. 31, 1889; oboist, 
bandmaster and composer of pop. 
dance-music. (2) Virginia, daughter 
of above; opera-singer; d6but ct.- 
opera, Berlin, 1871; later at Frank- 
fort. (3) Jn., Zsmbk, 1828 Pecs, 
Hungary, 1883; nephew of (i); com- 

Gttnn, (i) Barnaby, 1730-53, organist* 
(2) John, Edinburgh (?), 1765 (?) 
ca. 1824; Chelsea Hospital, 1730-53; 
? cello-teacher and writer. (3) Glenn. 
Dillard, b. Topeka, Kans., Oct. 2, 
1874; pianist, educator; studied in 
Leipzig with Reinecke, Teichmilller, 
Schreck; d6but as pianist, 1896; 
toured Germany; taught Amer. 
Cons., Chicago, 1900-01; Chicago 
Mus. Coll. from latter year to 1906; 



founded his own school of music, 
1906; mus. ed,, Chicago Herald 
Examiner; has appeared as soloist 
with leading orchs. 

Gunther (giin'-ter), (i) Hermann, 
Leipzig, 1834-71; a physician; c. 
opera under name "F. Hesther." 
(2) Otto, Leipzig* 1822 1897; bro. 
of above; dir. (3) Giinther-Bach- 
mflifm, Karoline, fifasseldorf, 1816 
Leipzig, 18*4; singer. 

Gtmz (goonts), G. s Gaunersdorf, Lower 
Austria, 1831 Frankfort, 1894; 

Gura (goo'-ra), (i) Eugen, Pressern, 
n. Saatz, Bohemia, Nov. 8, 1842 
Aufkirchen, Aug. 26, 1906; barytone; 
pupil of Polytechnic and the Akade- 
mie, Vienna; then Munich Cons., 
dbut 1865, Munich; 1867-70 Bres- 
lau; 1870-76 Leipzig with great 
succ.; 1876-83 Hamburg, Munich, 
1883-95. His son (2) Hermann 
(b. Breslau, April 5, 1870) barytone, 
operatic stage director and after 
1927 a singing teacher in Berlin. 

Gurlitf (goor'-Ht), Cornelius, Altona, 
near Hamburg, Feb. 10, 1820 
Berlin, 1901; pupil of the elder Rei- 
necke and Weyse; army mus. dir. in 
the Schleswig-Holstein campaign; 
prof. Hamburg Cons.; 1874 Royal 
Mus. Dir.; c. 3 operas, incl. "Die 
romische Mauer" (Altona, 1860), etc. 

Gtelich (gur'-Hkh), Jos. Augustin, 
Munsterberg, Silesia, 1761 Berlin, 
1817; organist, bass, court-conductor 
and dram, composer. 

GosOtow (goo'-zl-kdf), Michael Jos., 
Sklow, in Poland, Sept. 1806 Aix-la- 
Chapelle, Oct., 1837; remarkable 
virtuoso on the xylophone. 

Gutheil-Schoder (goot / -hll-sh5'-de*r) , 
Marie, Weimar, Feb. 10, 1874 
Ilmenau, Oct. 4, 1935; mezzo- 
soprano; pupil of Virginia Gungl, 
and Weimar Music School; 1891-' 
1900 at Weimar court opera; later 
at Vienna opera; m. Gustav Gutheil, 
conductor at Vienna Volksoper. 

Syrowetz (g6'-r5-v6ts), Adalbert, Bud- 
weis, Bohemia, Feb. 19, 1763 
Vienna, March 19, 1850; son and 
pupil of a choirm.; c. symphonies, 
operettas, etc.; court-conductor. 

(hak), Karl, Potsdam, Feb. 
1751 Sept. 28, 1819; violinist 
aa<f teacher; court cond. to Fr* 

Wilhelm II. at Potsdam; c. violin 

Haas (Mz), Jos., b. Maihingen, 
Bavaria, Mar. 19, 1879; composer; 
pupil of Reger; 1911, taught Stutt- 
gart Cons.; 1921, Manich Akad.; 
c. oratorios, orch. and chamber 
works, songs, based on German folk- 

HalL^Ca'-ba), (i) Alois, b. Wisowitz, 
Moravia, June 21, 1893; comp. esp. 
known for his researches and works in 
style of quarter- tone music; pupil of 
Vienna and Prague Cons., won 
Mendelssohn Prize, 1921; taught at 
Berlin Hochsch., 1921-23; c. of much 
chamber music in which he has 
used a quarter-tone scale, and in 
later works a sixth-tone system; has 
given concerts on specially con- 
structed quarter-tone piano; author 
of "The Theory of Quarter-tones,'* 
"Treatise on the Foundations of Tonal 
Differentiation"* (2) Karel, his bro., 
has also c. music in the same style, 

Habeneck (ab'-S-nSk). Francois Ant, 
M6zi&res (Ardennes), France, June 
i (Jan. 25 ?), 1781 Paris, Feb. 
8, 1849; son and pupil of a German 
musician; studied Paris Cons.; later 
cond. of its concerts and vln.-prof.; 
introd. Beethoven's symphonies to 
the French public; composer. 

Haberbier (ha'-bSr-ber), Ernst, K6- 
nigsberg, Oct. 5, 1813 Bergen, 
Norway, March 12, 1869; son and 
pupil of an organist; court-pianist 
at St. Petersburg; later toured with 
great success; composer. 

Haberl (ha/-bSrl), Fz. X., Oberel- 
lenbach, Lower Bavaria, April 12, 
1840 Ratisbon, Sept. 7, 1910; took 
orders 1862; 1862-67 cath. cond. and 
mus. dir. Passau Seminary; 186770 
organist, Rome; 1871-82 cath.-cond. 
at Ratisbon; 1875 founded famous 
sch. for church-music; edited Pales- 
trina's works, etc.; 1889, Dr. TheoL 
h. <?., Univ. of Wurzburg. 

Habermann (ha'-bSr-mSn), Fz. Jn., 
KSnigswarth, Bohemia, 1706 Eger, 
1783; conductor, teacher and com- 

Habert (ha'-bSrt), Jns. Evangelista, 
Oberplan, Bohemia, 1833 Gmun- 
den, 1896; editor and collector. 

Hack'ett, (i) Chas., Worcester, Mass., 
1889 Jan. i, 1942; tenor; pupil 
Arthur Hubbard and Lombardi; 
opera d6but in Mignon, Genoa, 1916; 
sang at Milan, Rome, London, Paris, 


Madrid, and in South America; 
d6but Met. Op. as "Alma viva," 1919, 
sang with co. for 3 years, and again 
after 1935; was regular mem. of 
Chicago Op. from 1923 lor more 
than a decade; also heard with 
Ravinia and Los Angeles Op. and 
in concert. (2) Arthur, b. Portland. 
Me., tenor; bro. of Charles EL; 
studied vln. in youth, also voice 
with Hubbard; appeared at Paris 
Op., recital tours in U. S. and Great 
Britain, well known as oratorio 
soloist; prof, of voice. Univ. of 
Mich. (3) Karleton, Brook.Hne, 
Mass., Oct. 8, 1867 Chicago, pet. 
7> 1935; nms. critic, teacher of sing- 
ing; grad. Harvard Univ., 1891; 
vice-pres. and head of vocal dept., 
Amer. Cons., Chicago; was cntic 
of the Chicago Evening Post for 
a number of years; for a brief time 
before his death he had been pres. 
of the Chicago City Op. Co. 

Hackh (hak), Otto (Chp.), Stuttgart, 
Sept. 30, 1852 Brooklyn, N. Y.. 
1917; pupil of Stuttgart Cons, and 
of A. de Kontski (pf.), at New York; 
1873-75 teacher at the Cons.; 1877- 
78 toured; 1878 teacher in London; 
in 1880^-89 Ger. Cons., New York; 
later private teacher and composer. 

Eadley, Henry Kimbsil, b. Somerville, 
Mass., Dec. 20, 1871 New York, 
Sept. 6, 1937; showed early musical 
precocity; studied with Heindl, 
Emery and Chad wick; in 1893 toured 
with the Mapleson Opera Co. as 
violinist in its orch.; the next year 
went to Vienna for study under 
Mandyczewski; returned to U. S. 
and taught music (1896) at St. 
Paul's Episcopal School for Boys, 
Garden City, L. L; made d6but as 
cond. in concert at Waldorf-Astoria, 
N. Y., 1900; again toured Europe, 
190410, having further study with 
Thuille in Munich and acting as 
guest cond. of orchs. in Warsaw and 
Mainz; in the latter city his opera 
"Safie"> was prod., 1909 (he had 
already had a symph., " Youth and 
Life," perf. by Seidl in 1897). On 
his return from Europe, he became 
cond. of the Seattle Symph. Orch. s 
1909-11; and of the San Francisco 
Symph. Orch., 1911-15. He also 
appeared as guest leader in Europe, 
America and Japan. In later years 
he had been assoc. cond. of the N. Y, 
Philh. Orch., beginning 1920; cond. 

Manhattan Symph. in N. Y., X93i- 
32; and of the Berkshire Fest., 
1934-35. Among the very large 
number of his comps., the following 
are outstanding: (operas) "Azora" 
(Chicago, 1917); "Bianca" (one-act 
work winning award of Amer. Soc. 
of Singers, 1918, and perf. N. Y.); 
"Cleopatra's Night" (Met. Op. Co.. 
1920); also 4 symph., the 2nd of 
which, subtitled "The Four Seasons" 
took two prizes simultaneously in 
1901, the Paderewski and the New 
England Cons. His fourth symph. 
"North, East, South and West" he 
cond. himself with the London 
Philh., Boston Symph., and other 
orch.; c. overtures "Hector amd 
Andromache"- (Boston, 1901); "In 
Bohemia" (1903), "Herod," symph. 
fantasie "Salome" (Boston Symph., 

1907, Monte Carlo, 1907; Warsaw, 

1908, Cassel, 1908); lyric drama 
"Mwlin and Vivien,"' piano quintet, 
(1907), etc. poetic rhapsody, "The 
Culprit Fay"< (N. Y., 1912); a music 
drama, "The Atonement of Pan 9 * 
(San Francisco, 1912); cantatas, 
"In Music's Praise" (winning Dit- 
son Prize, 1899); "A Legend of 
Granada," "The Nightingale and the 
Rose," "The Fate of Princess Kiyo,"> 
"The Golden Prince"' for women's 
voices; "Mirtil in Arcadia," large- 
scale choral work; also lie lyric 
drama, "Ode to Music,"' for soloists, 
chorus and orch., a setting of a poem 
by Henry Van Dyke (Worcester, 
Mass., Fest., 1917); 7 Ballads for 
chorus and orch.; tone-poem, ** Luci- 
fer"' (Norfolk Fest., 1915); Concer- 
tino for piano and orch.; 3 ballet 
suites for orch. ; the descriptive suite, 
"Streets of Pekin"; and a quantity of 
chamber music, incl. string quartet; 
vln. sonatas, and more than i$c 
songs; m. Inez Barbour, soprano. 

Had'ow, Sir William Henry, b. Ehring- 
ton (Gloucester), England, Dec. 27, 
1859 London, April 9, 1937; writer; 
grad. Oxford Univ., in 1885, a fellow, 
and 1888-1909, dean of Worcester 
Coll. at that Univ.; after 1909 
principal of Armstrong Coll., New- 
castle-on-Tyne; he was knighted in 
1918; 1919-30, vice-Chancellor of 
Sheffield Univ.; Mus. D., Oxford 
and Durham Univs.; author of 
"William Byrd," "Studies in Mod- 
ern Music," 2 series; "Sonata Form"i 
"A Croatian Composer" a study of 



Haydn; "The Viennese Period" 
comprising Vol. V of the Oxford 

TTC.-.4. *C ~\JF~~~i^ * V^/U^A!* I%A **.n 4-1+ **. 

Hadria'nus. Vide ADRIANSZN. 
HSfEner (hgf'-ner), Jn. Chr. Fr., Ober- 
schonau, near Suhl, 1759 Upsala, 
Sweden, 1833; organist, court-con- 
ductor, dram, composer and collec- 

Hageman (ha'-gS-man), (i) Maurits 
Leonard, Zutphen, Sept. 23, 1829 
Dutch East Indies, 1900; violinist 
and pianist; pupil of Brussels Cons.; 
1865-75 dir. Cons., Batavia; 1875 
founder and dir, of a Cons., Leeu- 
warden; c. oratorio "Daniel," etc. 
(2) Richard, b. Leeuwarden, Holland; 
composer, conductor; son of (i); 
studied with his father, and at 
Brussels under De Greef and 
Gevaert; asst. cond. Amsterdam Op., 
at 16; came to U. S. in 1906 as 
accompanist for Yvette Guilbert; 
asst. cond. Met. Op., N. Y,, 1908-21; 
has also cond. at Chicago Op., 
Ravinia and Los Angeles Op.; and 
has appeared with Amer. orch.; c. 
opera "Caponsacchi" (based on 
Browning's "Ring and the Book,"* 
libretto by Arthur Goodrich), 
premiere, Freiburg, Germany, 1931; 
later at Vienna, and was prod, by 
Met. Op. Co., in English, 1936-37; 
he again cond. with latter co. in 
1936 j known also as composer of 
many songs. 

Hagen (ha'-ggn), (i) Fr. H. von der* 
Schmiedeberg, Ukraine, 1780 Ber- 
lin, 1856; prof, and writer. (2) 
In. Bapt., Mayence, 1818 Wies- 
baden, 1870; conductor and com- 
poser. (3) Ad., Bremen, Sept. 4, 
1851 Dresden, June 6, 1926; son 
of above; violinist; 1879-82 cond. 
Hamburg Th.; 1883, court cond. 
Dresden, and 1884 manager of the 
Cons.; c. comic opera "Zwei Kom- 
temstenp Hamburg, 1882, etc. (4) 
Theodor, Hamburg, 1823 New 
York, 1871; teacher, critic and 

Hafca (hSn), (i) Albert, Thorn, West 
Prussia, 1828 Lindenau, near ieip- 
zig, x88o; teacher. (2) Reynaldo, 
&. Carats, Venezuela, Aug. 9, 1874; 
-l of Massenet, Paris Conl.; lived 
^r^- c. 3-act "idylle polv- 
"Ulle du Rtoe" (#aris, 
, 1898); opera, "La Carme- 

lite," was prod, at the Opera 
Comique, Paris, IQO.Z; incidental 
music to C. Mend eV- "Scarronf* 
Racine's "Esther," and V. Hugo's 

ft A -i * f H \ . * 1^ 

" (1912); "Nausicaa" (Monte 
Carlo, 1919; Paris Op., 1923); music 
for Guitfy's comedy "Mozart" 

Mixr& j-T-ifirmynutnify etc., suiigs Ot 

remarkable beauty and originalityj 
etc.; d. Paris, Jan. 27, 1947. 
Hahnel (hs'-nel). Vide CALLUS, j. 
Haines, Napoleon J., London, 1824 
New York, 1900; founder of 
Haines Bros: Piano Mfrs., N. Y. 
Hainl (^nl), Georges Francois, Issoire, 
Puy-de-D6me, 1807 Paris, 1873; 
'cellist i conductor, writer and com* 

Haizinger (hl'-tsIng-Sr), Anton, Wil- 
fersdorf, Lichtenstein, 1796 Vienna, 
1869; tenor. 

Hale (i), Philip, Norwich, Vt., March 
5, 1854 Boston, Nov. 30, 1934: 
notable American critic and essayist; 
as a boy, organist Unit. Ch., North- 
ampton, Mass.; 1876 grad. Yale 
Univ.; 1880 admitted to the Albany 
bar; pupil of D. Buck, 1876; 1882-87 
studied organ and comp. with Haupt. 
Faiszt, Rheinberger and Guilmant, 
Urban, Bargiel, Raif and Scholzj 
1879-82 organist St. Peter's, Albany; 
1887-89 St. John's, Troy; 1889 of 
First Religious Soc., Roxbury, Mass.; 
1887-89 also cond. of Schubert Club 
at Albany; 1889-91 critic succes- 
sively of the Boston Home Journal, 
Post; 1891, Journal; 18971901 
edited Mus. Record; 1901, ed. 
Musical World; lecturer on mus. 
subjects; critic, Boston Herald. 
1903-34; wrote series of notable 
programme annotations for Boston 
Syniph. (after 1901), extending over 
3 decades; Mus. B., Dartmouth Coll. 
Hale (or Halle). Vide ADAM DE LA 


Ha^vy (&-13-V5), Jac. Franc. Fro- 
mental Eke, Paris, May 27, 1799 
of consumption, Nice, March 17, 
1862; of Jewish parentage; pupil of 
Oizot, Lambert (pf.), and Berton 
(harm.), Cherubini (cpt.); Paris 
Cons, winning 2nd harmony prize; 
1816 and 1817, 2nd Prix de KomeJ 
1819 won Prix de Rome; 1827 prof* 



of harmony and accomp. at the 
Cons.; 1833 prof, of cpt. and fugue; 
1829 prod. 2 succ. operas; 1830 succ. 
ballet "Manon Lescaut"; 183046 
chef de chant at the Opera; 1832 he 
completed HerokTs "Liidowc" with 
succ.; 1835 he wrote and prod. 2 
great successes, his masterpiece "La 
Juive" (Gr. Ope*ra) and a comic 
opera "L'Edair"; Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honour; 1836 member of 
the Academic; 1854, secretary for 
life. In 1836 Meyerbeer appeared, 
and in efforts to rival his prestige H. 
wrote too much with inferior libret- 
tos, among his works being (1841) 
"La Reine de Chypre." He col- 
laborated with Adam, Auber and 
Carafe in 4 operas; he left 2 un- 
finished operas, "Vanina d'Ornano" 1 
(completed by Bizet) and "Le 
D&luge" Biog. by his brother Lon 
(1862), etc. 

Hsiff'ter, Ernesto, b. Madrid, Jan. 
1 6, 1905; composer; studied with 
Espla, Salazar and de Falla; cond. 
chamber orch. in Seville, 1924; c. 
Sinfonietta, "Deux Esquisses" and 
other works for orch., string quartets, 
piano music; won National State 
Prize, 1924-25; one of the most 
promising younger Spanish comps., 
whose style shows influences of Ravel 
and Stravinsky. 

Halir (ha'-ler), (i) Karl, Hohenelbe 
Bohemia, Feb. i, 1859 Berlin, 
Dec. 21, 1909; violinist; pupil of 
Bennewitz, Prague Cons. and 
Joachim in Berlin; 1884 leader of 
the ct.-orch., Weimar; 1896 toured 
the U. S. 

Hall, (i) Henry, Windsor, ca. 1655 
1707; organist and composer. (2) 
Henry, Jr., d. 1763; son of above; 
organist and composer. (3) Win., 
1 7th cent, violinist and composer. 
(4) Marie (Mary Paulina), b. New- 
castle-on-Tyne, April 8, 1884; violin- 
ist; as a child played in Bristol 
streets; pupil of her father and Hilde- 
garde Werner; later of J. Kruse; at 
15 won an exhibition at the R. A. M.; 
from 1901, pupil of Sevcik; toured 
widely. (5) Walter Henry, London, 
April 25, 1862 New York, Dec. n, 
1935; choral cond.; pupil of R. Coll. 
of Mus.; came to America, .1883; 
org. in various churches; 1893, 
founded Brooklyn Oratorio Soc., 
after 1901 taught at Columbia Univ., 
and, beginning 1913, was prof, of 

church music and leader of Univ 
Chorus there. 

Halle (al). Vide ADAM DE LA H. 

Halle (fil-lfi), Sir Charles (rightly Karl 
Halle), Hagen, Westphalia, April n, 
1819 Manchester, Oct. 25, 1895, 
pianist and conductor, Paris, 1836- 
48; later pop. cond. at Manchestei 
and dir. of "Gentlemen's Concerts" 
there; also closely connected with 
London Popular Concerts; 1888 m. 
Mme. Neruda (q.v.) ; after his death 
appeared his autobiography, "Life 
and Letters" (1896). 

Hallen (hal'-lSn), Anders, Goten- 
burg, Dec. 22, 1846 Stockholm, 
March n, 1925; pupil of Reinecke, 
Rheinberger, and Rietz: cond. of the 
Mus. Union, Gotenburg; 1892-97 
cond. Royal Opera, Stockholm: 
1902-07, cond. in Malmo; after 1907, 
taught comp., Stockholm Cons.; 
c. 3 operas, "Herald der Viking" 
(Leipzig, 1881; Stockholm, 1883). 
v. succ. "Hexf alien" ("Der Hexen- 
fang") (Stockholm, 1896); "W aide- 
mar" (Stockholm, 1899); 2 Swedish 
Rhapsodies; ballad cycles with orch.* 
symphonic poem "Ein Sommerm&r- 
chew'; romance for vln. with orch.; 
German and Swedish songs, etc. 

Haller (hai'-ler), Michael, Neusaat 
(Upper Palatinate), Jan. 13, 1840 
Regensburg, Jan. 4, 1915; 1864 took 
orders; studied with Schrems; 1866 
cond. " Realinstitut" ; teacher of 
vocal comp. and cpt. at the Sch. of 
Church- music; writer and composer; 
completed the lost 3rd-choir parts 
of six i2-part comps. of Palestrina's. 

Hallstrb'm (hal'-str&m), Ivar, Stock- 
holm, June 5, 1826 April 10, 1901; 
dram, composer; librarian to the 
Crown Prince, later King of Sweden; 
1 86 1 dir. of Sch. of Music. His 
first opera failed having 20 numbers 
in minor keys; his 2d also; but others 
were succ., incl. "Nyaga" (1885; book 
by "Carmen Sylva")- 

Halm (halm), Anton, Altenmarkt, 
Styria, 1789 Vienna, 1872; pianist 
and composer. 

Halvor'sen, Johan, Drammen, Nor- 
way, March 15, 1804 Oslo, Dec. 4, 
1935; composer, conductor; pupil of 
Stockholm Cons, also of Brodsky 
in Leipzig; toured as vln. virtuoso; 
taught Helsingfors Cons.; studied 
with Albert Becker and C6sar 
Thomson; after 1899 cond. at the 
Nat'l. Theat., Christiania, where he 



also led symph. concerts c. 2 
symphs., and much other orch., 
chamber and vln. music, incidental 
scores for plays, etc.; best known 
for his "March of the Boyars" and 
his air. of a Handel Passacaglia. 
Hambourg (ham'-boorg), (i) Mark, b. 
Gogutschar- Woronesch, Russia, May 
31, 1879; notable piano-virtuoso; 
Ttudied with his father (a teacher in 
'xmdon), and with Leschetizky; 
.oured widely with brilliant success; 
1900, America; lived in London. 

(2) Boris, b. Woronesch, S. Russia, 
Dec. 27, 1884; 'cellist; studied with 
Walenn, Hugo Becker and at Hoch 
Cons., Frankfort; d6but in Pyrmont, 
I 93> toured Australia, Belgium, 
Great Britain, U. S. (lived in Pitts- 
burgh, 1910); with father and bro. 
opened a school in Toronto, 1911. 

(3) Jan, bro. of Mark and Boris, b. 
at Woronesch, Aug. 27, 1882; violin- 
ist; studied with Wilhelmj, Sauret, 
Heermann, Seycik and Ysaye; d6but, 
1905, in Berlin; toured widely in 

Ham / boys. Vide HANBOYS. 
Hamel (a-mel), M. P., Auneuil (Oise), 
France, 1786 Beauvais, after 1870; 
amateur expert in organ-building; 

Ham'erik, Asger, Copenhagen, April 8, 
1843 July 13, 1923; pupil of Gade, 
Matthison-Hansen and Haberbier; 
1862 of von Bulow; c. two operas; 
1870 at Milan prod, an Ital. opera 
"La Vendetta"; 1871-^98, din of the 
Cons, of the Peabody Institute and 
of the Peabody symphony concerts, 
Baltimore, Md.; 1890 knighted by 
the ^ King of Denmark; c. 1866 a 
festival cantata to commemorate 
the new Swedish constitution, "Der 
Wanderer" (1872); 1883 "Oper ohne 
Worte"; a choral work "ChristUche 
Trilo&e" (a pendant to a "Trilogie 
judaique'\ brought out in Paris); 7 
symphonies, etc. 

Ham'ifton, (i) Jas. Alex., London, 1785 
-1845; writer. (2) Clarence Grant, 
b. Providence, R. L, June 9, 1865; 
pianist, educator; grad. Brown 
Univ.; pupil of Dannreuther and 
Matthay; after 1904 prof, at Welles- 
ley Coll.; author and ed. of books on 
mus, hist, and pedagogy. 

^SSM *&"?* John> E3gin > m -> 

i&68 New York, 1923; tenor; sang 
in concert after 1895, and from 1911 
a mem. of Chicago Op. with notable 

succ. as recitalist and as soloist at 
fests. (2) Anna, b. Chicago, Sept. 
10, 1902; daughter of preceding; 
soprano; d6but, Albenga, Italy, 
1926; sang with Chicago Op., also 
in concerts. 

Ham'nrerich, Angul, Copenhagen, 
Nov. 25, 1848 April 26, 1931; 
'cellist; pupil of Rtldinger and 
Neruda; 1896 prof, of musical 
science Copenhagen University; 
brother of Asger Hamerik (q.v.) 
Hammerschmidt (hSm'-mr-shmrt), 
Ands., Briix, Bohemia, 1611 Zit- 
tau, Oct, 29, 1675; organist, 1639, 
at Zittau; c. important and original 
concertos, motets, madrigals, etc. 
Ham'merstein, (i) Oscar, Berlin, 1847 
New York, Aug. i, 19 19, impresario; 
came to America at 16; made a fortune 
by the invention of a cigar-making 
machine; wrote a comic opera in 24 
hours on a wager, and produced it at 
his own theatre; built five theatres in 
N. Y. and the Manhattan Opera 
House; where he gave opposition to 
the Metropolitan, 190608; built also 
an opera house in Philadelphia; sold 
out his interests to the Metropolitan 
Co., and built opera house in Lon- 
don; opened, 1911, but it was a com- 
plete fiasco and closed after one 
season; he then built the Lexington 
Op. House in N. Y. and planned to 
open opera season there, but the 
Met. prevented it by legal measures; 
he died while in the midst of other 
plans. His son (2) Arthur, a leading 
producer of operettas and musical 
sihows in N. Y. 

Hammond, (i) Richard, b. Kent, Eng- 
land, Aug. 26, 1896; composer; grad. 
Yale Univ. where studied music, 
also ^ with Mortimer Wilson and 
Nadia Boulanger; mem. board of 
dir. League of Comps., N. Y.; c. 
(ballet) "Fiesta," also chamber and 
orch. works, piano pieces, songs. 
(2) John Hays, Jr., his bro., in- 
vented novel contrivance known as 
"sustaining pedal" for piano, which 
makes tones on that instrument 
capable of being held or released at 
the player's will; this was demon- 
strated in concerts under the sponsor- 
ship of Stokowski and Phila. Orch. 
and promised to make possible 
technical innovations in conm. CO 
William Churchill, b. RockviUe, 
Conn *'* Nov. 25, 1860; organist, 
pupil of Allen and S. P. Warren; gave 



notable series of more than 1,000 
recitals at Holyoke, Mass.; 1890, 
teacher of org., Smith Coll., North- 
ampton, Mass.; after 1900 head of 
mus. dept., Mount Holyoke Coll. 

HanT>oys (or Hamboys), John, Eng- 
lish theorist ca. 1470. 

Hand (hant), F. G., b. Plauen, Saxony, 
1786 Jena, 1851; writer. 

Handel for Handel, Handl). (i) Vide 

Htodel (hgnt'-l) (Hendel, Hendeler, 
Handeler or Hendtler), Georg 
Friedrich (at first spelt Hendel in 
England; later he anglicised it to 
George Frederic Handel (h&n'- 
del, the form now used in England), 
Halle, Feb. 23, 1685 London, April 
14, 1759; son of a barber (afterwards 
surgeon and valet to the Prince of 
Saxe-Magdeburg) and his second 
wife Dorothea Taust. Intended for 
a lawyer; in spite of bitter opposition 
he secretly learned to play a dumb 
spinet. At 7 on a visit to his elder 
step-brother, valet at the court of 
Saxe-Weissenf els, Handel while play- 
ing the chapel-organ was heard by 
the Duke, who persuaded the father 
to give the boy lessons. Zachau, 
organist of Halle, taught him cpt., 
canon and fugue, and he practised 
the oboe, spinet, harpsichord and 
organ; he soon c. sonatas for 2 oboes 
and bass, became assist, organist, 
and for 3 years wrote a motet for 
every Sunday. In 1696 his skill on 
organ and harpsichord won him at 
Berlin the friendship of Ariosti and 
the jealousy of Bononcini. The 
Elector offered to send him to Italy; 
but his father took him back to 
Halle; the next year his father died, 
and he went to Halle Univ. (1702- 
03) to study law, at the same time 
serving as organist at the cathedral 
at a salary of $50 a year. 1703 he 
went to Hamburg as molino di 
ripieno. He fought a duel with 
Mattheson, later his friend and 
biographer, and was saved by a but- 
ton. When Keiser the dir. fled from 
debt, H- was engaged as clavecinist. 
He c. a "Passion" and prod. 2 op- 
eras, "Almira" (succ.) and " Nero"> 
(1705); he was also commissioned to 
write "Florindo und Daphne" (1708), 
an opera filling two evenings. In 
1706, with 200 ducats earned by 
teaching, he went to Ttaly and made 
success and powerful acquaintances. 

incl. the Scarlattis. In Florence 
(1707) he prod, with succ. "Rodrigo" 
(Venice, 1708), and "Agrippina" 
with great succ. In Rome he prod. 
2 oratorios, and in Naples a serenata, 
"Act, Galatea e Polifemo," in which 
is a bass solo with a compass of 2 oc- 
taves and a fifth. 1709, in Germany 
as cond. to the Elector of Hanover; 
1710 visited England on leave of ab- 
sence. In 2 weeks he c. the opera 
"Rinaldo," a pasticcio of his older 
songs. It was prod, at the Hay- 
market Th. with great succ.; 1712 he 
returned to London on leave; but 
stayed. His first two operas were 
not succ.; but an ode for the Queen's 
birthday, and a Te Deum and Jubi- 
late in celebration of the Peace of 
Utrecht won him royal favour and 
an annuity of 200; 1714 his Han- 
over patron became George I. of 
England, and he was for a time out 
of that monarch's good graces, but 
had already been restored when, at 
the request of Baron Kilmanseck, 
he produced the delightful 25 pieces 
called the "Water-Music," at a royal 
aquatic f&te. 1716-18 he went to 
Hanover with the King. He there 
c. his only German oratorio, the 
"Passion"; 1718 cond. to the Duke 
of Chandos and c. the English ora- 
torio "Esther," the secular oratorio 
"Ads and Galatea" and the Chandos 
Te Deums and Anthems. He taught 
the Prince of Wales' daughters, and 
c. for Princess Anne "Suites de 
Pieces" for harpsichord (The Les- 
sons) including "The Harmonious 

He was dir. of new R. A. of M. 
1720 prod, the succ. opera "Rada- 
misto" (prod. 1721 in Hamburg as 
"Zenolia"). Now Bononcini and 
Ariosti appeared as rivals and a fa- 
mous and lasting feud arose around 
the three after they had prod, one 
opera, "Muzio Scaevola" in which 
each wrote an act. B. had rather 
the better of it, when he was caught 
in a plagiarism (a crime not un- 
known in Handel's works (v. LOTTI}. 
B. left England without reply (1731). 
Up to this time H. had prod. 12 

1726 he was naturalised. 1729-31 
he was in partnership with Heidegger, 
proprietor of the King's Th., where 
he prod. "Lotario" followed by 4 
more operas. 1732 he prod, his two 



oratorios revised; 1733 the oratorios 
"Deborah" and "Athaliah" at Ox- 
ford, when he was made Mus.Doc. h. c. 
1733 he began a stormy management 
of opera, quarrelled with the popular 
singer Senesino, and drove many of 
his subscribers to forming a rival 
troupe "The Opera of the Nobility,"- 
with Porpora and afterwards Hasse 
as composer and conductor; 1737 t^ e 
companies failed, H. having prod. 5 
operas; the ode "Alexander's feast" 
(Dryden), and the revised "Trionfo 
del Tempo e della Verita." Over- 
exertion brought on a stroke of 
paralysis in one of his hands and he 
went to Aix-la-Chapelle, returning 
to London with improved health. 

sonatas for vln., viola and oboe, etc, 
i edition of his works in 

He now prod., under Heidegger, 5 
operas, incl. "Faramondo," "Serse** 
(*738), and "Deidamia" CT^A-T^ 
Ni ' ' ' ' 

, . 

ow he abandoned the stage and 
turned to oratorio, producing "Saul,"> 
and "Israel in Egypt" (1739); the 
"Ode for St. Cecilia's Day," and in 
1740 "U Allegro and II Penseroso"- 
/Milton), and a supplement "II 
ttoderato," written by Chas. Jennens, 
who also wrote the text of the Messiah. 
1741 he visited Dublin and prod, 
there his masterpiece the "Messiah," 
April 13, 1742. This re-established 
him in English favour and raised him 
from bankruptcj-. It was followed by 
"Samson," the "Dettingen Te De- 
urn," "Semele," "Joseph" (1743), 
"Belshazzar," and "Heracles" (17^). 
His rivals worked against him still, 
and in 1745 he was again bankrupt, 
writing little for a year and a half, 
when he prod, with renewed success 
and fortune his "Occasional Ora- 
torio" and "Judas Maccabaeus"- 

(1746); "* ' 

mon" N _,. 

"Theodora ^, 9 Afuo ^<, c 

of Hercules" (1750); and "Jepk- 
ikak" (1752), his last. Buring the 
cpmp. of "Jepktkah"* Ee underwent 
three unsuccessful operations for 
cataract. He was practically blind 
the rest of his life, but continued to 
play org.-concertos and accompany 
his oratorios on the organ up to 1750. 
He was buried in Westminster 
Abbey, His other comp. incl. the 
^Forest Musick" publin^*), etc.. 
fo* harps.; the "Fireworks Musick"< 
1x749} for strings; 6 organ-concertos: 
c^ectos for trumpets and horns- 
am to* Jborns and side drums (MS ) 

100 vols. was undertaken in 1856 for 
the German Handel Sec. by Dr. 
Chrysander as editor. Bipg. by Mat- 
theson (1740); Mainwaring (1760); 
Fo rs t emann ( 1 844) ; S cho* Icher 
1857); Rockstro (1883); Chrysander 
(unfinished at his death), Leichten- 
tritt and Muller-Blattau (in Ger- 
man). Various aspects of H&ndel's 
life and art are considered in studies 
in English by Benson, Davey, 
Flower, Marshall, Romain RoUand. 
Streatfeild, C. F. A. Williams. 
Handel as an opera composer has 
been rediscovered by the 2oth cent., 
after the long dominance of his 
oratorios. Esp. in Germany there" 
occurred a remarkable "H. Renais- 
sance" from about the year 1920, 
centring in the Univ. of Gottingen, 
where German adaptations of such 
works as "Rodelinda," "Ottone," 
"Giidio Cesar e" etc., were staged in 
annual fests. Productions also took 
place in Berlin, and in America at 
Smith Coll., Northampton, Mass. 
Hand'lo, Robert de, Engl. theorist of 

1 4th century. 

Handbook, Julius, Naumburg, 1830 

__ Halle, 1894; teacher and composer* 

HSnel von Cronenthal (ha 7 -neT fsn 

kro-'-nSn-tal), Julia, Graz, 1839 

Paris, March 9, 1896; wife of the. 

Marquis d'H6ricourt de Valincourt; 

studied in Paris; c. 4 symphonies, 

22 pf. -sonatas, etc. 

Hanff, J. Nicolaus, Wechmar, 1630 
Schleswig, w 1706; cathedral organist 
at Schleswig and important predeces- 
sor of Bach in choral- writing. 
HanfstSngel (hanf'-shtSng-gl), Mario 
(nee Schr8dex), Breslau, April 30, 
1848 Munich, 1917; soprano; pupil 
of ^Viardot-Garcia; dlbut, 1867, 
Pans; studied 1878 with Vannucini; 
1882-97 Stadt-theatre, Frankfort. 
Harusch (ha'-nfeh) Jos., Ratisbon, 
1812 1892; organist, teacher and 

Hwike (hank'-g), K., Rosswalde, 
Schleswig, 1754 Hamburg, 1835! 
conductor and composer 

Hansen (han'-sSn), Cecilia; b. Stanitza 
Kamenska, Russia, Feb. 17, 1898: 
violimst; studied with Auer; has 
appeared as orchestral soloist and 
recitalist in many Eur. centres, 

^ S V n <* U '. S -. I 9 2 3-2 4 ; m. Boris 
Sacharoff, pianist. 



Hanslick (Mns'-llk), Eduard, Prague, 
Sept. ii, 1825 Baden near Vienna, 
Aug. 6, 1904; eminent critic and 
writer; Dr. Jur., 1849; studied piano 
under Tomaschek at Prague 1848-49; 
critic for the Wiener Zeitung; among 
his many books his first is most 
famous, "Vom Musikalisch- 

Sch'dnen" (Leipzig, 1854); a some- 
what biassed, yet impressive plea 
for absolute music as opposed to pro- 
gramme (v. D. D.) or fallaciously 
sentimental music; a bitter opponent 
of all Wagnerianism and an ardent 
Brahmsite; 1855-64 mus. editor 
Presse; then, of the Neue freie 
Presse; lecturer on mus. hist, and 
aesthetics Vienna Univ.; 1861 prof, 
extraordinary, 1870 full prof.; 1895 

Han'son, Howard, b. Wahoo, Nebr., 
Oct. 28, 1896; composer, conductor, 
educator; grad. Luther Coll., Inst. 
of Music. Art, N. Y., hon. Mus.D., 
Northwestern Univ.; first to be 
awarded music fellowship at Amer. 
Acad. in Rome, 192124; dir. East- 
man School of Music at Univ. of 
Rochester, N. Y., after latter year; 
has been active in nat'l. educational 
organisations in music field, and has 
carried on a unique series of several 
annual American Comps. Concerts 
at Rochester as well as fests. of 
native music there; has served as 
guest cond. of his works with many 
Amer. orchs.; c. (opera) "Merry 
Mount" (libretto by Richard Stokes), 
Met. Op. Co, (commissioned), 1933; 
two symphonies ("Nordic" and 
"Romantic"), also for orch. "Before 
the Dawn," "Exaltation," "North 
and West," "Lux Aeterna," "Pan 
and the Priest" Symphonic Legend; 
(chorus and orch.) "The Lament for 

Eustache; c. mass (Brussels, 1876); 
opera "Tasso" (Monte Carlo, 1903); 
3 symph.^ etc. 

d'Hardelot (ge-d&rd'-lo), Guy (Mrs. 
Rhodes), near Boulogne, France 
London, Jan. 7, 1936; c. operetta 
"Elle et Lui" and many pop. songs. 

Hark'nes. Vide SENKRAH. 

Harling, W. Franke, b. London, Jan. 
18, 1887; composer; studied Grace 
Church Choir School, N. Y., Acad. 
of Mus., London, and with Th6ophile 
Ysaye, Brussels: active as org. in 
Brussels and at West Point Mil. 
Acad.; c. (opera) "A Light from St. 
Agnes" (Chicago Op., 1925;; (lyric 
drama) "Deep River*' (N. Y., 1926): 
Jazz Concerto; "Venetian Fantasy "- 
cantatas and songs; also scores for 
motion pictures. 

Harma'ti, Sandor, Budapest, July 9, 
1892 Flemington, N. J., Apr. 4, 
1936; composer, violinist, conduc- 
tor; grad. Budapest Acad. of Mus.; 
concertm. State Orch., Budapest 
1912-14; People's Oj>. there, 1912- 
pc4; coming to America, led Lenox 
String Quartet; cond. N. Y. Women's 
String Orch., Omaha Symph. Orch., 
1924-28; Westchester, N. Y. Fest. 
also led orchs. as guest in Paris 
Berlin, Frankfort, St. Louis; c. 
symph. i>oem winning Pulitzer Prize, 
1923; string quartet (Phila. Chamber 
Music Ass'n. Prize, 1925), other 
orch. works and songs. 

Harp'er, (i) Thos., Worcester, 1787 
London, 1853; trumpet virtuoso. 
His 3 sons were (2) Thomas, his 
successor. (3) Charles, horn-player. 
(4) Edward, pianist. 

Har'raden, Samuel, Cambridge, Engl., 
1821 {?) Hampstead, London, 
1897; org.-professor. 

Harriers- wippern (har'-rf-Srs vip'- 

Beowulf" "Heroic Elegy, "< "Drum prn), Louise (ne'e Wippern), Hil- 
Taps" (after Walt Whitman); con- desheim, 1837 Grobersdorf, Silesia, 

certo for org. and orch., 2 quintets 
for piano and strings, string quartet. 

Hanssens (hans'-sSns), (i) Chas. L. 
Jos. (aine*), Ghent, 1777 Brussels, 
1852; conductor and composer. (2) 
Chas. L. (cadet), Ghent, 1802 
Brussels, 1871; conductor, professor, 
'cellist and composer. 

Har court (d&r-koor), Eugene d% 
Paris, 1855 March 8, 1918; com- 
poser; pupil Paris Cons., and of 
Schulze and Bargiel, in Berlin; 1890 
gave concerts in his own Salle Har- 
court; 1900 gave oratorios at St. 

1878; soprano. 
Har'ris, (i) Jos. M., London, 1799 
Manchester, 1869; organist and com- 
poser. (2) Augustus (Sir), Paris, 
1852 Folkestone, Engl., June 22, 
1896; an actor, dSbut as "Macbeth" in 
Manchester, 1873; then stage man- 
ager; 1879 leased Drury Lane Th. 
for spectacle; 1887 he took up opera 
and controlled successively H. M.'s 
Th., the Olympia, etc., finally 
Covent Garden. (3) Victor, N. Y., 
April 27, 1869 Feb. 15, 1943; pupil 
of Charles Blum (pf.), Wm. Court- 



ney (voice), Fredk. Schilling (harm, 
and comp.), Anton Seidl (cond.); 
1889-95 org. various churches; 1892- 

trfp&titeur and coach at Met. 
.; 189394 cond. Utica Choral 
ion; 1895-96 asst.-cond. to Seidl, 
Brighton Beach Concerts; vocal 
teacher and accompanist, N. Y.; 
long cond. of Cecilia Chorus; c. a 
pf.-suite, a cantata, an operetta 
"Mile. Mai et M. de Septembre^ 
songs, etc. (4) Roy, b. Lincoln Co., 
Okla., Feb. 12, 1898; composer; 
educated TJniv. of Calif.; studied with 
Fanny Dillon, Arthur Farwell, 
Modeste Altschuler, Arthur Bliss, 
Rosario Scalero and Nadia Bou- 
larger; awarded Guggenheim Fellow- 
ship for study in Europe, 1927-28; 
Intercollegiate Fellowship for Comp., 
California; has lectured extensively 
and taught at Westminster Choir 
School, Princeton, N. J., where he 
organised fest. of modern Amer. 
music, 1936; c. symph.; andante for 
orch.; sextet for clarinet, strings and 
piano; suite for string quartet; 
symphonic poem, trio and chorus; 
suite for women's chorus and 2 
pianos; "A Song for Occupations'* 
for mixed chorus to Whitman's 
words; symph. for voices, etc. 
Har'iison, (i) Wm., London, 1813 
London, i&6"8; tenor. (2) Beatrice, 
b. Roorkee, India, 1892; 'cellist; 
senior medal of Assoc. Board, Lon- 
don; exhibitor R. Coll. of Music at 
ii ; won Mendelssohn Prize, Berlin 
Hochsch.; studied with Whitehouse 
and Hugo Becker; d6but, Berlin, 
1910; has appeared in chief Eur. 
ceostrea, also in U. S. after 1913. 
(3) May, b. Roorkee, India, 1890; 
sister of Beatrice H.; violinist; 
studied in London, also with Fernan- 
dez ^Arbos and Auer; has toured as 
seWst since 1907 and in joint recitals 
with her sister. (4) Julius, b. Stour- 
port, England, March 26, 1885; 
composer and conductor; studied on 
stipend with Bantock; cond. of 
Beecham Op. Co., later the Scottish 
Orch., and the British Nat'l. Op. 
Co,; c. orch., chamber music, choral 
works; also an opera, "The Canter- 
bury Pilgrims." 

Harold, Orville, Muncie, Ind., 1878 
Banen, Conn., Oct. 23, 1933; 
operatic tenor; reputed to have been 
discovered singing in vaudeville, 
by Oscar Hammerstem, N. Y., 

taught by Oscar Saenger, 1909-10: 
d6but Manhattan Op., N. Y., 1910; 
sang with Mme. Trentin: in comic 
opera; 1911 at Hammerstein's Lon- 
don Opera; Met. Op. Co. after 1919. 
Harsan'yi, Tib or, b. Ober-Kanizsa, 
Hungary, June 27, 1898; composer; 
pupil of the Budapest Acad. of Mus.; 
fives in Paris; c. 2 orch. suites; 
"Les Invites" setting of text by 
Jean- Victor Pellerin; sonatina for 
piano and vln.; sonata for vln, and 
piano; piano trio; string quartet; 
pf. sonata and other works. 
Har'shaw, Margaret, Amer. soprano, 
orig. contralto; Met. Op., 1942; sang 
also at Covent Garden. 
Hart, (i) James, d. 1718; Engl. bass 
and composer. (2) Philip, d. ca. 
1749; Gentleman of Chapel Royal; 
son of above (?); organist and com- 
poser; wrote music for "Tke Morn- 
tng Hymn" from Book V. of Milton's 
"Paradise Lost." (3) J. Thos., 
1805 London, 1874; vln. maker. 
(4) George, London, 1839 1891; 
son of above; writer. 
HSrtel (hSr'-tel), (i) Vide BREITKOPP 
TTND H&RTEL. (2) G. Ad., Leipzig, 
1836 Homburg, 1876; violinist, 
conductor and dram, composer. (3) 
Benno, Jauer, Silesia, May i, 1846 
Berlin, Aug. 4, 1909; pupil of Hoppt 
(pf.), Jappsen (vln.), Kiel (comp.); 
1870 teacher of theory, Berlin Royal 
High Sch. for Music; c. an opera, 
over 300 canons, etc. (4) Ltiise (ne 
Hauffe). Diiben, 183-; Leipzig 
1882; pianist; wife of (5) Hermann 
Hart'mann, (i) Johan Peder Emilius, 
Copenhagen, May 14, 1805 Copen- 
hagen, March 10, 1900; organist 
and dram, composer; grandson of a 
German court-cond. (d. 1763); son 
of an organist at Copenhagen. (2) 
EmiZ (Jr.) Copenhagen, 1836 1898; 
aon and pupil of above, and court- 
organist; composer. (3) Ludwig, 
Neuss-on-Rhine, 1836 Dresden. 
Feb. 14, 1910; pianist, composer and 
cntic (son and pupil of (4) JMedrich, 
song-composer, b. 1805); also studied 
at Leipzig Cons, and with Liszt; 
lived in Dresden; prominent Wag- 
nerian champion; c. an opera, etc. 
Of) Arthur, b. Mat6 Szalka, Hungary, 
July 25, jSSi; taken to Philadelphia 
at the age of two months; violinist: 
all his schooling in America; has 
toured Euroue and America with 



succ. (6) Karl Amadeus, b. Mu- 
nich, 1905; composer; studied with 
Scherchen; dir., Musica Viva. 

Har'tog, (i) Edouard de, Amsterdam, 
Aug. 15, 1829 The Hague, Nov. 
8, 1909; pupil of Hoch, Bartelmann, 
Litolff, etc.; 1852 in Paris as teacher 
of pf., comp. and harm.; decorated 
with the orders of Leopold and the 
Oaken Crown; c. operas, the 43rd 
psalm with orch., etc. (2) Jacques, 
Zalt-Bommel, Holland, Oct. 24, 
1837 Amsterdam, Oct. 3, 1917; 
pupil of Wilhelm and Fd. Hiller; 
prof. Amsterdam Sch. of Music. 

Hartvigson (hrt'-vlkh-zon), (i) Frits, 
Grenaa, Jutland, May 31, 1841 
Copenhagen, 1919; pianist; pupil of 
Gade, Gebauer, Ree, and von Bulow; 
^864, London; 1873 pianist to the 
Princess of Wales; 1875 prof, at the 
Norwood Coll. for the Blind; 1887 
pf.-prof. Crystal Palace. (2) Anton, 
Aarhus, Oct. 16, 1845 Copenhagen, 
Dec. 29, 1911; bro. of above; pianist; 
pupil of Tausig and Neupert; lived 
in London, 

Har'ty, Sir Hamilton, b. Hillsborough, 
Co. Down, Ireland, Dec. 4, 1879; d.* 
Brighton, England, Feb. 19, 1941; 
pupil of his father, an organist; later 
studied in Dublin; d6but, London, 
as an accompanist; after 1920, 
cond. Halle" Orch. Soc., Manchester; 
guest cond., London and U. S.; c. 
setting of Keats's "Ode to a Nightin- 
gale," for soprano and orch.; "Irish 
Symphony"', vln. Concerto in D 
minor; "Wild Geese," symph. poem; 
"Comedy Overture"', Piano Quartet 
in F major; also 'cello pieces, cham- 
ber music and songs; m. Mme. Agnes 
Nicholls, singer. 

Har'wood, Basil, b. Woodhouse, 
Gloucestershire, April n, 1859; 
pianist, composer; pupil of Roeckel, 
Risley, Corfe, and at Leipzig Cons.; 
1880, Mus. Bac., Oxford; 1896, 
Mus. Doc. ; organist various churches; 
from 1892 at Christ Church, Oxford; 
retired in 1909 from his posts there 
as organist and choragus; c. church 
music; "Capriccio," "Three Cathedral 
Preludes" and Sonata No. 2, in 
F-sharp minor, for org.; Concerto 
in D for organ and orchestra; can- 
tata, "Song on May Morning" 
psalm, "Inclina, Domine" voices 
and orch. (Gloucester Fest., 1898); 
ed.OxfordHymnBook;d.April3 ,1949. 
Hasche (hesh'-S), William Edwin, b. 

New Haven, April n, 1867; pupil 
of Listemann, Perabo, and Parker; 
dir. New Haven Symph. Orch.; 
1903 teacher of instrumentation at 
Yale; cond. N. H. Choral Union 
(250 voices); c. symph., symph. 
poems "Waldidylle," "Fridjof and 
Ingeborg"', cantata "The Haunted 
Oak," etc.; d. Roanoke, Va., Jan. 26, 
Hase (Dr.), Oskar von. Vide 


HSser (ha'zSr), (i) Aug. Fd., Leipzig, 
1799 Weimar, 1844; theorist, con- 
ductor, writer and composer. (2) 
Charlotte Henriette, Leipzig, 1784 
1871; sister of above; singer; m. a 
lawyer Vera. 

Has(s)ler (hilsMe'r), (i) Hans Leo von, 
Nurnberg, 1564 Frankfort, June 5, 
1612; the eldest of 3 sons of ( (2) 
Isaac H., town-mus., Nurnberg); 
pupil of his father; organist and com- 
poser. (3) Jakob, Nurnberg, 1566 
Hechingen (?), 1601; bro. of (i), 
conductor, organ virtuoso and com- 
poser. (4) Kaspar, Nurnberg, 1570 
1618; bro. of above; organist. 

Haslinger (has'-Hng-Sr), (i) Tobias, 
Zell, Upper Austria, 1787 Vienna, 
1842; conductor and publisher. (2) 
Karl, Vienna, 1816 1868; son and 
successor of above; pianist: c. opera 
"Wanda," etc. 

Hasse (has'-se*), (i) Nikolaus, ca. 1650; 
organist and writer at Rostock. 
(2) Jn. Ad., Bergedorf, near Ham- 
burg, March 25, 1699 Venice, Dec. 
1 6, 1783; famous tenor and v. succ. 
operatic cond.; rival of Porpora; c. 
over 100 operas, etc. (3) Faustina 
(nSeBordoni), Venice, 1693 (1700?) 
1781; of noble birth; one of the most 
cultivated mezzo-sopr.; m. the above 
1730, a happy union, she collaborat- 
ing in his success. (4) Gustav, Peitz, 
Brandenburg, Sept. 4, 1834 Berlin, 
Dec. 31, 1889; studied Leipzig Cons., 
afterward with Kiel and F. Kroll; 
settled in Berlin as teacher and com- 

Has'selbeck, Rosa. Vide STJCHER. 

Has'selmans, (i) Lotus, b. Paris, July 
25, 1878; conductor; studied at Paris 
Cons, with Delsart, Lavignac, God- 
ard and Massenet; ist prize in 'cello; 
mem. Caplet Quartet; d6but as cond. 
at Lamoureux Concerts, Paris, 1905; 
founded and led Hasselmans Orch. 
after 1907; cond. at Op.-Comique, 
1909-11; Montreal Op., 1911-13; 



Marseilles Concerts Classiques, 
1913-14; Chicago Op., 191820; also 
at Ravinia Op., and at Met. Op. 
House, N. Y., 192136; m. Minnie 
Egener, soprano. (2) Alph. J., Li6ge, 
18^5 Paris, 1912; harpist. 
Hasselt-Barth (has'-sSlt-bart), Anna 
Maria WHhelmine (ne'e van Has- 
selt), Amsterdam, July 15, 1813 
Mannheim, Jan. 4, 1881; soprano; 
dbut Trieste (1831). 

HSssler (hess'-lSr), (i) Jn. Wm., Er- 
furt, March 29, 1747 Moscow, 
March 29, 1822; organist and famous 
teacher; toured widely; 179294 
royal cond. St. Petersburg; then 
teacher at Moscow; c. important 
piano and organ pieces; his wife, 
(2) Sophie, was a singer who trav- 
elled with him. 

Hast'ings, Thos., Washington, Conn., 
1787 New York, 1872; editor and 

Hastreiter (hast'ii-tSr), Helene, b. 
Louisville, Ky., Nov. 14, 1858; oper- 
atic contralto, popular in Italy; pupil 
of Lampertf; m. Dr. Burgunzio: d. (?) . 

Hatto. Vide 

Hat'ton, J. Liptrott, Liverpool, Oct. 20, 
1809 Margate, Sept. 20, 1886; 
cond. and dram, composer. 

Hattstadt (hst'-shte't), J. J., Monroe, 
Mich., Dec. 29, 1851 Chicago, 
"Dec., 1931; studied in Germany; pf.- 
teacher and writer in Detroit, St. 
Louis, and for n years, Chicago 
Coll. of Mus.; 1886, dir. Amer. Cons., 

Haubiel (ho'-bel), Charles, b. Delta, 
Ohio, Jan. 31, 1894; composer, edu- 
cator; studied with Ganz, Lhevinne 
(p_iano) and Scalero (comp.); toured 
with Kocian; taught at Oklahoma 
City Mus. Art Inst., later at N. Y. 
Univ.; has toured as pianist and 
iecturer: c. "Karma' 9 symph. varia- 
tions wnich won prize in Schubert 
Centenary contest; also other orch., 
chamber music and piano works, 
incid. music to plays, etc. 
Hau(c)k (howk), Minnie, New York, 
Nov. 14, 1852 Villa Triebschen, 
Lucerne, Feb. 6, 1:929; notable so- 

rano; pupil of Errani and Moritz 
trakosch; d6but 1866, N. Y., as 
"Norma"; 1868-72 Vienna ct.-opera; 
1875, Berlin; sang with great succ. 
in Europe and America. She was 
court-singer in Prussia, Officier 
d j Academic, Paris, and member of 
the Roman Mus. Academy. 

Hauer (how'-fir), K. H. Eiast, Halber- 
stadt, 1828 Berlin, 1892; organist 
and composer. 

Hauff (howf), Jn. Chr., Frankfort, 1811 
1891; founder and prof., Frankfort 
School of Music; writer and com- 

Hatiffe (howf'-fe), Luise. Vide HAR- 

Haupt (howpt), K. Aug., b. ^unern, 
Silesia, Aug. 25, 1810 Berlin, July 4, 
1891; pupil of A. W. Bach, Klein, 
and Dehn; famous as organist and 
teacher at Berlin; composer. 
Hauptmann (howpt'-man), Moritz, 
Dresden, Oct. 13, 1792 Leipzig, 
Jan. 3, 1868; violinist; pupil of 
Spohr; famous as theorist and 
teacher; from 1842 prof, of cpt. and 
comp. Leipzig Cons., and dir. Tho- 
masschule. His canon was "unity 
of idea and perfection of form," 
exemplified in his comps., enforced 
upon his many eminent pupils and 
exploited in many essays and stand- 
ard works, incl. lt Die Natur der 
Harmonik und Metrik" (1833); the 
posthumous, "Die Lehre von der 
Harmonik," 1868, etc.; c. opera, 
"Matkilde" (Cassel, 1826); quartets, 
masses, etc. 

Hauptner (howpt / -ne'r), Thuiskon, Ber 
lin, 1821 1889; conductor and com- 

Hattschka (howsh'-ka), Vincenz, Mies, 
Bohemia, 1766 Vienna, 1840; 'cel- 
list and barytone player; composer. 
Hause (how'-ze'), Wenjzel, b. Bohemia, 
ca. 1780; prof, of double-bass, 
Prague Cons.; writer. 
Hausegger (hows'-Sg-ger), (i) Fr. von, 
Vienna, April 26, 1837 Graz, Feb. 
23, 1899; pupil of Salzmann and 
Dessoff; barrister at Graz; 1872 
teacher of history and theory, Univ. 
of Graz; writer. (2) Siegmtmd von, 
b. Graz, Aug. 16, 1872; pupil of his 
father, of Degners and Pohlig; 1896 
cond. at Graz; 1899 of the Kaim 
concerts at Munich; 1903-06 the 
Museum Concerts at Frankfort-on- 
Main; 1910, dir. of Hamburg Philh.; 
1920-34, dir. Acad. der Tonkunst, 
Munich, and leader of orch. concerts 
there; c. mass, an opera " H elf rid" 
(Graz, 1893); "Zinnober" (Munich, 
1898); "Dionysian Fantasie" for 
orch., symph. poems, "Barbarossa," 
"Wietand, choruses, etc.; d. 1948 
Hauser (how'-zSr), (i) Fz., b. Craso- 
witz, near Prague, 1794 Freiburg. 



Baden, 1870; bass-barytone; teacher. 
(2) Miska (Michael), Pressburg, 
Hungary, 1822 Vienna, 1887; vln.- 
virtuoso; composer. 

ffituser (hi-zSr), Jn. Ernst, b. Dittchen- 
roda, near Quedlinburg, 1803; teach- 
er, Q. Gymnasium; writer. 

Haussmann (hows '-man), Valentin, the 
name of five generations, (i) V. I., 
b. Ntirnberg, 1484; a friend of 
Luther; composer and conductor. 
His son (2) V. II., organist and com- 
poser. His son (3) y . III., organist 
at LSbejun, expert in org.-building. 
His son (4) V. IV., organist and 
court-conductor at Kothen; writer. 
His son (5) V. V. Vide BARTHOLO- 
MAUS; LSbejiin, 1678 Lauchstadt, 
after 1740; cath. organist and 
theorist. (6) Robt., Rottleberode, 
Harz Mts., Aug. 13, 1852 Vienna, 
Jan. 19, 1909, while on a concert 
tour; 'cellist; pupil of Th. Miiller, and 
Piatti in London; teacher, Berlin 
Royal "Hochschule"; 1879, member 
Joachim Quartet. 

flav'ergal, Rev. Wm. H., Buckingham- 
shire, 1793 1870; composer. 

Haweis (h6z), Rev. H. R., Egham, 
Surrey, 1838 London, Jan. 30, 1901; 
amateur violinist and popular writer 
on music. 

Hawes (h6z), Wm., Engl., London, 
^785 1846; conductor and com- 

llawldns (Sir), J., London, March 30, 
1719 Spa, May;t4, 1789; an attor- 
ney; eminent historian of music; 
knighted, 1772. 

Haydn (hid'-'n), (i) (Fz.) Josef, Roh- 
rau-on-Leitha, Lower Austria, March 
31, 1732 Vienna, May 31, 1809; 
second son of a wheelwright who was 
the sexton and organist of the village 
church, and a fine tenor, and whose 
wife, Maria Koler, had served as 
cook for Count Harrach. She sang 
in the choir. At 5, H. was taken to 
the home of a paternal cousin, 
Frankh, who taught him Latin, sing- 
ing, the vln. and other instrs. He 
was engaged as a chorister for St. 
Stephen's, and taught by Reutter the 
cond., who gave him no encourage- 
ment and dismissed him in 1748. 
At 8, he went to Vienna, and studied 
singing, vln. and clavier, with 
Finsterbusch and Gegenbauer. He 
studied harmony chiefly from Fux' 
"Gradus ad Parnassum" and Mat- 
theson's "Volkommener Kappell- 

meister." At 13 he c. a mass. He 
obtained a few pupils, and a Vien- 
nese tradesman lent him 150 florins, 
with which he rented an attic-room 
and an old harpsichord. He prac- 
tised C. P. E. Bach's first 6 sonatas 
and the vln.; Metastasio taught him 
Italian, and recommended him to a 
Spanish family as teacher for their 
daughter, who was studying with 
Porpora. From Porpora, in return 
for menial attentions, H. received 
some instruction in comp. and a 
recommendation to the Venetian 
ambassador for a stipend of 50 francs 
a month. At 20, he had c. 6 trios, 
sonatas, his first mass, and a comic 
opera "Der neue krumme Teufel" 
(Stadttheater, i75 2 )> a satire on the 
lame baron Affligi the ct.-opera dir.; 
this work was suppressed but revived 
afterwards, and he received 24 ducats 
for it. He began to make powerful 
friends, and became Musikdirektor 
and Kammercompositeur to Count 
Fd. Maximilian Morzin. 1 759 Prince 
Paul Anton EsterMzy heard his ist 
symph. and 1760 took him into his 
service as 2d (later ist) conductor; 
the same year H. m. Maria Anna, the 
elder sister of the girl whom he loved 
and who had entered a convent. 
This marriage was as unhappy as 
one would expect. Prince Nikolaus 
Esterhdzy, who succeeded his bro. in 
1762, retained H. as conductor and 
in his service H. c. 30 symphonies, 
40 quartets, a concerto for French 
horn, 1 2 minuets, most of his operas, 
etc. He was soon very pop. through 
Europe, and royalty sent him gifts. 
1785 commissioned to write a mass, 
"The Seven Words on the Cross," for 
the Cath. of Cadiz; in 1790 Prince 
Nikolaus ^as succeeded by his son 
Anton, who kept H. as cond. and 
increased his stipend of 1,000 florins 
to 1,400. In 1791 on a pressing in- 
vitation brought by Salomon, he 
went to England and was for 18 
months the lion of the season. Ox- 
ford made him Mus. Doc.; and he c. 
the so-called "Salomon Symphonies" 
xor nis concerts. On his way home, 
he visited his native place to witness 
the unveiling of a monument erected 
in his honour by Count Harrach. In 
this year Beethoven became his pu- 
pil. 1794, he revisited London, with 
renewed triumph, the King urging 
him to stay, but, at the invitation of 



a new Prince EsterMzy, lie returned. 
1797, he c. the Austrian national 
anthem. At 65, he prod, his great 
oratorio "The Creation" ("Die Sch'dp- 
fung"); in 1801 "The Seasons" ("Die 
Jakreszeiten 9 *) . His health failing he 
went into retirement, appearing in 
public only once in 1808, when he 
was carried in a chair to hear a 
special performance of the "Crea- 
tion."* His agitation was so great 
that he had to be taken away after 
the first half; the throng giving him 
a sad farewell, and Beethoven bend- 
ing to kiss his hands and forehead. 
In 1809, his death was hastened by 
the shock of the bombardment of 
Vienna by the French. His astound- 
ing list of works includes besides 
those mentioned, 125 symphonies 
and overtures, incl. the "Farewell"' 
("A bschiedssympkonie y " 1772), the 
"Fire S." ("Puersymph.> 1774), the 
"Toy S." ("Kindersymph!), "La 
CJiasse" (1870), the "Oxford" (1788), 
the "Surprise" ("S. mit dem Pauken- 
schlag," 1791); "S. with the drum- 
roll" ("S. mit dem Paukenwirbel,'* 
1793)9 5 1 concertos for harpsichord, 
vln., 'cello, lyre, barytone, double- 
bass, flute and horn; 77 string- 
quartets; 175 numbers for barytone; 
4 vln.-sonatas; 38 pf.- trios; 53 sona- 
tas and divertimenti; an oratorio 
"II Ritorno di Tobia"; 14 masses; 
4 operas; 4 Italian comedies; 14 Ital. 
opere buffe, and 5 marionette-operas; 
music to plays; 22 arias; cantatas, 
incl. "Ariana a Naxos,"< "Deutsch- 
lands Klage auf den Tod Friedrichs 
des Grossen," "The 10 Command- 
ments" in canon-form; 36 German 
songs; collections of Scotch and 
Welsh folk-songs, etc. Biog. by S. 
Mayr, 1809; K. F. Pohl (Leipzig, 
1875, 1882; completed by E. von 
Mandyczewski), Haydn's diary is 
quoted from extensively in Kreja- 
biel's "Music and Manners'* (New 
York, 1898). Studies of Haydn 
have been published by Brenet, 
Hadden, Hadow and Runciman. 
(2) Jn. Michael, Rohrau, Sept. 14, 
1737 Salzburg, Aug. 10, 1806; 
bro. of above; soprano chorister, 
with compass of 3 octaves, at St. 
Stephen's, Vienna, replacing his 
brother Josef. Studied vln. and or- 
gan, and became asst.-organist; 
1757? cond, at Grosswardein: 1762, 
dir* to Archbishop Sigismund, Salz- 

burg; 1777, organist of the Catha 
and St. Paul's Ch. He m. Maria 
Magdalena Lipp, an excellent so* 
prano; 1880 he lost his property, by 
the French occupation, but was 
aided by his bro. and 2 others, and 
the Empress Maria Theresa re- 
warded him for a mass c. at her 
command, in which she sang the 
soprano solos. He founded a school 
of composition, and had many 
pupils, incl. Reicha and Weber. 
Prince Esterhazy twice offered to 
make him vice-cond.; but H. re- 
fused, hoping to reorganise the 
Salzburg Chapel. His best works 
were sacred music, which his brother 
esteemed above his own. He de* 
dined publication, however; c. 360 
church-comps., incl. oratorios, 
masses, etc., 30 symphonies; operas, 
etc. Biog. by Schinn and Otter 
(Salzburg, 1808). 

Hayes (haz), (i) Win., Hanbury, Wor- 
cestershire, Dec., 1706 Oxford, July 
2 7 *777i organist, conductor and 
writer. (2) Philip, Oxford, April, 
1738 London, March 19, 1797; son 
and pupil of above, and his successor 
as Univ. Prof, of Mus. at Oxford; 
also organist there; c. oratorio; a 
masque; 6 concertos, etc. (3) 
Roland, b. Chattanooga, Tenn., 
June 3, 1887; Negro tenor; has made 
recital tours of Europe and U. S., 
with succ.; specialist in Lieder, 
classic and modern songs, spirituals. 
Haym (him), (i) (or Hennius), Grilles, 
Belgian composer i6th cent. (2) 
Italian composer, Airno (8/-e*-mo), (3) 
Niccolo Franc., Rome, ca. 1679 
London, 1729; 'cellist and librettist. 
Heap, Chas, Swinnerton, Birming- 
ham, Engl., April 10, 1847 June n, 
1900; won the Mendelssohn scholar- 
ship and studied at Leipzig Cons.; 
also organ with Best; Mus. Doc. 
Cambridge, 1872; cond. Birmingham 
Phil. (1870-86) and other societies; 
c. an oratorio "The Captivity"; can- 
tatas, etc. 

Hebenstreit (hab'-'n-shtrlt), Pantale- 
on, Eisleben, 1660 (9?) Dresden, 
1750; conductor; improved the dul- 
cimer as the "Pantalon"- (v. D. D.). 
Hecht (hfckht), Ed., Dtirkheim, Rhine 
Palatinate, 1832 Didsbury, near 
Manchester, 1887; pianist; prof, 
and composer. 

Heckel (hSk'-el), Wolf, lutenist *t 
Strassburg. i6th cent. 



Seckmann (hSk'-man), (i) G. Julius 
Robt., Mannheim, 1848 Glasgow, 
1891; violinist. His wife (2) Marie 
(n6e Hartwig), Greiz, 1843 Co- 
logne, 1890; pianist. 

HSdouin (.d-w&n), P., Boulogne, 1789 
* Paris, 1868; lawyer, writer, libret- 
tist and composer. 

Heermann (har'-man), Hugo, Heil- 
bronn, March 3, 1844 Merano, 
Switz., Nov. 6, I935J violinist; stu- 
died with J. Meerts, Brussels Cons. 
1878, also with Joachim; in Frankfort 
as soloist and teacher at the Hoch 
Cons.; 1906-09, taught Chicago Mus. 
Coll.; 1910, Stern Cons., Berlin; 
1911, Geneva Cons.; ed. de B&riot 
vln. method. 

Heeringen (ha'-rlng-6n), Ernst von, 
Grossmehlza, near Sondershausen, 
1810 Washington, U. S. A., 1855; 
unsuccessful innovator in notation 
and scoring. 

Hegar (ha'-gar), (i) Fr., Basel, Oct. 
ii, 1841 Zurich, June 2, 1927; 
studied Leipzig Cons., 1861; from 
1863 cond. Subscription Concerts, 
and of the Choral Soc., Zurich; 1875 
founded Cons, at Zurich; c. vln.- 
concerto in D; succ. dram, poem, 
"Manasse" for soli, chorus and 
orch.; "Festouvertttre" etc. (2) 
Emily Basel, Jan. 3, 1843 June 13, 
1921; bro. of above; pupil, later 
'cello-teacher at Leipzig Cons., and 
sst 'cello Gewandhaus Orch.; then 
itudied singing; vocal-teacher Basel 
Sch. of Mus. (3) Julius, bra. of 
above; 'cellist at Zurich. 

Hegedus (hSg-S-dush), Ferencz, b. 
Fiinfkirchen, Feb. 26, 1881; violinist; 
succ. de"but, London, 1901; lived in 
Zurich; d. 1944- 

Heger (ha'-gSr), Robert, b. Strasbourg, 
Aug. 19, 1886; German conductor 
and composer; studied with Stock- 
hausen in Strasbourg Cons., later 
in Zurich and with Schillings at 
Munich; cond. at Strasbourg, Ulm, 
Barmen, Nuremberg, Munich and 
after 1925 at Vienna State Op., 
also guest cond. at Covent Garden; 
c* operas, orch. works, chamber 
music, choruses. 

Hegner (hakh'-ne'r), (i) Anton, b. 
Copenhagen, March 2, 1861 N. Y., 
Dec. 4, 1915; 'cellist; studied Copenh. 
Cons.; d6but at 14; later a teacher 
N. Y.; c. 4 quartets; 2 concertos for 
-'cello, etc. (2) Otto, Basel, Nov. 18, 
1876 Hamburg, Feb. 22, 1907; 

pianist; pupil of Fricker, Huber, and 
Glaus; made d6but very early at 
Basel (1888), England and America, 
at the Gewandhaus, Leipzig, 1890; 
c. pf ,-pcs. 

Hegyesi (hSg'-ya-zg), Louis, Arpad, 
Hungary, 1853 Cologne, Feb., 1894; 

Heide, von der. Vide VON DEB. H. 

Heidingsfeld (hi '-dings-felt), L., Jauer, 
Prussia, March 24, 1854 Danzig, 
Sept. 14, 1920; pupil, later teacher 
Stern Cons., Berlin; composer. 

Heifetz, Jascha (hl'-ftz yS/-sh), b. 
Vilna, Russia, Feb. 2, 1901; violinist; 
grad. Vilna School of Music at 8; 
studied with Auer at St. Petersburg 
Cons.; ist appearance at 5; dbut, 
Berlin Philh. under Nikisch, 1912; 
toured Europe; Amer. d6but, N. Y., 
Oct. 27, 1917, in recital, with sen- 
sational succ.; at 15 estab. as one of 
foremost technicians of vln., a 
reputation he has subsequently en- 
hanced with ripening of stylistic and 
interpretative powers; has made ap- 
pearances around world, incl. Orient; 
became U. S. citizen, 1925; soloist 
with leading orchs. in the princ. 
cities of Europe and America; has 
arranged comps. for vln.; donor 
$1,000 prize for vln. concerto. 

Hein (bin;, Carl, b. Rendsburg, 1864; 
'cellist; pupil Hamburg Cons.; 1885- 
90 'cellist Hamburg Philharmonic 
Orch.; 1890 teacher in New York 
at German Cons.; 1903, joined with 
a fellow-pupil from the Hamburg 
Cons., August Fraemcke, in its 
direction; dir. N. Y, Coll. of Mus., 
19061945; d- N. Y., Feb. 27, 1945- 

Heinemeyer (hl'-nS-ml-e'r), (i> Chr. 
H., 1796 1872; flutist at Hanover; 
composer. (2) Ernst Wm., Han- 
over, 1827 Vienna, 1869; son of 
above; flutist and composer. 

Heinichen (hl'-ntkh-Sn), Jn, D., Kros- 
suln, near Weissenfels, 1683 Dres- 
den, 1729; dram, composer and 

Heinrick (hln'-rikh). (i) Jn. G., 
Steinsdorf (Silesia), 1807 Sorau, 
1882; organist, writer and com- 
poser. (2) Heinrich XXIV., Prince 
Reuss j. L., Dec. 8, 1855 Einst- 
brunn, Oct. 2, 1910; pianist; c. a 
symphony, a pf .-sonata, etc. 

Heinroth (hm'-rot), (i) Clip. Gl., for 
62 years organist at Nordhausen. 
(2) Jn. Aug. Gunther, Nordhausen > 
1780 Gottingen, 1846; son of above; 



director and composer. (3) Charles, 
b. New York, Jan. 2, 1874; organist; 
studied piano with Friedheim and 
Spicker, org. with John White and 
comp. with Herbert; also in Munich 
with Hieber and Rheinberger; after 
1803, org, in various N. Y. and 
Brooklyn churches and taught at 
Nat'l. Cons.; after 1907, org. and 
dir. of music at Carnegie Inst., 
Pittsburgh, Pa., where he has given 
notable series of weekly recitals; 
also heard in other cities. 
Heintz (hints), Albert, Eberswalde, 
Prussia, March 21, 1882 Berlin, 
June 14, 1911; organist "Petri- 
kirche," Berlin; writer on Wagner; 

Heinze (hints'-^), (i) Wm. H. H., b. 
1700; clarinettist in the Gewandhaus 
Orch. (2) Gv. Ad., Leipzig, Oct. i, 
1820 near Amsterdam, Feb. 2, 
1904; son and pupil of above; at 15 
clarinettist in the Gewandhaus; 
1844, ad cond. Breslau Th., and 
prod. 2 operas (of which his wife 
wrote the libretti); 1850, Amsterdam 
as cond.; c. 5 oratorios, 3 masses, 3 
overtures, etc. (3) Sarah (ne'e Mag- 
nus), Stockholm, 1836 Dresden, 
Jan. 27, 1901; pianist; pupil of 
Kullak, AL Dreyschock, and Liszt; 
lived in Dresden. 

Heise (hl'-zS), Peder Arnold, Copen- 
hagen, 1830 1879; teacher and 
dram, composer. 

Heiser (hi'-zSr), Wim., Berlin, 1816 
Friedenau, 1897; singer, bandmaster, 
and composer. 

Heklcing, Anton, b. The Hague, Sept. 
7, 1855 Nov. 1 8, 1935; noted 
'cellist; teacher at the Stern Cons.; 
toured widely. 

Heller, Stephen, Pesth, May 15, 1813 
Paris, Jan. 14, 1888; notable 
composer who, like Chopin, confined 
ttjg abilities to the pf . Lacking the 
breath, passion and colour of Cho- 
pin's, his music has a candour and 
vivacity and a fascinating quaint- 
ness that give it peculiar charm; his 
Etudes, simpler than Chopin's, are 
as well imbued with art and per- 
sonality. Studied piano with F. 
Brauer; at 9 played in pub. with 
succ.; then studied with Czerny and 
Halm; at 12, gave concerts in Vienna, 
and toured; at Pesth studied a little 
harmony with Czibulka; at Augs- 
burg, fell ill, and was adopted by a 
Wealthy family, who aided his 

studies; 1838, Paris. Schumann 

E raised his first comp. highly. 1849, 
ondon, he played with succ. though 
infrequently because of nervous- 
ness; thereafter lived in Paris. C. 
several hundred pf.-pcs., incl. 4 
sonatas and the famous Etudes. 
Biogr. by H. Barbadette (1876). 

Hellinck, Joannes Lupus (often called 
Lupus or Lupi), d. IS4 1 ; Flemish 
choir master at Cambrai and 
Bruges; c. many masses, influencing 
Palestrina; important motets, hymns 
and songs. 

Hellmesberger (heT-mSs-berkh-e'r), (i) 
G. (Sr.), Vienna, 1800 Neuwaldegg, 
1873; violinist, conductor and com- 
poser. (2) G. (Jr.), Vienna, 1830 
Hanover, 1852; son and pupil of 
above; violinist and dram, composer. 

(3) Rosa, daughter of (2), was a 
singer, d6but 1883, ct.-opera, Vienna. 

(4) Jos. (Sr.), Vienna, 1828- 1893; 
son of (i); conductor, violinist and 
professor. (5) Jos. (Jr.), Vienna, 
April 9, 1855 April 26, 1907; son 
of (4); violinist and composer of 
operettas, ballets, etc. 1002, cond. 
Vienna Philh. Orch. (6) Fd., b. 
Vienna, Jan. 24, 1863; bro. of above; 
^cellist in ct.-orch. from 1879; from 
1883 with his father's quartet; 1885 
teacher at the Cons.; 1886, solo 
'cellist, ct.-opera; 1905-06, cond. at 
same; 1908-11, cond. in Abbazia. 

Hellwig (hel'-vXkh), K. Fr. L., Ktt- 
nersdorf, 1773 Berlin, 1838; con- 
ductor and dram, composer. 

Helm, Theodor, Vienna, April 9, 1843 
Dec. 23, 1920; studied law, en- 
tered govt. service; 1867 critic for 
various journals, and writer; 1874, 
teacher of mus. hist, and aesthetics, 
Horak's School of Music; author, 
studies of music of Beethoven and 

Helmholtz (hSlm'-h6its), Hermann L. 
Fd., Potsdam, Aug. 31, 1821 
Charlottenburg, Sept. 8, 1894; emi- 
nent scientist; pub. famous treatises 
such as "Sensations of Tone as a 
Physiological Basis for the Theory of 
Music 99 ' (Lekre von den Tonempfin- 
dungen als physiologische Grundlage 
fUr die Theorie der Musik) (Bruns- 
wick, 1863; English trans, by Ellis, 
1875); this work, the result of much 
experiment, is the very foundation of 
modern acoustics, though Riemann, 
who was in some opposition to H. f 
says his conclusions are not infallible. 



H. inv. also a double harmonium 
with 24 vibrators to the octave; this 
lacks the dissonant 3rds and 6ths of 
equal temperament (v. D. D.) and 
permits the same modulation into all 

Hem'pel, Frieda, b. Leipzig, June 26, 
1885; soprano; studied the piano at 
Leipzig Cons., 1903-05; then voice 
with Frau Lempner; d6but in 
Stettin; 1906, at Bayreuth; 1907 
Co vent Garden; has sung in Paris 
Op6ra, Brussels, Vienna, etc.; from 
1908 Berlin Royal Opera; engaged 
for Met. Op., N. Y., 1912; and sang 
with that co. for nearly a decade 
with distinction in wide variety of 
German and Italian r61es; thereafter 
pron inent as a concert singer. 

Henderson, William James, b. Newark 
N. J., Dec. 4, 1855 New York, 
June 5, i937 noted critic; grad. 
Princeton Univ., 1876; Litt. D., 
1922; from 1887-1902 critic, New 
York Times; 1902-1937, critic New 
York Sun*, lectured, N. Y. Coll. of 
Music and Inst, of Music. Art; 
wrote librettos for Damrosch's operas 
"The Scarlet Letter"* and "Cyrano 
ie Bergerac"; author of "The Story 
of Music," "Preludes and Studies, 9 * 
"What Is Good Music?", "How 
Music Developed,"- "The Orchestra 
and Orchestral Music," "Wagner, 
His Life and Dramas"* "Modern 
Music Drift,"- "The Art of the 
Singer," "Some Forerunners of Ital- 
ian Opera,"' "The Early History or 
Singing,"- "The Soul of a Tenor*'* 
(novel), "Pipes and limbrels,"* 
poems. He long upheld a high 
standard of musical commentary, 
combined with a vast knowledge of 
musical hist, and an experience of 
actual concert and opera-going 
covering a half -cent.; his style, 
urbane, pithy and often marked by 
gentle satire, retaining its pungency, 
while he also saluted with an open 
mind some of the more advanced 
musical manifestations of latter 

Hen^el (hnk'-el), (i) Michael, Fulda, 
1780 1851; composer. {2) G* 
Andreas, Fulda, 1805 1871; organ- 
ist and composer. (3) H., Fulda, 
Feb. 1 6, 1822 Frankfort-on-Main, 
April 10, 1899; son and pupil 
of (i), also studied with Aloys 
Schmitt, and theory with BLessler and 
Anton Andre; 1849, teacher, etc., 

Frankfort. (4) K., Brttnn, May 28, 
1867 near Vienna, Dec. 2, 1924; 
son of (3); studied in Berlin Hoch- 
schule; lived in London, as violinist. 

Henneberg (hn'-nS-b&rkh), Jn. Bapt., 
Vienna, 1768 1822; organist, con- 
ductor and composer. 

Hennig (hn'-nJkh),^ (i) ^ K., Berlin, 
1819 1873; organist, dir. and com- 
poser. (2) K. Rafael, Berlin, Jan. 
4, 1845 Posen, Feb. 6, 1914; son 
of above; pupil of Richter and Kiel; 
1869-75, organist Posen; 1873, foun- 
der of "Hennig"' Vocal Soc.; 1:883, 
Royal Mus. Dir.; 1892, R. Prof.; 
composer and writer. 

Hen'mus. Vide HAYM, GHXES. 

Henrion (S,n-rl-dn), Paul, Paris, July 
20, 1819 Oct. 24, 1901; c. operettas 
and over a thousand popular songs. 

Henriques (hSn-rg'-kes), Fini Bai- 
demar, b. Copenhagen, Dec. 20, 
1867; violinist; pupil of Tofte, 
Svendsen, and Joachim; member of 
court orch. at Copenhagen; c. inci- 
dental mus. to "Wteland der Schmied"* 
piano wks., etc.; d. 1940. . 

Henschel "(kSn'-shel), (i) Sir George, 
Breslau, Feb. 18, 1850 Aletna- 
Criche, Scotland, Sept. 10, 3934; 
prominent barytone, pianist, and 
teacher; pupil of Wandelt and 
Schaeffer, Breslau; of Leipzig Cons, 
also Kiel and Ad. Schulze (singing); 
Berlin; 1877-80, lived in London; 
1881-84, cond. Boston (U. S. A.) 
Symph. Orch.; 1885, London; 
founded the "London Symphony 
Concerts"-, 1886-88, prof, of singing 
R. C. Mus.; c. operas, "Friedrich der 
Sch&ne" and "Nubia": operetta, "A 
Sea Change, or Love's Castaway"; 
an oratorio, etc. (2) Lillian (ne'e 
Bailey), Columbus, Ohio, Jan., 1860 
London, Nov. 4, 1901; pupil and 
(1881) wife of above; also studied 
with C. Hayden and Viardot-Garcia; 
concert-soprano; she and her hus- 
band gave recitals with great art and 
success. (3) Helen, daughter of 
above, soprano; sang N. Y. 1902. 

Hensel (hSn'-zel), (i) Fanny CUcilia 
(n6e Mendelssohn), Hamburg, Nov. 
14, 1805 Berlin, May 14, 1847; 
eldest sister of PELIX M., whose de- 
voted companion she was, and who 
died six months after her sudden 
death. He said she was a better 
pianist than he, and six of her songs 
are pub. under his name: viz., his op. 
8 (Nos. 2, 3, 12), and op. 9 (7, 10, 



T2>; she pub. under her own name 
**Gartenlieder" part-songs and songs; 
c. also pf --trios and pcs. (2) Octavia. 
Vide IONDA. 

Henselt (h&i'-z&t), Ad. von, Schwa- 
bach, Bavaria, May 12, 1814 
Wannbrunn, Silesia, Oct. 10, 1889; 
eminent pianist who played with re- 
jnarkable sonority and emotion; to 
obtain his remarkable reach he c. 
and practised incessantly very diffi- 
cult studies; he c. a famous pf.- 
concerto, 6tudes, etc. 
Hentschel {hSnt'-shel), Theodor, 
Schirgiswalde, Upper Lusatia, 1830 
Hamburg, 1892; conductor, pianist 
and dram, composer. 
Herbert (her'-bart), Jn. FT., Olden- 
burg, 1776 Gottingen, 1841; writer. 
Herbeck (h&r'-bSk), Jn. tfz. von, Vi- 
enna, Dec. 25, 1831 Oct. 28, 1877; 
important cond., mainly self-taught; 
dir. 1866, ct.-cond. at Vienna and 
prof, at the Cons. 

Her'hert, Victor, Dublin, Ireland, 
Feb. i, 1859 New York, May 26, 
1924; a grandson of Samuel Lover, 
the novelist; at 7, sent to Germany 
to study music; ist 'cello ct.-orch. 
Stuttgart, and elsewhere; 1886 solo 
'cellist, Metropolitan Orch. r New 
York; later Theodore Thomas* and 
SeidTs orchs. (also associate-cond.) ; 
1894, bandm. 22d Regt., vice Gil- 
more; 1898 1904 cond. of Pitts- 
burgh (Pa.) Orch. (70 performers); 
then founded and cond. the Victor 
Herbert Orch., with which he toured 
widely; c* pcs. for orch. and 'cello; 
'cello-concerto; an oratorio, "The 
Captive" (Worcester Festival); and 
numerous comic operas, incl. "Prince 
Ananias," a failure, "The Wizard 
^ the Nile," "The Serenade," "The 
'dol's Eye," "The Fortune Teller," 
**The Singing Girl," "Babes in Toy- 
land," "The Red MUl," "Naughty 
Marietta," "The Enchantress," 
"Mtte, Modiste," "The Lady of the 
Slipper," "The Madcap Duchess," 
"Sweethearts," "The Debutante"' 
"The Only Girl," "Princess Pat,"' 
-"Eileen," "Her Regiment," etc. He 
c. also the grand opera " Natoma,"- 
libretto by Jos. D. Redding, which 
was prod, by the Philadelphia Opera 
Co., 191 1, in Philadelphia and at the 
Met. Op., N*. Y., the same year; and 
a one-act lyric opera, "Madeleine" 
(book by Grant Stewart), Met. Op., 
Jan, 24, 1914, fSee article, page 499.) 

Heritte - Viardot 
Louise Pauline Marie, Paris, Dec. 
14, 1841 Heidelberg, Jan. 17, 1918; 
daughter of Viardot- Garcia; vocal 
teacher St. Petersburg Cons.; later 
at Frankfort, and Berlin; m. Consul- 
General Heritte; c. opera "Lindora'* 
(Weimar, 1879), and cantatas. 
Hermann (hgr'-man), (i) Matthias, 
called Verrecoiensis, or Verreco- 
rensis, from his supposed birthplace, 
Warkenz or Warkoing, Holland; 
Netherland cptist. i6th cent. (2) 
Jn. D., Germany, ca. 1760 Paris, 
1846; pianist and composer. (3) 
Jn. Gf. Jakob, Leipzig, 1772 1848; 
writer. (4) Ft., Frankfort, 1828 
Leipzig, 1907; pupil Leipzig Cons.; 
1846-75, viola-player, Gewandhaus 
and theatre orchs.; 1848, vln.-teacher 
at the Cons.; 1883 Royal Saxon Prof.; 
c. symphony, etc.; editor and collec- 
tor, (5) Rheinhold L., Prenzlau, 
Brandenburg, Sept. 21, 1849 iQ I 9> 
pupil of Stern Cons., Berlin; 1878-81 
dir. of it; 1871-78 singing-teacher 
and cond. New York; 1884, cond. 
N. Y. "Liederkranz"; 1887, prof, 
of sacred history at the Theol. Semi- 
nary; 1898, cond, Handel and Haydn 
Soc., Boston; 1900 returned to Ber- 
lin; c. 4 operas incl. "Vineta** 
(Breslau, 1895), and "Wulfrin" (Co- 
logne, 1896); 5 cantatas, overtures, 
etc. (6) Robt,, Bern, Switzerland, 
April 29, 1869 Ambach, Oct. 10, 
1912; studied Frankfort Cons; pre- 
viously self-taught in zither, pf., 
comp. and had c. works of much 
originality in which Grieg encouraged 
him; 1893, studied with Humper- 
dinck, then went to Leipzig and 
Berlin, where (1895) kis symphony 
and a concert-overture were prod, at 
the Philh., provoking much critical 
controversy; lived in Leipzig; c. also 
"P elites variations pour rire" for 
and vln.; etc. (7) Hans, Lei 
Aug. 17, 1870 Berlin, May 1 
1931; contrabassist and composer 
studied with Rust, Kretschmer and 
von Herzogenberg; c. string-quartets, 
pf.-pcs., etc., and many songs. 
(8) J. Z. Vide ZENNE*. ^9) Vide 


Herman'nus (called Contrac'tus or 
"der Lahme," for his lameness), 
Graf von Vehrihgen, Saulgau.Swabia, 
July 18, 1013 Alshausen, near 
Bioerach, Sepi:. 24, 1054; important 
writer and theorist. 



Herniesdorff (hSr'-mSs-d6rf), Michael, 
Trier (Troves), 18331885; organ- 
ist composer and editor. 

Hennstedt (hrm'-shtt), Jn. Simon, 
Langensalza, near Dresden, 1778 
Sondershausen, 1846; composer. 

Hernandez (r-nan'-dth), Pablo, b. 
Saragossa, Jan. 25, 18341 87-; pupil 
Madrid Cons.; organist and (1863) 
auxiliary prof, there; c. zarzuelas; 
a mass, symphony, etc. 

Hemando (gr-nn'-do), Rafael Jose 
M., Madrid, May 31, 1822 after 
1867; pupil of R. Carnicer, Madrid 
Cons.; 1848-53, he prod, several 
succ. zarzuelas, some in collab.; later 
dir and composer to Th. des 
Vari6ts; 1852, secretary, later prof, 
of harm., Madrid Cons.; founded a 
Mutual Aid Mus. Soc. 

Harold (a-r61), (i) Louis Jos- Fd., 
Paris, Jan. 28, 1791 (of consump- 
tion) Themes, near Paris, Jan. 19, 
1833; son of (2) Fran. Jos. H. (d. 
1802; pf. -teacher and composer, 
pupil of P. E. Bach), who opposed 
his studying music, though FStis 
taught him solfege and L. Adam. pf. 
After his father's death (1802), he 
studied piano with Louis Adam, 
Paris Cons, (first prize, 1810); 
harmony with Catel and (from 1811) 
comp. with M6hul; 1812 won the 
Prix de Rome, with cantata "Mile, 
de la Valliere"', studied at Rome and 
Naples, where he was pianist to 
Queen Caroline, and prod, opera 
"La Gioventu di Enrico Quinto" 
(1815); Paris, 1815, finished Boiel- 
dieu's "Charles de France" (prod, 
with succ. 1816, Op. Com.); "Les 
Rosieres" and "La Clochette" fol- 
lowed 1817, both v. succ.; others 
followed; the last (1820) failing, he 
imitated Rossini in several operas, 
but recovered himself in the succ. 
"Marie" (1826); 1824, pianist, later 
chorusm. at the Ital. Opera, but 
soon relinquished. 1827 Chef du 
Chant at the Gr. Op6ra, for which 
he wrote several succ. ballets, incl. 
"La SomnambuleS' which gave a 
suggestion to Bellini; 1828. Legion of 
Honour. "Zamfia" (1831) gave him 
European rank and is considered his 
best work by all except the French, 
who prefer his last work "Le Pre 
aux Clercs" (1832); he prod, also 
"UAuberge d'Airey" (1830) (with 
Carafa), "La Marquise de Brtnwl- 
liers" (1831), with Auber, Boieldieu, 

Cherubim, and 5 others; and "La 
Medicine sans MSdecin" (1832); he 
left "Ludovic" unfinished, to be com- 
pleted by Hal6vy with succ.; c. also 
much pf.-mus. Biogr. by Jouvin 
{Paris, 1868). 

Herrmann (hSr'-man), (i) Gf., Sonders- 
hausen, 1808 Liibeck, 1878; violin- 
ist, pianist, organist and dram, com- 
poser. (2) K., d. Stuttgart, 1894; 
f celHst. 

Herschel (hSr-shel), Fr. Wm. (Angli- 
cised, Sir William Herschel, K.C. 
H., D.C.L.), Hanover, 1738 Slough, 
near Windsor, 1822; oboist; organ- 
ist at Bath; astronomy, in which he 
won such fame, was till 1781 only his 

Hertel (hfcr'-t'l), (i) Jn. Chr., Oetting- 
en, Swabia, 1699 Strelitz, 1754; 
singer, viola da gambist, violinist and 
composer. (2) Jn. Wm., Eisenach, 
1727 Schwerin, 1789; son and pupil 
of above; violinist, conductor and 
composer. (3) K., 1784-1868; vi- 
olinist. (4) Peter L*, Berlin, 1817 
1899; son of above; composer. 
Hertz (hSrtz), Alfred, Frankfort-on- 
Main, July 15, 1872 San Francisco, 
Cal., April 17, 194^; studied Raff 
Cons.; from 1895 2d-cond. various 
cities; 1899 cond. city theatre Bres- 
lau; 1 899, London; 1 909-1 5, Met. Op., 
N. Y., 1915-30, cond. San Francisco 
Symph. Orch. 

Hertzberg (hSrts'-bfcrkh), Rudolph von, 
Berlin, 1818 1893; conductor and 
editor. . 

Herve rightly Florimond Ronger (r- 
v2L or r6n-zha), (i) Houdain, near 
Arras, June 30, 1825 Paris, Nov. 4, 
1892; singer, then organist, con- 
ductor; in Paris acting as librettist, 
composer and actor, and producing 
flippant but ingenious little works in 
which French operetta finds a real 
origin; c. over 50 operettas, also 
heroic symphony "The Ashantee 
War,"> and ballets. (2) Gardel, son 
of above, prod. 1871 operetta " Ni, 
ni, c'estfini.'- 9 ' 

Hervey (har'-vi), Arthur, of Irish 
parents, Paris, Jan. 26, 1855 Lon- 
don, March 10, 1922; pupil of B. 
Tours (harm.) and Ed. Marlois 
(instr.); intended for the diplomatic 
service, till 1880; critic of "Vanity 
Fair"', from 1892, London "Post"\ 
c. a i-act opera, a dram, overture 
"Love and Fate," etc.; author of 
biog. and other works. 



Herz (hrts or Srs), (i) Jacques Simon, 
Frankfort, Dec. 31, 1794 Nice, 
Jan. 27, 1880; of Jewish parentage; 
studied at Paris Cons, with Pradher; 
pianist and teacher in Paris; then 
London j 1857, acting-prof. Paris 
Cons.; c. vln.-sonatas, etc. (2) 
Henri, Vienna, Jan. 6, 1806 Paris, 
Jan, 5 ? 1888; ist prize pf.-pupil 
Paris Cons.; very popular as touring 
pianist; succ, as mfr, of pianos; ob- 
tained extravagant prices for his 
comps.; prof, at the Cons.; writer. 
Herzog (hSr'-tsokh), (i) Jn. G., 
Schmolz, Bavaria, Sept. 6, 1822 
Munich, Feb. 4, 1909; 'pupil of 
Bodenschatz, and at Altdorf Semi- 
nary; 1842, organist at Munich; 
1848, cantor; 1850, organ-prof, at 
the Cons.; 1854, mus. dir. Erlangen 
Uruv.; 1866, Dr. PhiL; later prof.; 
retired 1888; composer. (2) Emilie, 
Ermatingen, Switzerland, 1859 
Aarburg, Sept. 16, 1923; spubrette 
coloratura-singer; pupil Zurich Sch. 
of Mus., then of Gloggner, and Ad. 
Schimon, Munich; d6but, Munich 
(1879); 1889-1916, Berlin ct.-opera; 
1922 taught Zurich Cons. 
Herzogenberg (hSr'-tsSkh-Sn-bSrkh) , 
(i) EL von, Graz, Styria, June 10, 
1843 Wiesbaden, 1900; prof, at 
Berlin, etc.; director, professor and 
composer. (2) Elizabeth (ne von 
Stockhauseu) (?) 1848 San Remo, 
1892; pianist, wife of above. 
Hes'eltine, (i) Jas., d. 1763; English or- 
ganist and composer. (?) Philip, 
London, Oct. 30, 1894 Dec. 17, 
1930; composer and author, known 
under pseudonym of "Peter War- 
lock 9 -; studied at Eton, and with 
Colin Taylor, Delius and van 
Dieren; founded and ed. periodical, 
"The Sackbut," 1920-21; wrote books 
on Delius, Gesualdo; also "The 
English Ayre"; c. chamber and 
orch. music, many songs. 
Hess, (i) Joachim, organist, writer and 
carillonneur, Gouda, Holland, from 
1766 1810. (2) Willy, b. Mann- 
heim, July 14, 1859 Berlin, Feb. 
*7> 1939; pupil of Joachim; at 19 
Konzertmeister at Frankfort, 1886 
at Rotterdam, then England; 1895 
ist vln.-prof. Cologne Cons., and 
ist vln. Giirzenich Quartet. He 
was made Royal Prof., 1900; 1903-4 
he was violin prof. R. A. M., London; 
resigned and became concertmaster 
Boston Symph. Orch., and leader of 

the Quartet; ipo8 co-founded the 
Hess-Schroeder Quartet j 1910-28, 
taught Berlin Hochsch. (3) Lu*I- 
wig, b. Marburg, March 23, 1877; 
pupil Berlin Royal Hochsch. and 
Vidal in Milan; toured as concert 
singer; from 1907 succeeded Felix 
Mottl as dir, Munich Konzertgesell- 
schaft; c. symphony "Hans Mem- 
ling" an epic "Ariadne" and other 
works for voices and orch.; songs, 
etc.; 1912 engaged to tour America; 
1925-34, prof, Berlin Acad. for 
Church and School Mus.., d. 1944. 
Myra, b. London, Feb. 25, 1890; 
pianist; studied R. Coll. of Mus. 
with Tobias Matthay; has toured 
France, Holland, Belgium, Canada, 
also U. S. annually after about 
1920; one of pre-eminent pianists 
of her generation; has made arr. of 
Bach chorales for piano: created 
Dame Commander of British Em- 
pire, 1936. 

Hesse (hs'-s*9, (i) Ernst Chr., 
Grossen-Gottern, Thuringia, 1676- 
Darmstadt, 1762; viola-da-gambist 
conductor. (2) Ad. (Fr.), Breslau, 
1809 1863; org.- virtuoso and com- 
poser. (3) Julius, Hamburg, 1823 
Berlin, 1881; introduced the present 
measurement for pf.-keys; and pub. 
a method. (4) Max, Sondershausen, 
Feb. 18, 1858 Leipzig, Nov. 24, 
1907; 1880 founded mus. pub. house 
in Leipzig; in 1883, founded H. und 

Hetsch (hStsh), K. Fr. L., Stuttgart, 
1806 Mannheim, 1872; pianist, vi- 
olinist and dram, composer. 
Heuberger (hoi'-bSrkh-6r), Richard 
Fz. Jos., Graz, Styria, June 18, 
1850 Vienna, Oct. 28, 1914; a civil 
engineer; in 1876 took up music, 
which he had previously studied; 
chorusm., Vienna academical Ge- 
sangverein; 1878 cond. Singakade- 
mie; c. operas "Abenteuer einer Neu-> 
jahrsnacht" (Leipzig, 1886); "Manuel 
Venegas" (do., 1889), remodelled as 
"Mir jam" (Vienna, '94) ; 2 operettas; 
critic, and teacher at Vienna Cons. 
Heubner (hoip'-ne"r), Konrad, Dresden, 

mann, later Nottebohm, Vienna; 
Wiillner, Nicode* and Blassmann, 
Dresden; 1882, cond. Leipzig Singa- 
kademie; 1884, asst. cond. Berlin 
Singakademie; 1890, dir. Coblenz 



Cons, and MTIS. Soc. ; c. a symphony, 
overtures, etc. 

Heugel (tt-zhel), Jacques Ld., La 
Rochelle, 1815 Paris, 1883; editor 
and publisher. 

Hey (hi), Julius, Irmelshausen, Lower 
Franconia, April 29, 1832 Munich, 
April 22, 1909; studied with Lachner 
(harm, and cpt.), and F. Schmitt 
(singing); later with von Billow at 
the Munich Sch. of Mus. (estab. by 
King Ludwig II. on Wagner's plans) ; 
attempted a reform in the cultivation 
of singing, but resigned at Wagner's 
death (1883), and pub. important 
vocal method, "Deutscher Gesang- 
sunterricht"* (4 parts, 1886), ex- 
ploiting Wagner's views. Wagner 
called him "the chief of all singing- 
teachers.'^ 1887, Berlin; later Mu- 
nich; composer. 

Heyden (hT-d'n), (i) Sebald, Ntirn- 
berg, 1498 (i494?) 1561; cantor, 
writer. (2) Hans, Niirnberg, 1540 
1613; son of above; organist; inv. 
the "GeigenclavicimbaL"' 

Beydrich (hl'-drlkh), Bruno, b. Leu- 
ben, Feb. 23, 1863 Halle, August, 
1938; pupil of Dresden Cons.; 1879- 
82, took prizes as double-bass player, 
pianist and composer; for a year in 
von Billow's Weimar orch.; 4 years 
Dresden ct.-orch.; also studied sing- 
ing with Scharfe, Hey and v. Milde; 
succ. dbut as tenor at Sonder- 
shausen theatre; prod, i-act opera- 
drama, with pantomimic prologue, 
"Amen,** Cologne, 1895; c. songs; 
after 1009, dir. of a mus. school in 

Hey'man, Katherine Ruth, Sacramento, 
Cal. d. Sept. 28, 1944; pianist; 
studied in Europe; d6but, Boston, 
1899, also heard in Europe; known 
particularly as an interpreter of 
Scriabin. for which she has won 
internal 1. reputation. 

Heymann (hi '-man), (i) Karl, pianist, 
Filehna, Posen, Oct. 6, 1854 Haar- 
lem, Nov., 1922. Son of (2) Isaac H. 
(cantor); pupil of Hiller, Gernsheim, 
Breunung and Cologne Cons, and of 
Kiel; ill-health ended his promising 
career as virtuoso; 1874, mus. dir. 
at Bingen; court-pianist to the 
Landgrave of Hesse; 1879-80, Hoch 
Cons., Frankfort; c. concerto "Elfen- 
spiel," "Mummenschanz,"- "Phanta- 
siestilcke," etc., for piano. 

Heymann-Kheineck (hi'-man-rl'-ne'k) 
(K. Aug. Heymann), b. Burg- 

Rheineck on Rhine, Nov. 24, 1852; 
pianist; pupil Cologne Cons., and 
R. Hochschule, Berlin; 1875-1920, 
teacher there; composer. 

Heyne Van Ghizeghem (also Hayne, 
or Ayne, "Henry"), Netherland con- 
trapuntist and court-singer, ca. 1468. 

Hiebsch (hSpsh), Josef, Tyssa, Bohe- 
mia, 1854 Carlsbad, 1897; teacher 
and writer in Vienna, 

Hientzsch (hentsh), Jn. Gf., Mokrehna, 
near Torgau, 1787 Berlin, 1856; 
teacher, composer and writer, 

Hig'ginson, Ifenry Lee, New York, 
Nov. 1 8, 1834 Boston, Nov. 15, 
1919; music patron; banker; had 
studied music in Vienna; founded 
Boston Symph., 1881, with a million- 
dollar endowment; directed its poli- 
cies until 1918, when gave control 
to a board of directors; also a trustee 
of N. E. Cons. 

Hignard (5n-yar) (J. L.), Aristide, 
Nantes, 1822 Vernon, 1898; the 
preface to his * c Hamlet'^ written 
1868, not prod, till Nantes, 1888, 
shows him to have attempted a new 
and serious manner, but he found 
production only for comic operas 
which were usually succ. 

Hildach (hH'-dSkh), (i) Eugen, Wit- 
tenberg-on-the-Elbe, Nov. 20, 1849 
Berlin-Zehlendorf, July 28, 1924; 
barytone; pupil of Frau Prof. EL 
Dreyschock. (2) Anna (ne'e Schu- 
bert), KQnigsberg, 1852 Nov. 18, 
1935; wife of above; mezzo-soprano; 
teacher Dresden Cons., 1880-86. 

Hildebrand (heT-dS-brant), Camillo, b. 
Prague, 1879; conductor 1912-19, 
Berlin Fhilh.; 1921-24, Berlin 
Symph.; composer. 

Hiles (hilz), (i) J., Shrewsbury, 1810 
London, 1882; organist, writer 
and composer. (2) H., Shrewsbury, 
Dec. 31, 1826 Worthing near Lon- 
don, Oct. 20, 1904; bro. and pupil 
of above; organist various churches; 
1867, Mus. Doc. Oxon; 1876, lec- 
turer; later, prof. R. Manchester 
Coll. of Music; 1885, editor and 
writer; c. 2 oratorios, 3 cantatas, an 
historic opera, etc. 

Hilf (hslf), (i) Arno, Bad Elster, 
Saxony, March 14, 1858 Aug. 2, 
1909; vln.-virtuoso; son and pupil of 
(2) Wm. Chr. H.; from 1872 he also 
studied with David, RQntgen, and 
Schradieck, Leipzig Cons.; second 
concertm., 1878, and teacher at 
Moscow Cons., (1888) Sondera- 



liausen; 1889-91, concertm, Gewand- 
haus orch., Leipzig; after 1892, ist 
vin. prof, at the Conservatorium. 
BHfl, (i) Wm-, London, 1800 1870; 
o^g.-bu2Lder, (2) Win* Ebsworth, 
London, 1817 Hanley, 1895; vln.- 
maker. (3) Xhos. H. Weist, Lon- 
don, i828-i89i; violinist, conductor 
and composer. (4) Ureli C., New 
York, 1802 (?) 1875; violinist. 
<5) Wmu, Fulda, March 28, 1838 
Homburg, June 6, 1002; pianist; 
pupil of H. Henkel anof Hauff; lived 
in Frankfort; c. prize-opera "Alona**; 
vln .-sonatas, etc. (6) Edward Bur- 
Imgirme, b. Cambridge, Mass., Sept. 
9, 1872; composer; grad. Harvard, 
2894, with highest honours in mus.; 
pupil of Lang and Whiting, piano; 
"Wider, comp,; Bullard, theory; 
Chad wick, instrumentation; 1887- 
1902, taught piano and harmony in 
Boston; instructor of mus., Harvard 
Univ., after 1908; in recent years, 
head of the mus. dept. there; a pro- 
Efic comp..; among his works: fan- 
tastic pantomime for orch. "Jack 
Frost in Midsummer'* (Chicago 
Orch. 1907, N. Y. Symph. 1908;; 
women's chorus with orch. "Nuns 
of the Perpetual Adoration"- (Musical 
Art Soc., 1907, Birmingham Orch., 
etc.); Stevensonia Suite Nos. i and 
2, symphonies, "Sinfonietta,"* "Li^ 
lac$"i Concertino, for orch.; chamber 
music, 3 piano sonatas, songs. 
HHIe (MI'-IS), (i) Ed., Wahlhausen, 
Hanover, 1822 Gottingen, 1891; 
cond. and teacher. (2) Gv., b. Jeri- 
chow-on-Elbe, near Berlin, May, 31, 
1850; violinist; pupil of R. Wtierst 
(theory), Kullak r s Acad., 1869-74 w. 
Joachim (vln.); lived in Berlin, as a 
solo-player; 1879, invited to the 
Mendelssohn Quintet Club, Boston, 
Mass.; toured; then teacher at Mus. 
Acad., Phila,; co.-dir. of Leefson- 
HHle Cons, there; 1910, returned to 
Germany; c. 5 vln.-concertos with 
cxrck., etc.; d. (?). 

Hfllemacher (M'-lS-makh-er, or el- 
mJl-sha), two brothers, (i) Paul 
Jos. Win., Paris, Nov. 25, 1852 
Versailles, Aug. 13, 1933. ( 2 ) Lucien 
Jos. Ed^ Pans, June 10, 1860 
June 2, 1909; both studied at the 
Cons., and took the first Grand Prix 
de Rome, (i) in 1876; (2) in 1880. 
For some years they wrote all their 
scores in collaboration. C. symph. 
>fegend "Lardy" (1882, City of Paris 

prize); succ. opera "St. Megrin 9 * 
(Brussels, 1886), etc.; "Orsola"> (Gr. 
Opra, Paris, 1902). 
HUler (HtUler) (hfl'-ler), (i) Jo. Adam, 
Wendisch-Ossig, near Gorlitz, Dec. 
25, 1728 Leipzig, June 16, 1804; 
pupil of Homilius (Kreuzschiile) and 
U. of Leipzig; flutist in concerts, and 
teacher; 1754 tutor to the son of 
Count Briihl; 1758, accompanied him 
to Leipzig, where he lived thereafter; 
1763, revived, at his own expense, 
the subscription concerts, which de- 
veloped into the famous "Gewand- 
haus"' concerts, of which he was 
cond.; 1771, founded a singing- 
school; 17891801, cantor and dir. 
Thpmasschule. He founded the 
"SingspieLJt* from which German 
"comedy-opera'^ developed, contem- 
poraneously with opera buffa and 
op&ra comique. In his dram, works 
the aristocratic personages sing arias, 
while the peasants, etc., sing simple 
ballads, etc. His Singspiele, all 
prod, at Leipzig, had immense vogue, 
some of the songs being still sung; 
176670, he wrote, edited collections, 
etc.; c. also a Passion cantata, 
funeral music (in honour of Hasse), 
symphonies and partitas, the iooth 
Psalm, etc. Biog. by Carl Peiser 
(Leipzig, 1895). (2) Fr. Adam, 
Leipzig, 1768 Elonigsberg, Nov. 23 
1812; violinist and tenor; son and 
pupil of above; mus. dir. of Schwerin 
Th.; 1803, cond. of KcSnigsberg Th.; 
c. 4 operettas, etc. (3) Fd. von, 
Frankfort, Oct. 24, 1811 Cologne, 
May 12, 1885; of wealthy Jewish 
parentage; a pupil of Hofmann 
Cvln.), Aloys Schmitt (pf.) and Voll- 
weiler (harm, and cpt.); at 10 played 
a Mozart concerto in public, at 12 
began comp.; from 1825 pupil of 
Hummel; at 16 his string-quartet 
was pub. Vienna; at 15, he saw 
Beethoven on his death-bed; 1828- 
35, taught Choron's School, Paris; 
then independently giving occasional 
concerts; 1836, he returned to Frank- 
fort, and cond. the Cacilien-Verein; 
1839, prod. succ. opera "Romilda," 
at Milan; oratorio, "Die Zerstorung 
Jerusalems"^ (Gewandhaus, 1840); 
1841, studied church-music with 
Baini, Rome; 1843-44 he cond. the 
Gewandhaus; prod, at Dresden, 2 
operas; 1847, municipal cond. at 
Dtisseldorf; 1850 at Cologne, where 
he organised the Cons.; cond. Gilrze- 



Concerts, and the Lower Rhine 
festivals; 1852-53, cond. Opera Ita- 
lien, Paris; 1868, Dr. Phil. h. c. 
Bonn Univ.; 1884 he retired. He 
was a classicist in ideal of the Men- 
delssohn type and his comp. are of 
precise form and great clarity. He 
was also a lecturer and writer on 
music. He c. 3 other operas, 2 ora- 
torios, 6 cantatas, 3 overtures, 
3 symphonies, a ballad "Richard 
Ldwenherz," with orch. (1883), etc. 
(4) Paul, Seifersdorf, near Liegnitz, 
Nov. 16, 1850 Breslau, Dec. 27, 
1924; 1870, asst.-organist, and 1881 
organist St. Maria-Magdalena, and 
dir. of a music school, Breslau; com- 

HiTpert, W. Kasimir Fr., Niirnberg, 
1841 Munich, 1896; 'cellist. 

Hils'berg, ( i) Ignace, b. Warsaw, July 8, 
1894; pianist; pupil of St. Petersburg 
Cons., with Essipov and Sauer; solo- 
ist with orchs. in Europe and U. S., 
also Far East; mem. of faculty, Inst. 
of Musical Art, Juilliard School, 
N. Y. (2) Alexander, his bro.; b. 
Warsaw; violinist; mem. of faculty, 
Curtis Inst. of Mus., Phila.; also 
heard in concerts here and in 
Europe; later active as conductor. 

Hilton, (i) John, d. before 1612; organ- 
ist at Cambridge, 1594; perhaps the 
father of (2) John, 1599 1656-7; 
organist at Westminster; c. anthems, 
madrigals, etc. 

Him/mel, Fr. H., Treuenbrietzen, 
Brandenburg, 1765 Berlin, 1814; 
court-cond. and dram, composer. 

Hinck'ley, Allen Carter, b. Boston 
Oct. n, r.877; bass; pupil of Carl 
Schachner and Oscar Saenger; d6but 
with Bostonian Light Op. Co., 1901; 
op. d6but, Hamburg as " King Henry" 
in "Lohengrin," 1903; sang at Covent 
Garden and Bayreuth; Met. Op. Co., 
1908-11; later with Chicago Op. Co., 
also in other cities of Europe and 
IT. S.; d. Yonkers, N. Y., 1954- 

Hindemith (hln'-dS-mft), (i) Paul, b. 
Hanau, Germany, Nov. 16, 1895; 
composer, viola player; one of the 
most prolific, scholarly and original 
comps. among the younger German 
school, combining remarkable com- 
mand of cpt. with original harmonic 
style, including use of atonality; 
there are both romantic and parodis- 
tic elements in his work; studied 
comp. with Arnold Mendelssohn and 
Sekles; played in Frankfort Op. 

orch., 1915-23; after which he was 
active mainly as composer and as a 
member of the Amar String Quartet; 
taught at Berlin Hochsch., 1927-34; 
in latter year his music fell under 
ban in Germany as opposed to cul- 
tural policies then enforced by the 
state regime, although he had in his 
opera "Mathis der Maler" (1934) 
shown a return to orthodox tonality 
and romantic subject matter; c, 
(operas) "Mdrder, Hofnung der 
Frauenf* "Das Nusch- Nttsckr 9 ' and 
"Sankta Johanna" 3 one-act works 
(1920); "Cardillac" (1926); " Neues 
vom Tag"; "Hin und Zwrueck" (short 
opera in which action reverses); 
orch., Konzertmusik for strings and 
brass; "The 4 Temperaments" (also 
str. quart., pf., double bass); 
Symphonia Serena; "Metamorphoses 
on Themes of Weber"; "Nobilissima 
Visione" (orch. suite from ballet); 
pantomime, "Der DtLmon" an ora- 
torio "Das UnaufhSrliche," (cantata) 
"Die Serenaden"; (vocal works) 
"Marienleben," "Junge Nonne," and 
a large amount of ingenious chamber 
music, incl. 4 string quartets, so- 
natas for piano and vln., viola and 
'cello, piano suite "1912," orchestral, 
piano, vln., 'cello, viola and viola 
d'amour concertos, various forms of 
writing known as "Kaanmermusik" 
with pieces for piano and 'cello, 
songs; Prof, of music, Yale Univ., 
1941. (2) Rudolf, bro. of Paul, b. 
Jan. 9, 1900, in Hanau; 'cellist; pupil 
of Hoch Cons.; was solo 'cellist at 
Munich and Vienna State Op,; mem. 
of Amar Quartet and of Munich 
Trio; after 1927 taught at Carlsruhe 

ffinrichs (hXn'-rikhs), (i) Fz., Halle-on- 
the-Saale, ca. 1820 Berlin^ 1892; 
composer and writer on music. His 
sister (2) Maria* Vide PRANZ. (3) 
Gustav, Ludwigslust, Mecklenburg, 
1850 Mountain Lakes, N. J., March 
26, 1942 ; conductor ; studied with his 
father, Marxsen and Reisland; early 
active as a violinist, after 1870 in San 
Francisco; cond. of Amer, Op. Co., 
assisting Theodore Thomas, 1885- 
86; 1886-96, manager of his^ own 
opera company; 18991906, dir, of 
music at Columbia Univ.; 1903-08, 
cond. at Met. Op.; c. operas, orch. 
works, choral pieces, songs, etc. 

Hin'shaw, William Wade, b. Union, 
Iowa, Nov. 3, 1867; bass and im- 



presario; studied with R. A. Heri- 
tage, L. G, Gottschalk and L. A. 
Phelps : early active as voice teacher 
and choir din; debut at St. Louis 
with Savage Op. Co., 1899, as 
"Mephistopheles"; organised school 
of opera, Chicago, 1903 ; 1909 founded 
Internat'l Gr. Op. Co. ; sang at Met. 
Op, House, 1910-13 ; after 1917, man- 
ager of Soc. of Amer. Singers, N. Y., 
and later of his own touring opera 
company which gave Mozart and 
other works; d. Washington, 1947- 

Hin'ton, Arthur , Beckenham, 1869 
Rottingdean, 1941; pupil R. A. M., 
later with Rheinberger at Munich 
Cons., where Ms first symph. was 
played; his second symph. was 
played in London, 1903; c. also opera 
"Tamara"; operettas for children, 
and piano pieces played by his wife, 
Katharine Goodson, whom he mar- 
ried in 1903. 

Hip'kins, Alfred Jas., Westminster, 
June 17, 1826 London, June^ 3, 
1903; writer; an authority on ancient 
iiLStrs., etc.; was for a time in business 
with Broad wood; wrote many arti- 
cles for the "Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica,"> and "Grove's Dictionary of 
Music, 9 * 9 also books on old instr. and 


'Him (h5rn), Gv. Ad., Logelbach, near 
Colmar (Alsatia), 1815 Colmar, 
1890; writer. 

Htrsch (hrsh), (i) Dr., Rudolf, Napa- 
gedl, Moravia, 1816 Vienna. 1872; 
critic, poet and composer. (2) Karl, 
Wemding, Bavaria, March 17, 1858 
- Faulenbacli, Nov. 3, 1918; studied 
in Munich; 1885-87, church mus.- 
dir., Munich; 1887-92, Mannheim; 
then Cologne; after 1893 lived in 
other cities as dir. various societies, 
etc.; c. numerous pop. a cappella 

B3rschbach (hersk'-bSkh), H., Berlin, 
1812 Gohlis, 1888; editor and com- 


Hrrschfeld (hersh'-f&t), Robt., Mora- 
via, Sept. 17, 1857 Salzburg, April 
2, 1914, where lie was dir. of Mozart- 
eum; studied Vienna Cons.; later 
lecturer there; 1884 teacher of 
musical aesthetics; took Dr. Phil. 
with dissertation on "Johannes de 

Hirsch'mann, Henri, b. St. MaudS, 
1872; composer, under pen-name of 
V. H. Herblay, of operas, "U Amour 
a la Bastille" (Pans, 1897),. "7^- 
7x,x-^. fAr\ -r&r\9C\ cc Tfermani* 

lace"< (do., 1898), "Herman*" (do., 

;w"; he wrote a pamphlet against 
Hanslick in defence of ancient a 
a music, and founded the 
to cultivate 

BoMme" (Paris, 1905; in Berlin 
1905, as "Musette"), etc. 

Hobrecht (ho'-brSkht) (or Obrecht, 
Obreht, Ober'tus, Hober'tus), Ja- 
kob, Utrecht, ca. 1430 Antwerp, 
1505; church composer of great his- 
torical importance. 

Hochberg (h6kh'-brkh), Bolko, Graf 
von (pseud. J. H. Franz), Fiirsten- 
stein Castle, SHesia, Jan. 23, 1843 
Bad Salzbrunn, Dec. i, 1926; main- 
tained the H. quartet at Dresden; 
1876 founded the Silesian music fes- 
tivals; 1886-1903, general intendant 
Prussian Ct. Th.; prod. 2 operas; c, 
symphonies, etc. 

Hoffmann (h6f'-man), (i) Eucharius, 
b. Heldburg, Franconia, cantor at 
Stralsund; writer and composer, 
1577-84. (2) Ernst Th. (Amadeus) 
Win. (he added Amadeus from love 
of Mozart), Konigsberg, 1776 
BerUn, 1822; gifted poet, caricatur- 
ist, and dram, composer. (3) H. 
Aug. (called H. von Fallersleben), 
Fallersleben, Hanover, 1708 Castle 
Korvei, 1874; writer. (4) Richard, 
Manchester, EngL, May 24, 1831 
Mt. Kisco, N. Y., Aug. 17, 1909; 
pianist and teacher; pupil of his 
father, and de Meyer, Pleyel, Mosch- 
eles, Rubinstein, Dohler, Thalberg, 
and Liszt; 1847, New York; solo 
pianist with Jenny Lind on tours, 
etc.; also with^von Billow, in N. Y. 
(1875); c. anthems, pf.-pcs., etc. 
(5) Karl, Prague, Dec. 12, 1872 
i936;"|violimst; studied Prague Cons.; 
founder and ist vln. the famous 
"Bohemian String-quartet"; after 
1922 taught master class at Prague 

Hoffmeister (h6f '-ml-shter), Fz. Anton, 
Ro tenburg-on-Neckar, 1 7 54 Vi- 
enna, 1812; conductor and dram, 
composer, etc. 

Hoftuumer (h6f'-ni-mer) (Hoffheimer, 
HofEhaimer, Hoffhaymer), Paulus 
von, Radstadt, Salzburg, 1459 Salz- 
burg, 1537; eminent organist; lute- 
nist, composer and teacher. 

Hofmarm (h6f'-man), (i) Chr., ca. 
1668; cantor at Krossen: writer. 



(2) H. (K. Jn.), Berlin, Jan. 13, 1842 
July 19, 1902; pupil of Wiirst, 
JLullak's Academy; famous pf.- vir- 
tuoso and teacher; prod. succ. operas 
"Cartouche" (Berlin, 1869) and 
*' Donna Diana" and 4 others; and 
succ. orch. works, " Hungarian Suite"' 
(1873) and "Fritkjaf" symph. (1874); 
was a Prof., and a member of the 
Berlin R. Acad. of Arts; c. 6 other 
operas, "secular oratorio" "Prome- 
theus" (1896); cantatas; "Schauspiel" 
overture; " Trauer marsch," etc., for 
orch.; a vln.-sonata, etc. (3) Rich- 
ard, Delitzsch, Prussian Saxony, 
April 30, 1844 Leipzig, Nov. 11, 
1918; son of municipal mus.-dir.; 

Eupil of Dreyschock and Jadassohn; 
ved in Leipzig as teacher; pub. a 
valuable "Praktische Instruments 
tionsschule" (Leipzig, 1803), a cate- 
chism of instrs., etc. (4) Casimir 
(rightly WyszkowsM) (wSsh-k6f- 
shkl), Cracow, 1842 Berlin, 1911; 
pianist; prof, of harm, and comp. at 
Cons., and cond. of opera, Warsaw. 
(5) Josef, b. Cracow, Jan. 20, 1876. 
Son and (till 1892) pupil of (4); at 
6 played in public; at 9 toured 
Europe; at 10 gave 52 concerts in 
America; then studied 2 years with 
Rubinstein and made new d6but in 
Dresden, 1894, and has toured Eu- 
rope since and (beginning 1899) 
America; from being a sensational 
prodigy, he developed into a brilliant 
pianist of great power, virtuosity and 
charm; his technique is probably 
unsurpassed in his generation; after 
1924 dir. of Curtis Inst. of Mus., 
Phila.; c. symph. work, "The 
Haunted Castle"-, pf. -concerto, and 
numerous other pieces; author, 
"Piano Playing," etc. 

Hofmeister (h6f'-ml-shter), (i) FT., 
1782 1864: publisher; his son and 
successor (2) Ad. H., ca. 1818 Leip- 
zig, 1870; was succeeded by Albert 
Rothing, 1845 197- 

Ho 'garth, G., Carfrae Mill, near Ox- 
ton, Berwickshire, 1783 London, 
1870; 'cellist and composer; his 
daughter m. Charles Dickens. 

Hohlfeld (hQl'-f&t), Otto, Zeulenroda, 
Voigtland, 1854 Darmstadt, 1895; 
vln.-virtuoso and composer. 

Hohnstock (hSn'-shtdk), Carl, Bruns- 
wick, 1828 1889; teacher, violinist, 
pianist and composer. 

Hoi, Richard, Amsterdam, July 23, 
1825 Utrecht, May 14, 1904; pupil 

Martens (org.) and of Bertelman 
(harm, and cpt.) ; teacher at Amster- 
dam; 1862, city mus.-dir., TJtrecht; 
1869, cath.-organist; 1875, dir. Sen. 
of Mus.; also cond. "Diligentia'< J 
Concerts at The Hague, Classical 
Concerts at Amsterdam; 1878, officer 
of the French Academy; c. oratorio 
"Dawd" (op. 81); 2 operas; 2 sym- 
phonies, etc. 

Hol'borne, Antony and Wm., English 
composers, 1597. 

Hol'brooke, Josef, b. Croyden, July 6, 
1878; English composer; pupil of the 
R. A. M., till 1898; c. symph. poems 
"The Raven" (Crystal Palace, 1900); 
"Ode to Victory," "The Skeleton 
in Armour,"' " Ulalume"< (London 
Symph., 1904), "Queen Mab'> 9 * (Leeds 
Fest., 1904), "The Masque of the 
Red Death,'>' overture, "The New 
Renaissance," etc. His opera "The 
Children of Don"< (libretto by Lord 
Howard de Walden) was prod, at 
the London Op., June 15, 1912, with 
Nikisch conducting. Other works 
include: (operas) "Pierrot and 
Pierrette,"* "Dylan,"' "Bronwen, 
Daughter of Uyr "The Wizard, 9 * 
"The Stranger"", chamber music, 
ballets, suites for orch., vln. con- 
certo. Author, "Contemporary Brit- 
ish Composers" (1931). 

Hol'der, Rev. Wm., Nottinghamshire, 
1616 Amen Corner, 1697; writer, 
editor and composer. 

Hollander (h6l'-fent-er), (i) Alexis, 
Ratibor, Silesia, Feb. 25, 1840 
Berlin, Feb. $, 1924; pianist; pupil 
of Schnabel and Hesse at Breslau; 
cond. of the Gymnasium Singing 
Society; 1858-61, studied with Grell 
and A. W. Bach, and K. Bohmer, 
Berlin, R. Akad.; 1861, teacher at 
Kullak's Acad.; 1864, cond.; 1870- 
1902, cond. the "CScilienverein"; 
1888, professor; c. 6 pf. Intermezzi 
for left hand, etc. (2) Gv,, Leob- 
schutz, Upper Silesia, Feb. 15, 1855 
Berlin, Dec. 4, 1915; played in 
public early; pupil of David, of 
Joachim (vln.), and Kiel (theory); 
1874, principal teacher Kullak's 
Acad. and royal chamber-mus. ; 
toured Austria with Carlotta Patti; 
1881, teacher at the Cons., Cologne; 
1884, leader at the Stadttheater; 
1894, dir. Stern Cons., Berlin; c. vln. 
and pf.-pcs. (3) Victor, b. Leob- 
schutz, April 20, 1866; pupil of 
Kullak; c. succ. comic operas and 



stage music, also for films; after 1934 
comp. in Hollywood. 
Hollander (h61'-lSn-dgr), Benno, b. 
Amsterdam, June 8, 1853; violinist; 
played as child, then studied with 
Massart and Saint-Saens at Pans 
Cons., winning first violin prize, 
1873; after 1876 toured, then settled 
in London as viola player; 1882, 
txmd. German Opera season; 1887 
violin prof, at the Guildhall; cond. 
London Symph. Concerts; 1903, or- 
ganised the Benno H. Orchestral 
Society; c. syinph. "Roland"; violin 
concertos, pastoral fantasia played 
by Ysaye; d. London, 1942. fc 

Hollangue. Vide MOUTON. 

Hdlins, Alfred, Hull, Sept. n, 1865 
Edinburgh, May 18, 1942; blind or- 
ganist; pupil Hartvigson; played Bee- 
thoven concerto as boy; at 16 played 
for the Queen; pupil of Bttlow, later 
at Raff Cons.; played for crowned 
heads, and toured America; 1884, 
org. at Redhill; 1888 at People's 
Palace; 1897 at Edinburgh, Free St. 
George's Church; c, 2. overtures, 
organ music, etc. 

Hollmann (h61'-man), Josef, Maes- 
tricht, Holland, Oct. 16, 1852 
Paris, Jan. i, 1927; notable 'cellist; 
studied with Gervais; toured Europe, 
England and America; court-mus., 
Holland, and many decorations. 

Holmes (h5mz), (i) Edw., near Lon- 
don, 1797 U. S., 1859; pf. -teacher, 
editor and critic. (2) Wm, H., Sud- 
bury, Derbyshire, 1812 London, 
1885; pianist and professor. (3) Al- 
fred, London, 1837 Paris, 1876; son 
of above; dram, composer. (4) Hy., 
London, Nov. 7, 1839 San Fran- 
cisco, Cal., Dec. 9, 1905; bro. of 
above; after 1866 was long vln.-prof. 
R. C. M.; c. 4 symphonies, etc. 

Holmes (61'-mes) (rightly Holmes), 
Augusta Mary Anne, (of Irish par- 
ents) Paris, Dec. 16, 1847 Jan. 28, 
1903; at first a pianist; studied comp. 
with Lambert, Elos6 and C6sar 
Franck; 1873, prod, a psalm, "In 
Mvitu"; 1874, a i-act stage work 
"Hero et Leandre" (Chatelet); the 
symphonies "Lutece" and "Les Argo- 
iwuteSy" 1883; symph. "Irlande,"* 
1885; unsucc. drama "La Montague 
Nwre"- (Gr. Opera), 1895; sym- 
phonic poems, "Roland," "Pologne"* 
**Au Pays Bleu"; 2 operas, etc.; she 
sometimes uses pseud. "Hermann 

Hoist, Gustav, Cheltenham, England, 
Sept. 21, 1874 London, May 25, 
1934; studied R. Coll. of Mus. witb 
Stanford; fellow and prof, of comp., 
R. Coll. of Mus.; formerly dir. of 
music, Morley Coll.; lectured on 
music, Harvard Univ., one of the 
most accomplished of modern Eng- 
lish comps., though of Teutonic an- 
cestry; introduced British folk-song 
elements into some of his works, also 
arranged many traditional pieces in 
choral transcriptions; showed in- 
terest in and influence of Oriental 
themes; modern French school and 

(JJXG~ Cklslt VWi*fc. +!** v^jj.vw*^**' T 

(London, 1916); "The Perfect Fool'* 
(a ballet-opera, said to satirise 
Wagner's "Parsifal"}, Covent Gar- 
den, 1023; "At the Boar's Head,"> 
based on Shakespeare's "Henry IV" 
and using actual folk melodies (Brit- 
ish Nat'l. Op. Co., 1927); also "Avt 
Maria" for 8 women's voices; 
(masque) "The Vision of Dams 
Christian" (1909); "The Mystie 
Trumpeter" scena for soprano and 
orch. (1905); Cotswolds Symphony 
(1900); "The Planets" (i9 I 5) and 
"Beni-Mora"- suite (1910); "Phan- 
tasies" (191 2), "Indra" (1903), 
"Japanese" suite (1916); "A Somer- 
set Rhapsody" for orch. (190?) { 
(choral works) "King Estmere"> 
(IQOS), "Choral Hymns from the 
Rig-Veda" (1912), "The Cloud- 
Messenger" (1910), "Hymn of Jesus 99 ' 
and "Ode to Death" (Leeds Fest., 
1921), Choral Symphony (do., 1924); 
Fugal Concerto, St. Paul's Suite, 
"Songs without Words," "Songs of the 
West"* and numerous choruses and 
part-songs, besides 2 wind quintets 
and other chamber works. 

Holstein (hdl'-shtin), Fz. (Fr.) von, 
Brunswick, 1826 Leipzig, 1878; 
dram, composer. 

Holten (h61 7 -tSn), K. von, Hamburg, 
July 26, 1836 Altona, Jan. 12, 1912; 
pianist; pupil of J. Schmitt, Ave- 
Lallemant and Gradener, and at 
Leipzig Cons.; after 1874, teacher 
Hamburg Cons.; c. a Kinder sym- 
phonie, etc. 

Holy (CMS), Alfred, K Oporto, Aug. 5, 
1866; harp- virtuoso; son and pupil 
of a cond. and teacher from Prague; 
studied at Prague Cons., and lived 
there till 1896, wher he went to the 



Berlin ct. -opera; after 1913 , solo harp- 
ist, Boston Symph.- d. Vienna, 1948. 

Holzbauer (hdlts-bow-e'r), Ignaz, Vi- 
enna, 1711 Mannheim, 1783; court- 
conductor and dram, composer; 
highly praised by Mozart. 

flSlzl (hl'-ts'l), Fz. Severin, Malaczka, 
Hungary, 1808 Fiinfkirchen, 1884; 
conductor and composer. 

Ho'mer, (i) Sidney, b. Boston, Mass., 
Dec. 9, 1864 Winter Park, Fla., July 
10, 1953; composer; pupil, G. W. 
Chad wick, then of Rheinberger, O. 
Hie ter and Abel in Germany; 1888-96 
teacher of theory in Boston; c. many 
important songs. In 1895 he mar- 
ried (2) Louise (Dilworth Beatty), 
b. Pittsburgh d. Winter Park, Fla., 
1947; contralto, pupil of Miss Whinnery 
and Miss GoflF, W. L. Whitney, and 
of her husband in theory; then 
studied in Paris with Fidele Koenig; 
d6but, 1898, at Vichy; 1899 at Covent 
Garden, also at La Monnaie, Brus- 
sels; 1900-19 sang regularly at Met. 
Op.^ House as a leading member of 
co. in Italian, German, French roles; 
created title r61e in Parker's " M ona,"> 
etc.; guest appearances with co, after 
the latter year; also an eminent con- 
cert singer. (3) Louise (Homer- 
Stires), their daughter, also active 
as a concert singer (soprano) in joint 
programmes with her mother. 

Homeyer (ho'-ml-e'r), name of a mu- 
sical family. The most prom* of 
them is Paul Joseph M., Osterode, 
Harz, Oct. 26, 1853 Leipzig, July 
27, 1908; famous organist at the 
Gewandhaus, and teacher Leipzig 

flomilius (hQ-me'-H-oos), Gf. Aug., 
Rosenthal, Saxony, 1714 Dresden, 
1785; eminent organist and com- 

Honegger (Sn'-Sg-e'r), Arthur, b. Le 
Havre, France, March 10, 1892, of 
Swiss ancestry; composer; studied 
with Martin, G6dalge, Widor and 
Capet; an exponent of Poly tonality, 
but classic in form; one of most gifted 
members of former "Group of Six"; 
since 1913 active in Paris; c. (operas) 
"Morte de Ste. Almeenne"; "Anfo- 
gone," "Judith" produced by Chi- 
cago Op. with Mary Garden; (can- 
tata with narrator) "Le Roi David" 
to text by Morax, widely performed 
(N. Y., 1925); music to M6raPs "Dit 
des Jeux du Monde"; (ballet) " Verite 
Mensonge?" , Concertino for piano 

and orch., and (orch.) "Horace 
torieux," ''Pastorale d't6," "Pacific 
231" (literal depiction in sound of 
the journey of a locomotive), prelude 
to " The Tempest" prelude to Act II 
of d'Annunzio's "Pkaedre* "Skating 
Rink," "Rugby" (descriptive of a 
football game); Symph. for String 
Orch.; "Jeanne au Sticker ," dramatic 
oratorio for woman reciter, vocal 
soloists, choruses and orch. 

Hood, Helen, b. Chelsea, Mass., June 
28, 1863; pupil of B. J. Lang (pf.) 
and Chad wick (comp.), Boston; and 
Moszkowski (pf.); composer. , 

Hook, Jas,, Norwich, 1746 Boulogne, 
1827; organist and composer. 

Hope 'kirk, Helen, b. near Edinburgh, 
Scotland, May 20, 1856; studied with 
Lichtenstein and A. C. Mackenzie; 
for 2 years at Leipzig, later with 
Leschetizky; d6but as pianist at 
Gewandhaus, Leipzig, 1878; gave 
concerts in Great Britain and 
(1883-84) U. S.; 1897-1901, teacher 
N. E. Cons.; later private teacher, 
Boston, Mass.; c. Concertstiick fox 
pf. and orch.; 1894, orch. pcs.; a pf.- 
concerto; sonata for pf. and vin., and 
songs; d. Cambridge, Mass., 1945. 

Hopffer (hdp'-fer), L Bd., Berlin, 1840 
Niederwald, near Rudesheim, 1877; 
dram, composer. 

Hoplons, (i) Edw. J., Westminster, 
June 30, 1818 London, Feb. 4, 
1901; self-taught organist at various 
churches; 1843-1898, to the Temple 
Ch., London; wrote "The Organ; 
Its History and Construction" {Kim- 
bault); contributed to "Grove's Diet. 
of Mus"^ c. 3 prize anthems, hymn- 
tunes, chants and church-services. 

(2) Edw. Jerome, Burlington, Vt., 
1836 Athenia, N. J., 1898$ 8elf- 
taught in harmony; began coaiposing 
at 4; organist, editor and lefcturar; 

(3) Harry Patterson, b. Baltifl&Gite, 
1873; graduated Peabody Inst.> 1896; 
studied with Dvofak ia Bohemia; 
after 1899 active as organist and 
teacher, Baltimore; c. a symphony, 
songs, etc. 

Hopldnson, Francis, composer; 1737- 
91 ; one of the earliest American com- 
posers; inventor of the " 


Hoplit. Vide POBX, R. 

Horak (ho'-rUk), (i) Wenzel (Vficlav) 
Emanuel, Mscheno-Lobes, Bohemia, 
1800 Prague, 1871 ; organist, teachei 
and composer. (2) Ed., Holitz, 



Bohemia, 1839 Riva, Lake of Gar- 
da, 1892; teacher and writer. (3) 
Ad,, Jankovic, Bohemia, Feb. 15. 
1850 Vienna (?); pianist; bro. of 
above and co-founder, "Hordk' 2 
Pf.-School, Vienna; writer. 
Horn, (i) K. F*., Nordhausen, Saxony, 
1762 Windsor, EngL, 1830; organ- 
ist, writer and theorist. (2) Chas. 
Edw., London, 1786 Boston, Mass., 
1849; son of above; singer, teacher, 
cond., and composer. (3) Aug., 
Freiberg, Saxony 1825 Leipzig, 
1893; dram, composer. 
Eloraeman (h6r'-n-man), (i) Johan 
Ole Emil, Copenhagen, 1809 1870; 
composer. (2) Emil Chr., Copen- 
hagen, Dec. 17, 1841 June 9, 1906; 
son and pupil of above; studied at 
Leipzig Cons.; dir. of sch. of mus. 
in Copenhagen; c. overtures "Alad- 
din" and " Heldenleben" etc. 
Hornstein (h6rn'-shtln), Robt. von, 
Donaueschingen, 1833 Munich, 
1890; dram, composer. 
Horowitz (h6r'-6-v5tz), Vladimir, b. 
Kiev, Russia, Oct. i, 1904; pianist; 
grad. Kiev Cons, at 17; studied with 
Blumenfeld; d6but, Kharkov; since 
1924 has made appearances in lead- 
ing Eur. capitals with pronounced 
succ.; a brilliant virtuoso, he has 
appeared with the princ. orchs. in 
Germany, France, England, Italy 
and TJ. S. (Amer. d6but with N. Y. 
Philh., 1928); m. Wanda, daughter of 
. Arturo Toscanini. 
Hprsley, (i) Wm,, London, 1774 
1858; organist, theorist and com- 
poser. (2) Chas. Edw., London, 
1822 New York, 1876; son and pu- 
pil of above; organist, writer and 

Horszowski (h^r-shSf'-ske), Miecio, b. 
Lemtjerg, Poland, 1892; pianist; 
pupal of Leschetizky, Cyrill Ostler 
and Heuberger; after early successes 
went into retirement for several 
years, then reappeared in concerts 
1913; toured widely in Europe, South 
America and also visited U. S.: lives 
in Paris. 

BorVath, (i) Cecile de (nee Ayres), b. 
Boston, 1889; pianist; studied with 
near father, Eugene Ayres, and with 
Safonoff and Gabiilowitsch; after 
XO.TO active as ^<mcert artist in 
jgtyope and TJ. S., later taught in 
^CMcago. ( 2 ) Zoltan, her husband, 
fc. Cliicago, 1886; also a pianist and 
teacaer* was long active in Piula- 

Horwitz (h6r'-vXts), Benno, Berlin, 
March 17, 1855 Berlin, June 3, 
1904; violinist and composer; pupil 
of the Rl. Hochschule, and of Kiel 
and Albert Becker; c. symph. poem 
"Dionysos" etc. 

Hostinsky (h6-shten'-shk30, Ottokar, 
Martinoves, Bohemia, Jan. 2, 1847 
Prague, Jan. 19, 1910; Dr. Phil., 
Prague; writer. 

HothO>y (or Hothobus, Otteby, Fra 
Ottobi), John (or Johannes), d. 
London, Nov., 1487; English Car- 
melite monk; famous for science. 

Hotteterre (6t'-tar), (i) Henri, d. 1683; 
instr.-maker, musette player, ct.- 
musician. (2) Lotus (called "Le 
Remain," having lived in Rome); 
son of above; notable flutist and 
writer. .(3) Nicolas, d. 1695; noted 
bassoonist and oboist; bro. of (2). 

Ho'ven, J., pen-name of V. von 

How'ard, (i) Samuel, 1710 1782; 
English organist and composer. (2) 
Kathleen, b. Clifton, Canada; con- 
tralto; pupil of Saenger and Jean de 
Reszke; dbut, Metz, 1906; 1909-12, 
Darmstadt Op., Century Op. Co., 
N. Y., 1913-15; Met. Op. Co., 
191628; also toured in Europej 
author "Confessions of an Opera 
Singer, 99 ' (3) John Tasker, b. Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., Nov. 30, 1890; composer 
and writer; educated Williams Coll.- 
studied comp. with Howard Brock- 
way and Mortimer Wilson; c. orch., 
piano and vocal works; author 
*' Studies of Contemporary American 
Composers,"* "Our American Music"- 
"Stephen Foster," etc. 
How'eU, Jas., b. Plymouth, England, 
d. 1879; singer and double-bass 

How'ells, Herbert, b. Lydney, Aus- 
tralia, 1892; composer; pupil of 
Brewer and of R. Coll. of Mus-, 
London, where has been prof, since 
1920; c. piano concerto, orch. and 
chamber music, choral works, org 
pieces and songs. 

Hninaly (h'rlm'-u-le), Adalbert, Pilsen, 
Bohemia, July 30, 1842 Vienna, 
J? n 5 I 7, I9P8; violinist; pupil of 
Mildner, Prague Cons., 1861; cond. 
Gothenburg orch., 1868; National 
Tn., Prague; at the German Th., 
there in 1873, and at Czernowitz 
Bukowma, in 1875; bis succ. opera 
">er Verzauberte Prinz" (1871) 
played at Prague. 



Hubay (hoo'-bS,-e) (or Huber), (i) K., 
Varjas, Hungary, 1828 Pesth, 1885; 
vln.-prof., Pesth Cons.; conductor 
and dram, composer. (2) Jeno, 
Budapest, Sept. 15, 1858 Vienna, 
March 12, 1937; son and pupil of 
above, and 1886 his successor as 
prof.; also studied with Joachim; 
gave succ. concerts in Hungary and 
at Paris; 1882 principal vln.-prof., 
Brussels Cons.; 1886, prof, and 
1919-34, dir. Budapest Cons.; 1894, 
m. Countess Rosa Cebrian; c. succ. 
opera "Der Geigenmacher von Cre- 
mona" (Pesth, 1893); opera "Alienor" 
(Pesth, 1892); succ. Hungarian opera 
" A Falu Rossza" (The Townloafer) 
(Budapest, 1896); opera, "Anna 
Karenina", 3 symphonies, many 
notable vln. works, incl. 4 concertos. 

Huber (hoo'-bSr), (i) F., d. Berne, 
Feb. 23, 1810; poet and song- 
composer. (2) Fd., 1791 St. Gal- 
len, 1863; Swiss song- writer. (3) K. 
Vide HUBAY. (4) Jos., Sigmaringen, 
t837 Stuttgart, 1886; violinist and 
iram. composer. (5) Hans, Schone- 
werd, Switzerland, June 28, 1852 
Locarno, Dec. 25, 1921; pupil Leip- 
zig Cons.; teacher at Wesserling for 
2 years, then at Thann (Alsatia), 
later Basel Music School; 1892, Dr. 
Phil. h. c. 9 Basel Univ.; 1896, dir. 

sonatas, concertos, overtures "Lust- 
spiel," symph. "Tell," etc. (6) 
Eugen. Vide HUBAY, JENO. 

Huberdeau (u'-b5r-d6), Gustave, b. 
Paris, 1878 (?); notable operatic 
bass; studied at Paris Cons.; d6but, 
1898; sang at Op.-Comique; 1908, 
Manhattan Op. Co., N. Y.; after 
1910 with Chicago Op. Co. in French 
and Italian rcMes. 

Hu'bennan, Bronislaw, b. Csenstoch- 
ova near Warsaw, Dec. 19, 1882; 
d. Nant-sur-Corsier, Switz., June 6, 
1947; violinist; made succ. de"but as 
prodigy; retired for five years' study; 
reappeared, Bucharest, 1902; had 
since won world- wide reputation as a 
leading virtuoso, an-d had toured con- 
tinuously in Europe and at intervals 
in the U. S. (first Amer. tour, 1896- 
97); founded Palestine Orch., 1935- 

Hubert (hoo'-bSrt), Nikolai Alberto- 
vitch, 1840 1888; prof, and writer. 

Huberti (u-bSr'-te) , Gve. LSon, Brus- 
sels, April 14, i843 July 23, 

pupil Brussels Cons.; 1865, won Prix 
de Rome; 1874-78, dir. of Mons. 
Cons.; 1880-89, Antwerp; then prof, 
at Brussels Cons., and dir. of the 
Mus.-School of St. Josse-ten-Noode- 
Schaerbeek; 1891, member of the 
Belgian Academy; 1893, Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honour. C. oratorios, 
the dram, poem "Verlichting" ("Fiat 
lux"), with orch.; symphonic poem 
" Kinderlust en Leed," chorus and 
orch., etc.; symphonic fun&bre, fes- 
tival marches, etc. 

Hucbald (hook'-balt, or tik-bal) (Hug- 
bal'dus, UbaTdus, Uchubal'dus) de 
S. Amand(o), ca. 840 St. Amand, 
near Tournay, June 25 (or Oct. 21), 
930 (or June 20, 932). He is perhaps 
credited with some works belonging 
to a monk of the same name living a 
century later; pupil of his uncle, 
Milo, a mus.-dir., whose jealousy 
drove him to Nevers, where he taught 
singing; 872 he succeeded his uncle; 
ca. 893, the Archbishop of Rheims 
invited him to reform the music of 
the diocese. His works (Gerbert) 
contain the first known notation 
showing difference of pitch on lines. 
Hu (ii), Georges Ad., b. VersailleSj 
May 6, 1858; pupil of Paris Cons., 
took ist Grand prix de Rome; later 
Prix Cressent; 1922 elected mem. of 
French Acad. to take place of late 
Camille Saint-Saens; c. op. com. 
"Les Pantins" (Op.-Com., 1881); 
"Rttbezahl," symphonic legend in 3 
parts ("Concerts Colonne,"- 1886); 
succ. "F6erie dramatique" "La Belle 
au Bois Dormant" (Paris, 1894); 
" Episode sacr6" "Resurrection"} a 
symphony, a symphonic overture; 
tie operas "Le roi de Paris" 1901; 
"Titania?! 1903; "Le Miracle," 1910; 
"Dans V Ombre de la Cattedrale" 
(Op.-Comique, 1921), ballet "Siang- 
Sin" (Opera, 1922); d. 1948. 
Hueffer (hiif'-fSr), Francis, Mtinster, 
1843 London, Jan. 19, 1889; 1869, 
lived in London; from 1878, critic of 
The Times; librettist and writer. 
Hughes, (i) Edwin, b. Washington, 
D. C., Aug. 15, 1884; pianist, peda- 
gogue; pupil of S. M. Fabian, 
JosefiEy, and Leschetizky; appeared 
in concerts in Europe and U. S., 
active in Munich, 1912; taught at 
Inst. of Mus. Art, N. Y., 1916-22; 
later cond. many master classes in 
Amer. cities; ed. piano works. 
(2) Herbert, b. Belfast, March 16, 



1882 Brighton, Engl., May 2, IQ37; 
pupil of R, Coll. of Mus.; founder of 
Irish Folk-Song Soc. (1904); after 
X9ii, music ed. on London Daily 
Telegraph; visited America in 1922; 
ed. Modern Festival Series; Irish 
Country Songs, Historical Songs and 
Ballads of Ireland; c. chamber music 
and songs. (3) Rupert, b. Lancaster, 
Mo., Jan. 21, 1872; Amer.^ writer on 
music; novelist, dramatist; grad. 
Adelbert Coll. (Western Reserve 
Univ.); A. M., Yale Univ.; studied 
comp. with Wilson Smith, Edgar 
Stillman Kelley, and C. W. Pearce; 
music critic and mem. of editorial 
board of various Amer. periodicals, 
incl. Current Literature, The Criterion*, 
mem. of the N. Y. editorial board of 
the Encyclopedia Britannica; author 
"Contemporary Amer. Composers,"* 
"Love Affairs of Great Musicians,'* 
"Music Lovers' Cyclopedia 99 ', ed. 
"Songs by Thirty Americans. 99 ' 

Huhn, Bruno (Siegfried), b. London z 
1871 N. Y., May 13, 1950; pupil of 
Sophie Taunton, later in New York 
of S. B. Mills and L. Alberti; has 
toured Europe as pianist; prominent 
composer, choral conductor and 
accompanist in New York; c, "Te 
Deum" with orch., and many songs. 

Hull, Arthur Eaglefield, Market Har- 
borough, England, March 10, 1876 
Huddersfield, Nov. 4, 1928; organist, 
teacher, composer, writer; pupil of 
Wood, Matthay and Pearce; Mus. 
IX, Oxford; ed. "The Music Lover's 
Library"; c. oratorios, org. and piano 
pieces; ed. org. works of Bach and 
Mendelssohn; wrote books on Bach, 
Scriabin, Cyril Scott, also "Modern 
Harmony" and ed. "Dictionary of 
Modern Music and Musicians"* 

Hullah, John Pyke, Worcester, June 
27, 1812 London, Feb. 21, 1884: 
professor, conductor, writer and 
dram, composer. 

Hffller, J, A, Vide EHXER. 

Hullmandel (hfl'-mant-'l), Nicholas 
Jos., Strassburg, 1751 London, 
1823; pianist and harmonica-player; 
c. 12 piano trios, 14 vln. sonatas, 
6 piano sonatas, etc. 

Hffllwecfc (hft'-vSk), Fd., Dessau, 1824 
Blasewitz, 1887; concert-violinist 
and composer. 

Hutefceyn (htil'-shin), Joai'n C. Van, b. 
Amsterdam, 1869; violinist; pupil at 
Liege Cons, of Csar Thomson; won 

first prize; played in "^Lamoureux 
orch., Paris; prof, at Peabody Inst., 
Baltimore; d. there March 2, IQ47- 

Htunbert (tin-bar), Georges, b. St. 
Croix, Switzerland, Aug. 10, 1870; 
organist; pupil Leipzig and Brussels 
Cons., and of Bargiel; teacher of mus. 
history at Geneva Cons, and org. at 
N6tre Dame; from 1893 at Lausanne; 
after 1918 dir. of a mus. school at 
Neuchatel, where he d. Jan. i, 1936. 

Hum'frey (Humphrey, Humphrys), 
Pelham, London, 1647 Windsor, 
July 14, 1674; English composer. 
Charles II. sent him to Paris to 
study with Lully; 1672 master 
Chapel Royal children and with 
Purcell ct.-composer. 

Hu'miston, William Henry, Marietta, 
O., April 27, 1869 New York, 
Dec. 5, 1923; pianist, conductor, 
writer; grad. Lake Forest Coll., 
studied piano with Mathews and 
org. with Eddy; also later comp. 
with MacDowell; active as teacher, 
lecturer, and cond. with opera com- 
panies on tour; after 1912 ed. pro- 
gramme notes of N. Y. Philh.; and 
following 1916 was asst. cond. of 
this orch.; 1914 led MacDowell Club 
perL of Mozart's "Bastien et Bas- 
'tienne*' and Bach programmes in 1916 
and 1918; c. orch, works and songs. 

Hummel (hoom'-mel), (i) Jos., music- 
master Wartberg Military A cad.; 
1786, conductor at Vienna. (2) Jn. 
Nepomuk, Pressburg, Nov. 14, 1778 
Weimar, Oct. 17, 1837; son of 
above; a famous pianist and im- 
proviser, and a composer of cnce 
popular pieces in which ornament 
outweighs matter; and form, interest; 
prot6ge* of Mozart; de"but 1787; 
toured Europe frequently; 1793 
studied "with Albrechtsberger; asst.- 
cond. to Haydn, 180411; 1830 and 
1833 cond. German opera in London; 
c. operas, cantatas, ballets, 3 masses, 
sonatas; he pub, a notable pf.- 
method; c. dram, pcs., concertos, 
sonatas, septet in D minor, etc. 
(3) Elisabeth (nee RScM), 1783 
Weimar, 1883; wife of above; opera- 
singer. (4) Jos, Fr., Innsbruck, 
Aug. 14, 1841 Salzburg, Aug. 29, 
1919; pupil Munich Cons,, 1861-80; 
th.-cond. Vienna,; 1880-1907, dir, 
Mozarteum at, Salzburg, and cond. 
Liedertafel. (5) Fd., Berlin, Sept. 6, 
i^55 April 24, 1928; son and pupil 
01 a musician; at 7 a harp virtuoso; 



1864-67 toured Europe, and received 
a royal grant for study at Kullak's 
\kademie, Berlin; 1871-75, studied 
R. High Sch. of Mus., then at 
Akademie; for years active as cond. 
and comp. for the Berlin ct. -theatres. 
c. succ. operas, "Mara" (Berlin, 
1893); "Ein Treuer Schelm" (Prague, 
1894); "Assarpai" (Gotha, 1898;; a 
Symphony, sonatas, etc. 
ump ftr dinck (hoom'-pr-d3tnk), En- 
gelbert, Siegburg, near Bonn, Sept. i, 
1854 Neustrelitz, Sept. 27, 1921; 
studied architecture, Cologne, then 
mus. at the Cons.; won Mozart 
scholarship at Frankfort; studied 2 
years with Franz Lachner, Munich, 
also with Rheinberger and Barmann 
at the Cons.; pub. Humoreske for 
orch. and "Die Wallfahrt nach 
Kevelaar" for chorus; 1878 won the 
Mendelssohn prize (3,000 marks), 
1880 the Meyerbeer prize (7,600 
marks); 1885-86, prof. Barcelona 
Cons.; 1881-82, a special prote"g6 of 
R. Wagner in Bayreuth; made pf.- 
seores, and aided in the preparation 
of "Parsifal.' 9 Returned to Cologne, 
1887, went to Mayence in the em- 
ploy of Schott & Co.; 1890 teacher 
Hoch Cons., Frankfort, critic on the 
Frankfort Zeitung; later lived at 
Boppard-on-Rhine. In 190020, he 
was dir. of Master-School of the 
Berlin Royal Acad. of Arts. His 
first international succ. was the 
graceful 2-act fairy-opera " H tinsel 
und Gretel" Munich, 1893 (prod, at 
Milan, 1897, as "Nino e Rita"), 
which has taken its place in the 
repertoire as an enduring little 
masterpiece^. H. never again quite 
equalled this work, though he made 
an approach to it in "Die Konigs- 
kinder" originally conceived as incid. 
music to the spoken play but re- 
written as opera; prod, at Met. O{>., 
N. Y., 1910; with success, later in 
Europe. " Dornroschen" was prod. 
Frankfort-on-Main (1902); com. op. 
"Die Heirat wider Witten" (Berlin, 
3905); he also c. incid. music to 
Aristophanes' "Lysistrata" (do., 
1908); Shakespeare's "Winter's 
Tale" and "Tempest" (do. 1906); 
to the pantomime, "The Miracle" by 
Vollmoeller (staged in U. S. by Max 
^Reinhardt). His last 2 operas, "Die 
Marketenderin" (1914) and "Gaudea- 
mus" (1919) were not successful. 
Suneker (hu'-nfck-e'rX James Gibbons, 

Philadelphia, Jan. 31, 1860 Nejy 
York, Feb. 9, 1921; eminent critic 
and writer; pupil of Michael Cross, 
L. Damrosch and Joseffy, and for 
10 years asst. to Joseffy at the 
Nat'l. Cons, in N. Y.; music and 
dram, critic of the Commercial 
Advertiser and The Recorder, trans- 
ferring in 1901 to the New York Sun; 
after 1918 to the New York Times; 
and for a short period before his 
death, to the New York World; 
wrote for Philadelphia Press, and 
for many years for the Musical 
Courier; champion of Brahms and 
some moderns, an outstanding styl- 
ist; author of "Mezzotints in Modern 
Music," "Chopin, the Man and His 
Music" "Melomaniacs," "Franz 
Liszt" "Overtones (in) Music and 
Literature," "Iconoclasts," "Vision* 
aries" "Egoists" " Promenades of an 
Impressionist" "The Pathos of Dis- 
tance," "Old Fogy,"' "New Cosmop* 
olis," "Ivory Apes and Peacocks" 
"Unicorns,"- "The N. Y. Philhar* 
monic Soc.," "Charles Baudelaire, 91 
"Steeplejack," "Bedouins," "Mar? 
Garden" etc. 

Hunke (hoon'-ks), Jos., Josephstadt, 
Bohemia, 1801 St. Petersburg, 1883;, 
choirm. Russian ct. -chapel; com> 

Hiinten (hln'-tSn), Fz., Coblenz, 1793 
1878; c. pop. pf.-pcs., etc. 

Hure (u-ra'), Jean, Gien, Loiret, 
Sept. 17, 1877 Paris, Jan. 27, 1930; 
studied in monastery at Angers; 
lived in Paris after 1895; active as 
pianist and comp.; founded Paris 
Normal School for pianists, organ- 
ists; c. operas, symphonies, chamber 
and choral works; author, "La 
Technique du Piano," "La Technique 
de VOrgue"; pub. periodical, L'Orgue 
et les Orgo>wistes. 

Htirel de Lamare (ii'-rSl-dii-la-mSr), 
Jacques Michel, Paris, 1772 Caen r 
1823; 'cellist and composer; his friend 
Auber pub. some comp. under H.'s 

Hurl'stone, Win. Yeates, London, 
Jan. 7, 1876 May 30, 1906; com- 
poser; at 9 pub. 5 waltzes; at 18 held 
scholarship at R. A. M.; later prof, 
there of harmony and counterpoint; 
c. piano concerto, etc. 

Huss (hoos), Henry Holden, b. New- 
ark, N. J., June 2r, 1862 N. Y., 
Sept. 17, 1953; composer; studied 
D. B. Boise (cpt. and comp.), also at 



Munich Cons.; lived in N. Y. as 
teacher of pf., comp. and instr. He 
and his wife, the soprano, Hildegard 
Hoffman, have given joint recitals 
throughout America, and 1910 in 
London. His piano concerto in B 
major was played with the composer 
as soloist by the N. Y. Philh., 
Boston Symph., Pittsburgh and 
Cincinnati Symph. orch's. and by 
the Monte Carlo Symph., with 
Pugno as soloist; his violin sonata 
by Kneisel, Spiering, etc.; also c. 
"Recessional" for mixed chorus, or- 
gan, and orch. (Worcester, Mass., 
Festival, 1911); string quartet in 
E minor (Kneisel Quartet); 'cello 
sonata; songs, etc. 

Hutch/eson, Ernest, b. Melbourne^ 
July 20, 1871 d. "N." Y., Feb. 9, 
1951; pupil. Leipzig Cons.,' winning 
Mozart prize with a trio; toured 
Australia; studied with Stavenhagen; 
1898 married Baroness von Pilsach; 
from 1900 teacher Peabody Cons., 
Baltimore; c. symph. poem "Merlin 
and Vivien"- (Berlin, 1899); orch. 
suite (do.), piano concerto (1899); 
symphony; two-piano concerto; vln. 
concerto, etc.; 1912-14, toured Eu- 
rope; after latter year in N. Y.; after 
1911 taught Chautauqua Inst.; and 
had been dean of Juilliard Grad. 
School of Music, N. Y., since 1926; 
author, "Guide to Strauss 9 Elektra.'* 

Hutsclienruijter (hoot'-shSn-roi-ter), 
(i) Wouter, Rotterdam, 1796 1878; 
horn- and trumpet-virtuoso; pro- 
fessor, conductor, director and dram, 
composer. (2) Wouter, Rotter- 
dam, Aug. 15, 1859 1943; conduc- 
tor; after 1890 asst. cond. of Con- 
certgebouw, Amsterdam; then of 
Utrecht Orch.; 1917-25, dir. Rotter- 
dam Munic. School of Music. 

Htfttenbrenner (hXt'-tSn-brSn-ner), An- 
sekn, Graz, Styria, 1794 Ober- 
Andritz, 1868; pianist, conductor and 
dram, composer. 

Huygens (hl'-gSns), (i) Constantin, The 
Hague, Sept. 4, 1596 March 28, 
1687; poet and military secretary to 
"William H. and "William IU.; also 
skilful performer; c. over 700 airs for 
lute, theorbo, etc.; Ms son (2) Chris- 
tian, The Hague, April 14, 1629 
June 8, 1695; mathematician and 

*ed (hulMS-stadh), Aug., b. (of 

h parents) Stock-holm, June 17, 
; violinist; at 5 played in public; 

studied with Holger Dahl till 
and then made succ. tour through 
Scandinavia; entered the Royal 
Cons, at Copenhagen; 1876, organist 
of the Cath. and dir. of a mus. soc.; 
1879, studied with Kullak, Kiel, and 
later Liszt; 1885, toured U. S.; 1886- 
91, asst.-dir. Chicago Mus. Coll.; 
1891-94, Gottschalk Lyric Sch.; 
1894-97, toured Europe; prod, in 
London symph. poem "Elizabeth, 
with double chorus; 1897, Chicago; 
c. romantic play "Die RheinnixeJ* 
orch. suites, etc.; d. (?). 

Ibach (e'-b8,kh), (i) Jns. Ad., 1766 
1848; pf. and organ-builder. His 
son (2) C. Rudolf (d. 1862), and 
(3) Richard, joined the firm; a third 
son (4) Gustav J. founded another 
business 1869. (5) Rudolf (d. Her- 
renalb, Black Forest, July, 1892), 
son of (2), continued the pf. -factory, 
and Richard, the organ-factory. 

Ibert (6-barO, Jacques, b. Paris, 
Aug. 15, 1890; composer; studied 
Paris Cons., Prix de Rome, 1919; 
an accomplished modern-style comp., 
especially known for his colourful 
orchestral compositions in which one 
finds the influence of Franck, Ravel 
and Debussy; "Escales/ 9 a suite de- 
picting marine ports, has had inter- 
nat'l. hearings; also c. a light opera, 
"Angelique" given with succ. in 
Paris; (opera) "Le Roi d' Yvetot"; 
the symph. poems, "No'el en Pi- 
cardie," "The Ballad of Reading 
Gaol" (after Wilde); "Persee et 
Androm&de" orchestral phantasy; 
lyric scene, "La Poete et la F6e" m , 
wind quartet, vln. sonata, 'cello 
concerto, concerto for saxophone and 
orch.; org. and piano pieces; his 
ballet, "Gold Standard,"' was prod, 
by Chicago Op. in 1934. 

If 'fert, August, Braunschweig, May 31, 
x ^59 near Dresden, Aug. 13, 1930; 
singer and teacher in various cities; 
author of a vocal method. 

Igtrauioff (e-goom'-noff), Konstantin 
Nikolajavich, b. Lebedjana, Tam- 
bouy, May i, 1873; Russian pianist; 
pupil of Svereff, Siloti and Pabst; 
1898, teacher in Tiflk; 1900 prof* at 
Moscow Cons. 

Hiffe (I'-llf), Fr., Smeeton-Westerby, 
Leicester, Engl., Feb. 21, 1847 Ox- 
ford, Feb. 2, 1928; 1883, organist and 



choirm. St. John's Coll., Oxford; 
cond. of Queen's Coll. Mus. Soc., 
1873, Mus. Bac. Oxon.; wrote 
"Critical Analysis of Bach's Clavi- 
chord" (London, 1896; 4 parts); c. 
oratorio, "The Visions of St. John 
the Divine"; cantata with orch. 
"Lara," etc. 

Binski (S-Hn'-shk!0, Count Jan Stanis- 
law, b. Castle Romanov, 1795; com- 

Iljinski (el-yn'-shkl), Alexander Alex- 
androvich, Tsarkoe Selo, Jan. 24, 
1859 Moscow, 1919?; composer; pu- 
pil of Kullak and Bargiel; 1885 prof, 
of theory at the Philharmonic Music 
School in Moscow; c. opera "The 
Fountain of Bastchi-Sarai"^ symph.; 
symphonic scherzo; pf.-pcs., songs, 

Imbert (Sn-bar), Hugues, Moulin s- 
Engilbert 1842 Paris, 1905; noted 
writer of biogs., etc. 

Inc'ledon, Chas., Bery St. Kevern, 
Cornwall, 1763 1826; tenor, called 
"The Wandering Melodiste." 
> (d^n-dS), (Paul M. Th.) Vincent 
?, Paris, March 27, 1851 Dec. 3, 
1931; pupil of C6sar Franck (comp.) 
and at the Cons., 1875, chorusm. 
with Colonne; played drum-parts for 
3 years to learn instrumentation; 
pres. of various concert-societies; 
mus.-inspector of Paris schools; Chev. 
of the Legion of Honour; 1896 he 
became prof, of composition at 
Paris Cons.; 1896 with Bordes and 
Guilmant founded the Schola Can- 
tor urn, and became director; c. a 
3-part symph. poem "Wallenstein^ 
(Part II., "I Piccolomini," prod. 
1874 by Pasdeloup); symphonies 
(i) "On a French mountaineer-song"* 
and (2) "Jean Hunyadi" symphonic 
legend "Lafortt enchantee"; overture 
to "Antony and Cleopatra"; "La 
ChevauchSe du Cid" for orch.; sym- 
phonic pf. -concerto; prod. _ i-act 
comic opera, " Attendez-moi sous 
I'Orme" (Op.-com., 1882); c. text 
and mus.; succ. mus. drama, "Fer- 
vaal" (Brussels, 1897); " L' Stranger"' 
(do. 1903); "Le chant de la cloche"* 
dramatic legend in seven pictures, 
with his own text, for soli, double 
chorus and orch. Festival cantata 
"Pour V inauguration d'une Statue"" 
for barytone, chorus and orch., "Ode 
a Valence," do. symph. in B flat, 
1902; "Jour d*ete a la montagne"> 
"Souvenirs" for orch. 1906; 

songs, piano pieces and choruses, 
author of a "Cours de Composition 
Musicale," 1902, and a life of C6sar 
Franck, 1906. 

Infante (en-fan'-ta), Manuel, b. Osuna 
near Seville; composer; has c. many 
piano works of graceful sort and 
attractive folk colouring, first made 
pop. by the pianist Iturbi; res. in Paris. 

Ingegneri (en-gan-ya'-re"), Marco A., 
Verona, ca. 1545 Cremona, July 
i, 1592; conductor, composer and 

Inghelbrecht (6n'~gSl-brkht), Desir6 
Emile, b. Paris, Sept. 17, 1880; com- 
poser; pupil of Cons.; a friend of 
Debussy in the composer's latter 
days, whose works he excels in con-* 
ducting; after 1908 active at various 
Paris theatres and following 1925 
music, dir. at the Op.-Comique; c. 
ballet, "Le DiaUe dans le bejfroi'* 
(after Poe), and numerous orch., 
chamber music, and vocal works; 
arr. works of Couperin and Albeniz 
for orch. 

In 'gram, Frances, b. Liverpool, Eng- 
land, 1888; contralto; studied with 
Maurel; after 1911 sang for several 
years with Chicago Op. Co.; 1913, 
Montreal Op. Co., and also in 

Insanguine (6n-san-gw'-na), Giacomo 
(called Monopoli), Monopili, ca. 1740 
Naples, 1795; teacher and dram, 

Ippolitov-Ivanov (gp-po'-l6-t6f-6'-va- 
n6f), Mikhail Mikhailovitch, Gat- 
china, Nov. 19, 1859 Moscow, 
Jan. 26, 1935; added his mother's 
name to Ivanoff, to distinguish him 
from Ivanoff (2); pupil of Rimsky- 
Korsakov; at St. Petersburg Cons.; 
1882 dir. of the Music School and 
cond. in Tiflis; 1884 cond. at the 
Imperial Theatre; from 1893 prof, of 
theory Moscow Cons.; dir., 1906-22; 
from 1899 cond. the Private Opera; 
c. operas "Ruth" (Tiflis, 1887), 
"Asja" (Moscow, ipoo); and "So- 
bava Putjatischna" (St. Petersburg, 
1901); overtures "Jar Chmel" 
"Spring," and "Medea"-, orch. suite, 
"Caucasian Sketches"", violin-sonata 
(rearranged as a Sinf onietta) ; char- 
acter-pictures for chorus and orch.; 
cantatas "In Memory of Pushkin" 
of "Gogol" and " Shukovski," and 
"Legend of the White Swan of 
Novgorod" etc.; author of a book on 
Georgian folk-songs. 



Ireland, John, b. Bowdon, England, 
Aug. 13, 1879; composer; pupil of 
Stanford; one of the more able and 
original modern British creators; he 
destroyed his earlier comps. and xst 
became known for his Phantasy Trio 
in A Minor (1908) and "Songs of a 
Wayfarer" (1910); his reputation 
grew after the prod, of his 2nd 
sonata for vln. and piano; c. many 
orch. and chamber works fairly 
simple in structure and of traditional 
form, among which are: the rhapso- 
dies "Mai^Dun" and "The Forgotten 
Rite"- overtures "Pdleas et Meli- 
sande and " Midsummer" > symph. 
poem in A Minor; sextet for strings, 
clarinet and horn; 2 string quartets; 
3 piano trios; 4 vln. sonatas; piano 
sonata; many piano works, incl. 
"Decorations," "London Pieces" and 
"Preludes," Mass in Borian Mode; 
choral and org. pieces and songs. 
Irgang (er'-gang^Fr.Wm., Hirschberg, 
Schleswig, Feb. 23, 1836 Carlsruhe, 
1918?; teacher in Proksch's Sch., 
Prague; 1863, founded sch. at G5r- 
litz; also organ composer. (2) Irr'- 
gang, H. Bd., Krotoschin, 1869 
Berlin, 1916; noted organist, teacher. 
Isaak (e'-zSk), H. (or Isaac, Izak, 
Yzac, Ysack; in Italy Arrigo Tedesco, 
Henry the German; Low; Lat. 
Anighus), ca. 1450 ca. 1517; famous 
contrapuntist doubtless of Nether- 
landish birth; conductor and or- 

Iserlies (*s'-Sr-16z), Julius, b. Kishinev, 
Russia, Nov. 8, 1888; noted pianist; 
1907-9, toured U. S.; after 1913 
taught Moscow Philh . Cons. 
Isouard (-zoo-2,r), Wiccold (called 
Niccolo de Malte), Malta, 1775 
Paris, March 23, 1818; pupil of 
Amendola, Sala, and Guglelmi; or- 
ganist, conductor and prolific dram, 

Israel (6s'-rS-eT), K., Heiligenrode, 
Electoral Hesse, 1841 Frankfort- 
on-M., 1881; critic and bibliographer. 
Is'tel, Edgar, b. Mainz, Germany, 
Feb. 23, 1880; composer and writer 
on music; pupil of Thuille and Sand- 
berger; Ph. D., Munich Univ., 1900; 
lecturer on music; c. operas, choral 
music and songs; author of many 
books on music. 

Iturbi (S-toor'-vg), (i) Jose, b. Valencia. 
Spain, Nov. 28, 1895; pianist and 
conductor; studied Valencia Cons., 
xst prize in piano at 13; grad. Paris 

Cons, with highest honours at 17^ 
pupil of Joaquin Malats, Barcelona^ 
was head of piano faculty, Geneva 
Cons., 1919-23; began tours of chief 
Eur. countries and South America* 
establishing reputation as oae of the 
pre-eminent piano virtuosi of the 
day; Amer. d6but, 1928; won marked 
popularity, esp. for his performance 
of Mozart and Beethoven works, to 
which he brings polished readings; 
began conducting activities in Mexico 
City, 1933, and estab. permanent 
orch. there to give summer series 
under his baton; has since led N. Y. 
Philh. Orch. (summer series at 
Lewisohn Stadium), Phila. Orch., 
Los Angeles Philh. at Hollywood 
Bowl, sometimes playing concertos 
and conducting from* the piano; 
appointed permanent cond. Roches- 
ter, N. Y., Philh, Orch,, 1936. 
(2) Amparo, his sister, also a skilled 

I'vanov, (i) Nicholas Kusmich, Pol* 
tava, Oct, 22, 1810 Bologna, July 7, 
1887; tenor; popular in London, 
1 834-3 7; accumulated a fortune in 
Italy and Paris and retired in 1845; 
(2) Michael Mikhaflovich, Moscow, 
Sept. 23, 1849 Rome, Oct. 20, 1927; 
pupil of Tchaikovsky and Dubuque 
at the Cons.; critic and comp.; 
1870-76 at Rome; then critic for the 
Novoe Vremya*; c. symph. "A Night 
in May* 9 ; symph. prologue "Savana* 
Tola"-; four operas including "Potem- 
kin's Feast"> (1888), and "Sabava 
Putjatischna"* (Moscow, 1899); in- 
cidental music to "Medea"* etc. 
His opera "Treachery" (Moscow, 
Feb. 1911) made great success. 
Ives, Charles Edward, b. Danbury, 
Conn., Oct. 20, 1874; composer; 
studied with Dudley Buck, H. R. 
Shelley and Parker; an original figure 
among Amer. comps., working in 
seclusion and with music as an 
avocation, Ives* scores when prod, 
by modernist organizations in N. Y. 
and elsewhere have created consider- 
able interest; one of his theories being 
that several musical units of an en- 
semble may proceed independently 
of each other; also employs much 
freedom in tonality, rhythm and 
harmony; among his productions, 
the work of many years, are 4 sym- 
phonies, 3 orch. suites, 2 cantatas, 
4 vln. sonatas, 2 piajao sonatas. 
2 overtures, works tot chorus and 



orch., chamber music incl. a string 
quartet and quarter-tone pieces, and 
especially a collection of about 200 
highly original songs; some of his 
subjects are drawn from New Eng- 
land; d. N. Y., May 19, 1954- 
ogun; (i) Maria ~(<5f '-S^gun ma-rS'-a) 

(rightly Tnge von Gtinther), b. 
Budapest, Nov. ix, 1891; coloratura 
soprano; studied Vienna Acad.; 
regular mem. Munich Op., 1913-25; 
Berlin Stadtische Op., 1925-32; also 
sang in America with Chicago Op., 
and in concert; m. Karl Erb, tenor, 
1921, (2) Michael Raucheisen, pian- 
ist, 1933- 

Ivry (dey-rS), Paul Xavier Desire, 
Marquis Richard d% Beaune, C6te 
D'Or, Feb. 4, 1829 Hyfcres, Dec. 18, 
1903; pupil of A. Hignard and Le- 
borne; c. operas, "Fatma"' "Quentin 
Metzys" (1854), "La Maison du 
Docteur" (Dijon, 1855), "Omphale et 
Penelope 99 ct Les Amants de Verone'* 
(1867), under the pen-name "Rich- 
ard livid"; revised as "Romeo 
et Juliette"' 1878; "Perseverance 
D* Amour" (MS.); concert-overture, 
songs, etc. 

Kzac. Vide ISAAK. 

Jacchia, Agide (ya-k5'-S 

Lugo, Jan. 5, 1875 Siena,_ Nov. 
2 9> I 93 2 > conductor; studied at 
Parma and Pesaro Cons., pupil of 
Mascagni; after 1898 cond. at 
Brescia, Ferrara and La Fenice Op., 
Venice; 1902, visited America with 
Mascagni; 1903-06, at Milan, Leg- 
horn and Siena; 1907-09, led Milan 
Op. Co. tour of Canada and U. S.; 
1009-10, cond. op. season at Acad. 
of Mus., N. Y.; 1910-14, dir. Mont- 
real and Nat'L Op. Cos., Canada; 
1914-15, chief cond., Century Op. 
Co., N. Y.; 1915-16, Boston Nat'L 
Op. Co.; led "Pop" Concerts, Boston 
Syinph., 1916-23; dir. music school 
in Boston after 1919; c. cantata and 
choral works. 

Tachet. Vide BERCHEM. 

Jachmann-Wagner(yakh'-man). Vide 


Jack'son, (i) Wm., Exeter, 1730 
1803; organist, writer, and dram, 
composer. (2) Wm., Masham, 

Yorks, Engl., 1815 Bradford, 1866; 
organist, conductor, writer and com- 
poser. (3) Samuel P., Manchester, 

Engl., 1818 Brooklyn. N. Y., 1885; 
composer; son of (4) James J M 

Ja'cob, Gordon, b. London, 1895; 
comp,; pupil R. C. M.; c. oboe con- 
certo, ballets, orch. works. 

Jaco'bi, Frederick* b. San Francisco, 
May 4, 1891 N. Y., Oct. 24, 1952; 
pupil, R. Goldmark, Gallico, Joseffy, 
Juon and Ernest Bloch; asst. cond., 
Met. Op. Co., 1913-17; one of 
founders, Amer. Mus. Guild; mem. 
executive board, League of Comps., 
N. Y.; from 1936 teacher of comp., 
Juilliard School of Music; c. string 
quartet based on Amer. Indian 
themes (Zurich Fest., Internat'l. 
Soc. for Contemp. Music, 1926); 
(orch.) "The Pied Piper * "Califor- 
nia Suited "The Eve of 'Saint 
Agnes,"' "Indian Dances 99 -; "Two 
Assyrian Prayers 99 - for voice and 
orch., "The Poet in the Desert 99 - for 
barytone, chorus and orch.; piano 
concerto; 'cello concerto; "Sacred 
Service"' for synagogue; vln. and 
piano works; m. Irene Schwarz, 

Jacobs (zha-k5), Edouard, b. Hal, 
Belgium, 1851; pupil of Servais, 
Brussels Cons.; 'cellist Weimar ct. 
orch. for some years; 1885 prof. 
Brussels Cons.; d. (?) 

Ja'cobsen, Sascha, b. Finland (Russian 
parents); violinist; studied piano at 
5, violin at 8; pupil of Kneisel, also 
of St. Petersburg Cons.; N. Y. dSbut, 
1915; has toured England, Germany, 
France, Spain and U. S. 

Jacobsohn (yak 7 -6p-zQn), Simon E., 
Mitau, Kurland, Dec. 24, 1839 
Chicago, 1902; violinist; pupil Leip- 
zig Cons.; 1860 leader Bremen orch.; 
872, of Theodore Thomas's orch., 
N. Y.; teacher Cincinnati Cons., then 

Jacobsthal (yak'-6ps-tal), Gv. f Pyritz, 
Pomerania, March 14, 1845 Berlin, 
Nov. 9, 1912; 1872, lecturer on 
music Strassburg Univ.; 1875 pro- 
fessor extraordinary; writer. 

Jacotin (rightly Jacques Godebrye), 
(zh5,k-6-tan) (or g6d-br5), ca. 1445 
March 24, 1529; famous Flemish 
cptist.; singer and composer at Ant- 

Jacquard (zh&k-k&r), LSon J., Paris, 
1826 1886: 'cellist; composer. 

Jadassohn (ya'-das-zon), Salomon, 
Breslau, Aug. 13, 1831 Leipzig, 
Feb. i, 1902; eminent theorist; pupil 



of Hesse (pf .) Lustner (yln.) and Bro- 
sig (harm.) j later Leipzig Cons., then 
with Liszt and Hauptmann (comp.); 
from 1852 lived in Leipzig; 1866 
cond- "Balterion" choral soc.; 1867- 
69 cond. "Euterpe"; from 1871, prof. 
of pf ., harm., cpt., comp. and instru- 
mentation at the Cons. 1877, Dr. 
Phil., h. c.; 1803 Royal Prof. He m. 
a singing-teacner. Wrote occasion- 
ally under name "Liibenau" (Ki'- 
b-now). Pub. very succ. text-books 
all trans, in English. " Harmonie- 
lehre" (Leipzig, 1883); " Kontra- 
punkt" (1884); "Kanon und Fuge'* 
(1884); "Die Formen In den Werk- 
en der Tonkunst" (1889); "Lehr- 
buch der Instrumentation"- (1889); 
"Allgemeine Musiklehre"- (1895). 

comps. are notable for form, 
particularly his many works in canon 
incl. serenade for orch. (op, 35), and 
ballet-mus.; which have won him the 
name "Musical Krupp"; c. also 
4 symphonies; 2 overtures; a pf.- 
concerto; The zooth Psalm, for 
double chorus with orchestration, 

Jadin (zh-dn), (i) Louis Emmanuel, 
Versailles, 1768 Paris, 1853; prof., 
conductor and dram, composer. 
Son and pupil of Jean J,, violinist. 

Jadlowker (yad'-lof-ker) , Hermann, 
Riga, 1879 Tel-Aviv, 1953; tenor; 
sang Met. Op., 1910-12; Berlin, Vienna. 

Jaell (yal), (i) Alfred, Trieste, March 
5, 1832 Paris, Feb. 27, 1882; noted 
touring pianist and composer, son of 
(2) Eduard J. (d. Vienna, 1849). (3) 
Jaell-Trautmann, Marie, Steinseltz, 
Alsatia, 1846 Paris, Feb. 7, 1925; 
wife of (i); pianist, composer and 

Ja6 (ySf'-fa), Moritz, Posen, Jan. 
3, 1835 Berlin, May 7, 1925; vio- 
linist; pupil of Ries Bohmer (harm.), 
of Maurin and Massard, Laub, Wuerst 
and Bussler; c. operas, etc. 

Ja'gel, Frederick, \. Brooklyn, N. Y., 
1897; tenor; studied with Portanova 
and Castaldi; dSbut in "La Boheme,"* 
Livorno, Italy; sang in that country 
4 years, heard in Calif, opera seasons; 
dbut, Met. Op. Co., as "Radames," 
1927; has sung leading r61es with 
that co. ? also in concert. 

Jalrn (yan), (i) Otto, Kiel, June 16, 
1813 Gdttingen, Sept. 9, 1869; 
pzotL of archaeology, Bonn Univ.; 
wrote a model biog. of Mozart (1856- 

* 59 4. vols*), etc., also composed. 

(2) Win., Hof, Moravia, Nov. 24, 
1835 Vienna, April 14, i9j l8 54 
conductor; dir. ct.-opera, Vienna, 

jahns (y5ns), Fr. Wm., Berlin, 1800 
1888; singer, composer and writer. 

James, Philip, b. Jersey City, N. J., 
May 17, 1890; composer, conductor; 
studied comp. with Norris and 
Schenck, also at City College, N. Y.; 
cond. New Jersey Orch,, Brooklyn 
Orch. Soc. and later the Bamberger 
Little Symph. in weekly radio 
programmes; taught at N. Y. Univ. 
music dept., c. orch. music, including 
prize-winning work, RCA- Victor 
contest; also vln. sonata; appeared 
as guest cond. of several major 
Amer. orchestras. 

Jan (yan), (i) Maistre. Vide GAL- 
i^s, j. (2) K. von, Schweinfurt, 
1836 Adelboden, Sept, 4, 1899; 
Dr. Phil.. Berlin, 1859; writer. 

Jan/ac'ek (yan-a'-chSk), Leos, Huk- 
valdy, July 3, 1854 Mohr.-Ostrau, 
Aug. 12, 1928; composer of original 
style, studied at Prague Organ 
School, Leipzig and Vienna Cons., 
but largely self-taught; evolved 
manner of expression based on 
natural accents and declamation of 
human voice, also unconventional 
in harmonic method; influenced by 
folklore; late in life he was accepted 
by the internat'L music world as 
in some measure a pioneer; founded 
org. school in Briinn, 1881, where 
he passed most of his life; after 1919, 
taught comp. at the Cons, there; c. 
(operas) "Jenufa," story of Mo- 
ravian peasant life, 1901, not 
prod, until 1916 in Prague, but 
thereafter pop. in German version 
in Austria and Germany, heard also 
at Met. Op. House, 1924; " Katja 
Kabanova" (1922); "2)as Schlaue 
Filchsleiny" an animal fable (1925); 
"Die Sacke Makropoidos" (1925) 
and a posth. work, "Aus einem 
Toterihau$"> (after Dostoievsky 
novel), with libretto by composer 
(Brtinn, 1930); also Fest. Mass, 
Sinfonietta for orch., string quartet, 
piano sonata, songs; orch. rhapsodic 
t'Taras Bulba," etc. 

Janiewiecz (yan'-g- vech) , Felix, Wilna, 
1762 Edinburgh, 1848; violinist and 

Jank6 (yang'-ko), Paul von, To tie, 
Hungary, June a, 1856 Constanti- 
nople, March 17, 1919; pupil Poly- 



technic, Vienna, and at the Cons, 
with Hans Schmitt, Krenn, and 
Bruckner; 1884182, mathematics at 
Berlin Univ., pf. with Ehrlich; inv. 
in 1882 the admirable keyboard 
known by his name (v. D. D.); 
taught in Leipzig Cons., etc. 

Jan(n)aconi (yan-na-ko'-ne"), Gius., 
Rome, 1741 March 16, 1816; emi- 
nent church-composer; conductor at 
St. Peter's; pupil of Rinaldini and 

Jannequin (or Janequin, Jennekin) 
(zha.n-kan), ClSment, a French (or 
Belgian) contrapuntist of the i6th 
cent.; nothing is known of him ex- 
cept that he lived to be old and poor; 
c. genuine "programme" music. 

Janotha (ya-no'-ta), Nathalie, War- 
saw, June 8, 1856 The Hague, 
June 9, 1932; pupil of Joachim and 
Rudora, Clara Schumann, Brahms, 
and Princess Czartoryska, F. Weber 
(harm.) and Bargiel; d6but at the 
Gewandhaus, Leipzig, 1874; 1885, 
ct.-pianist to the German Emperor, 
and decorated with many orders; 
pub. a trans, with additions of Klec- 
zynski's "Chopin"; c. "Ave Maria 
(dedicated to Pope Leo), "Moun- 
tain Scenes' 9 ' (to Frau Schumann), 
gavottes, etc., for piano. 

Janowka (ya-n6f'-ka), Thos. Baltha- 
sar, b. Kuttenberg, Bohemia; or- 
ganist and writer at Prague ca. 1660. 

Jansa (yS,n'-sa), Ld., Wildenschwert, 
Bohemia, 1795 Vienna, 1875; vio- 
linist, teacher and composer. 

Jansen (yan'-zn), F. Gv., Jever, 
Hanover, Dec. 15, 1831 Hanover, 
May 3, 1910; pupil of Coccius and 
Riccius; teacher at GSttingen; 1855- 
1900, organist Verden Cath.; 1861, 
Royal Mus. Dir.; composer and 

Janssen (yans'-zn), (i) N. A., Car- 
thusian monk; organist and writer at 
Louvain, 1845. (2) Julius, Venlo, 
Holland, June 4, 1852 Dortmund, 
Sept. 24, 1921; studied Cologne 
Cons.; 1876, cond. Mus. Soc., Min- 
den; later cond. at Dortmund; 1890, 
city mus. dir.; cond. the ist and 2d 
Westphalian Mus. Festivals; pub. 
songs. (3) Werner, b. New York, 
June i, 1899; composer, conductor; 
grad. Dartmouth Coll.; studied with 
Converse, Stone, Friedheim and 
Chadwick; Mus. D., Univ. of Calif., 
1923; began career as comp. of 
musical comedies and pop. songs; 

won fellowship, Amer. Acad. in 
Rome, 1930; guest cond. of various 
Eur. and Amer. orchs., incl. Sibelius 
programmes in Helsingfors; engaged 
as one of conductors for N. Y. Philh. 
Orch., 1934; c. symphony, symph. 
poem "New Year's Eve in New 
York," given dance prod, by Neigh- 
borhood Playhouse, N. Y.; cond. 
Baltimore Symph., 1937-95 Janssen 
Symph., Los Angeles, 1940- (4) 
Herbert, German barytone; mem. 
Met. Op., after 1938, Wotan, etc. 

Janssens (yans'-zSns), Jean Fran. 
Jos., Antwerp, 1801 insane, 1835; 
dram, composer. 

Januschowsky (yan-oo-sh6f '-shkft , 
(Frau) Georgine von, b. Austria, ca. 
1859 New York, 1914; 1875, so- 
prano in operetta at Sigmaringen; 
1877, soubrette, Th. an der Wien, 
Vienna; 1879-80, Leipzig; 1880, 
Germania Th., New York; 1892, 
at Mannheim and Wiesbaden; 1893- 
95, prima donna, Imp. Opera, 
Vienna; sang Wagner, etc.; comic 
operas and operettas; m. Ad 

Japha (ya'-fa), (i) G. Jos., Konigs- 
berg, 1835 Cologne, 1892; violinist. 
(2) Louise, Hamburg, Feb. 2, 1826 
Wiesbaden, Oct. 13, 1910; pianist 
and composer; pupil of Warendorf 
(pf.), Gross and Grund (comp.) and 
Robt. and Clara Schumann; 1858, 
she m. W. Langhans, with whom she 
gave v. succ. concerts; after 1874, 
Wiesbaden; c. an opera, etc. 

Jaques-Dalcroze. Vide DALCROZE. 

Jarecki(ya-rets'-ke),(i) Henri, Warsaw, 
Dec. 6, 1846 Lemberg, Dec. 18, 
1918; dir. at Lemberg; c. operas, 
incl. "Wanda," etc. (2) Tadeusz, 
his son, b. Lemberg, 1889; composer; 
in New York, 1920. 

Jarnach (yar'-nakh), Philipp, b. Noisy, 
France, July 26, 1892; composer (of 
Catalonian ancestry); largely self- 
trained but studied with Lavignac 
and Risler; taught at Zurich Cons., 
1918-21; lived in Berlin 1921-27; 
prof, at Cologne Hochsch. after 
1927; c. 2 symphonies, overtures, 
string quintet, piano works, songs, 
string quartet, sonata for vln. alone, 
vln. and piano sonata, sonatinas 
for flute and 'cello, exhibiting^ a 
modern style of interesting origi- 
nality; completed Busoni's opera, 
"Doktor Faust." 

JHrnefelt (yarn'--fSlt), Armas, b. 



Wlborg, Finland, Aug. 14, 1869; 
composer, conductor; pupil of Hel- 
singfors Cons., Busoni, Becker and 
Massenet; chonismaster, Magde- 
burg Op., 1896; Diisseldorf Op., 
1897; cond. Wiborg Orch., 1898- 
1903; won a goy't. award for study 
in other countries; in 1904-05, was 
dir. of Helsingfors Op.; in 1905-07, 
cond. Stockholm R. Orch.; in latter 
year cond. also of R. Op. in same 
city; dir., Helsingfors Cons., 1906- 
07; c. the orch. works, " Korsh&lm"*; 
" Heimatklang"' (latter a symph. 
fantasy); Serenade; 4 suites; 2 over- 
tures; the choral comps., "Laula 
wokseUa,"* "Suomen synty* "Ago 
Slottj* also many notable works for 
male chorus; songs, piano jneces, 
etc,; m. Maikki Parkarinnen, singer; 
divorced; (2) Liva EdstrSm, singer. 

Jarnowic (or Giornovi(c)chi) (yar-n6- 
vek, or jdr-no-v5'-ka), Giov. M., 
Palermo, 1745 St. Petersburg, Nov. 
21, 1804; violinist and composer; 
pupil of Lolli, whose intolerable 
eccentricities and immorality, _as 
well as virtuosity, he adopted with 
disastrous results; J. B. Cramer chal- 
lenged him, but he would not fight. 

Jar'off, Serge, b. Russia, March 20, 
1896; choral conductor; studied at 
Moscow Synodal Acad. for Church 
Choral Song; in 1920 founded the 
celebrated Don Cossack Russian 
Male Chorus, composed of former 
soldiers in the White Russian Armies; 
beginning 1923 began triumphal 
tours with t*" group in Europe; 
1030, U. S. 

Jarvis, (i) Stephen, 1834 ? London, 
1880; composer. (2) Chas, H., 
Philadelphia, 1837 1895; pianist 
and conductor. 

Jaspar (ahas-pSr), Maurice, b. Lige, 
June 20, 1870; pianist; pupil and 
(1909-16) teacher at the Cons.; 
XOOQ, founded (with Lebefve) the 
Walloon Music Fests.; c. piano 
pieces and songs. 

Jean-Aubry (zhan-e'-bre), G., b, Le 
Havre, France, 1885; writer on 
music; ed. of "The^ Chesterian," Lon- 
don, since 1918; author of "La 
Musique franqaise d'aujourd'hwij* 

Jean le Coq, or Jehan. Vide GAIXTTS, 

Jedttczka (yat-l6ch'-ka), Ernest, 
Poltawa, Russia, June 5, 1855 
Berlin, Aug. 8, 1904; pianist; pupil of 

Moscow Cons. ; teacher there till 1888, 
then teacher Berlin, Stern Cons. 

Jeffries, (i) G., organist to Chas. 
I., 1643. Had a son (2) Christopher, 
organist and composer. (3) Stephen, 
1660 1712; Engl. organist and 
composer. f 

JShin (zha-&n), Leon, Spa, Belgium, 
July 17, 1853 Monte Carlo, Feb. 
15, 1928; violinist; pupil of Leonard, 
Brussels Cons.; cond. at Antwerp 
and Vauxhall, Brussels; 1 879-89* 
asst.-prof . of theory, Brussels Cons.; 
cond. at Monaco; composer. 

J6Ma (JShin-Prume) (zha-3.n-j>rum), 
Fz. EL, Spa, Belgium, April 18, 
1839 Montreal, May 29, 1899; one 
of the most eminent violinists of 
Belgian sell.; composer. 

Jelensperger (y&'-lSn-shpSrkh-Sr), 
Daniel, near Miihlhausen, Alsatia, 
1797 1831; writer. 

Jelinek (y'-U-nk), Fz. X., b. Kaurins, 
Bohemia, 1818 Salzburg, 1880; 
oboist and composer. 

JenVins, (i) J., Maidstone, 1592 
Kimberley, Ncrfolk, 1678; court- 
lutist and lyra-violist to Chas. L and 
U,; composed. "12 Sonatas for 2 
Vlns. and a Base, with a Thorough 
Base for the Organ or Theorbo,"* tht 
first Engl. comp. of the sort; the 
pop. "Tke Lady Katherine Audley** 
Bells, or The Five Bell Consort," etc. 
(2) David, b. Trecastell, Brecon, 
Jan. i, 1849 Aberystwith, Dec. xo t 
1916; 1878, Mus. Bac. Contab.; 1885, 
cond. America; prof. Univ. Coll. of 
Wales; c. operetta, 2 oratorios, 3 can- 
tatas, A Psalm of Life, etc. (3) 
Cyril, b. Dunvant near Swansea, 
South Wales, Oct. 9, 1885; comp. of 
symph. poems, chamber music, can- 
tatas, some of which have won prizes 
at the nat'l. Eisteddfod. 

Jermekin (zhSn-kan). Vide JAKNEQUIN. 

Jenner {ySn'-ne'r), Gustav, Keitum, 
Island of Sylt, Dec. 3, 1865 Mar- 
burg, Aug. 29, 1920; pupil of Stange 
and Gange in Kiel, of Brahms and 
Mandyczewski in Vienna; from 1895 
director in Marburg; c. songs and 
quartets for women's voices. 

Jensen (ySn'-sSn), (i) Ad., KSnigs* 
berg, Jan. 12, 1837 of consumption, 
Baden-Baden, Jan. 23, 1879; one of 
the most original and poetical of com- 
posers for piano and voice; his pf.- 
pcs. have an unexcelled lyricism, 
and marked melodiousness. Self- 
taught, but advised by L. Ehlert and 



Fr. Marburg; before 20 had c. over- 
tures, a string-quartet, sonatas and 
songs. 1856, teacher in Russia; then 
studied with Schumann; 1857, cond. 
Posen City Th.; 1858-60, studied 
with Gade; 1860, returned to Konigs- 
berg; 1866-68, teacher at Tausig's 
Sch. in Berlin; compelled by ill- 
health to retire to Dresden, 1870 to 
Graz, finally to Baden-Baden, C. 
opera "Turandot" (finished by 
Kienzl); " Nonnengesang" and 
"Brautlied" for solo and chorus with 
2 horns, harp and a piano, "Jephtha's 
Tochter" and "Adonis-Feier,"< 
"Donald Caird ist wieder dap 
and other vocal works with orch.; 
concert-overture; "Geistlicher Ton- 
sffick"', " Hochzeitsmusik," "Abend- 
musik," "Lebensbilder," 6 "Silkouet- 
ten," and "L&ndliche Festmusik,"> 
for pf. (4 hands); and " Inner e 
SUmmen," "Wanderbilder,"> a sonata; 
6 German Suites, "Idyllen, 9 * 
"Erotikon" (7 pcs.), a scherzo, 
"Wald-Idytte," op. 47, "Scenes 
carnavalesques " for pf.-solo; and 
1 60 solo songs. Biog. by Niggli. 
(2) Gustav, K6nigsberg, 1843 
Cologne, 1895; pupil of Dehn 
(comp.) and Laub and Joachim 
(vln.); violinist KSnigsberg Th.; 
1872-75, prof, of cpt., Cologne 
Cons.; c. symphony, etc. 

Jentsch (ySntshj, Max, Ziesar, Saxony, 
Aug. 5, 1855 Stendal, Nov., 1918; 
pianist and teacher; pupil of Stern 
Cons.; toured the Orient; 1884-89 in 
Constantinople; later in Berlin; from 
1894 in Vienna; c. symphony, 
"Elysium" for chorus and orch., 
2 operas, etc. 

Jep'son, (i) Harry Benjamin, b. New 
Haven, Conn., Aug. 16, 1870; edu- 
cator; grad. Yale Univ.; studied 
with Stoeckel, Parker, Widor; after 
1899 ass't. prof, of theory at Yale, 
and 1906 prof, and Univ. org.; c. 
vocal wks.; d. Groton, Conn., 1952. 
(2) Helen, b. Akron, O.; soprano; 
studied with Horatio Cqnnell at 
Curtis Inst. of Mas., Phila.; also 
with Richard Hageman; sang with 
Chautauqua, N. Y., Op. Ass'n.; 
with Phila. Gr. Op. Co.; soloist with 
various orchs.; after 1935 with Met. 
Op. Co.; 1936, also Chicago Op. Co. 

Jeritza (yeV-et-sa), Maria, b. Briinn, 
Moravia, Oct. 6, 1887; soprano; 
family name Jedlitzka; studied sing- 
ing with Auspitzer; first sang in 

operetta at Stadttheatre in native 
town; later in Olmiitz; then in comic 
opera at Munich and Vienna; after 
1912 a regular mein. of Vienna State 
Op., where became known as dram, 
actress of pronounced powers; Amer. 
dbut, Met. Op. Co. as "Marietta" in 
Korngold's "Die Tote Stadt," 1921; 
sang leading r61es in Wagnerian 
and Italian works with this co. for 
more than a decade; a striking 
"Tosca"; "Turandot" and "Helena." 
in Strauss's opera (creations for Amer- 
ica); in 1933 with Chicago Op., also 
appeared at Covent Garden .and 
widely in concerts. 

Jess'ner , Irene, b . Vienna; soprano; stud- 
ied Cons, there; mem. Met. Op., 1936. 

Jrminez (hl'-mX-nSth), Jerommo, Se- 
ville, 1854 Madrid, 1923; comp. of 
50 zarzuelas. 

Jimmerthal (yim'-mSr-tal), Ha., Lti- 
beck, 1809 1886; organist, org.- 
builder and writer. 

Jirinek (yS'-ra-nSk), (i) Anton, ca. 
1712 Dresden, Jan. 16, 1761; 
studied at Prague; later joined the 

Ledec, March 24, 1855 d. 1940; 
pianist; pupil of Smetana, and of the 
organ school at Prague; studied the 
harp with Stanek, the violin with 
Hrinialy, and was a harpist at first; 
1877-91 piano teacher at Charkov; 
1891-1913, prof, at Prague Cons.; 
c. "Ballad^ 3 and "Scherzo fantasti- 
que" for orch., piano pieces; author of 
methods. His brother (3) Aloys, 
b, Ledec, Sept. 3, 1858; pupil of 
Prague Organ School, and in compo- 
sition of Fibich; from 1881, piano 
teacher at Charkov; c. opera "Dag- 
mar, 9 ' etc. 

Joachim (yS'-S-khem), (i) Jos., 
Kittsee, near Pressburg, June 28, 
1831 Berlin, Aug. 15, 1907; emi- 
nent violinist; studied at 5 with 
Szervacinski, Pesth, with whom he 
appeared in public at 7; from 1841, 
at Vienna Cons, with Bohm; at 12, 
played in Leipzig, and soon after 
at the Gewandhaus, with much succ.; 
frequently leader of the Gewandhaus 
Orchestra; 1844, made his first of 
many appearances in London; 1849, 
Concertmeister of the Weimar orch.; 
1854, cond. and solo violinist to the 
King of Hanover; 1863 m. Amalie 
Weiss (v. fnfra); 1868 head of the 
Hochschule, Berlin; 1877, Mus. 
Doc. h. c., Cambridge Univ.; had 



many degrees from German uni- 
versities, and various orders of 
knighthood; undisputed pre- 
eminence as a classicist and solo- 
performer; his famous J. Quartet 
included De Ahna, Wirth and Haus- 
rr>a""Ti T He c. "Hungarian" concerto 
for violin, and 2 others, and vari- 
ations with orch., also overture to 
"Hamlet"; 4 overtures incl. "Dem 
Andenken Kleists"; Hebrew Melo- 

. dies, for via. and pf.; Op. 14, "Szene 
der Marfa" (from Schiller's De- 
metrius), for contralto solo with 
orch.; three cadenzas to Beethoven's 
vm.-concerto, etc. (2) Amalie (ne'e 
"Weiss, rightly, Schneeweiss), Mar- 
burg, Styria, May 10, 1839 Berlin, 
Feb. 3, 1899; eminent concert and 
operatic soprano; then contralto 
and teacher; wife of above. 

Jobin (zhd-b&&') , Raoul, French-Cana- 
dian tenor; sang Paris Op.; Met. 
Op,, 1040. 

Johns, Clayton, New Castle, Del., 
Nov. 24, 1857 Boston, March 7, 
1932; pupil of J. K. Paine, and W. 
H. Sherwood, Boston; later with 
Kiel, Grabow, Raif, and Rummel 
(pf.) in Berlin; in Boston, Mass., 
as a concert-pianist and teacher; 
after 1912 taught N. E. Cons.; c. 
a Berceuse and Scherzino for string- 
orch. (played by Boston Symph. 
orch.) ; many songs, etc. 

John 'son, (i) Edw., English composer, 
1594, (2) Robert, Engl. i6th cent, 
ecclesiastic and church composer. 
(3) Robert, lutenist and prominent 
composer, 1573 1625. (4) John, 
d. 1594-95; musician to Queen 
Elizabeth; c. lute- music. (5) Ed- 
ward, b. Guelph, Ontario, tenor and 
impresario; studied Univ. of Toronto; 
singing with Lombardi in Florence; 
early sang in concerts and in light 
operas in N. Y.; opera d6but at 
Padua; heard in several Italian 
theatres, incl. La Scala (ist Ital. 
perf. of Parsifal, 1914); sang Chi- 
cago Op. Co. 1920, also Ravinia 
Op.; Met. Op. Co., after 1921, 
interpreting romantic r61es such as 
"PellSas" and in Italian works with 
succ.; created parts in ist Amer. 
hearings of operas by Puccini, Piz- 
zetti, Montemezzi, Zandonai and 
Deems Taylor {"Kings Hench- 
and "Peter Ibbetson"); chosen 
asst, general manager, Met. Op. 
3 1935* and same year succeeded 

to managership on death of Herbert 
Witherspoon; hon. LL. D., Univ 
of Western Ontario; Cav. Ufficiale, 
Order of the Crown of Italy; Com- 
mander of the British Empire. 

(6) Horace, b. Waltham, Mass., 
October 5, 1893; composer; studied 
comp. with Bainbridge Crist, org. 
and pf. with John P. Marshall; c. 
orcn. suites, pf. pieces, songs, etc. 

(7) Thor, b. Wise. Rapids, Wis., 
1913; grad. Univ. of N. C.; studied 
with Walter, Malko and Weingart- 
ner; cond., Ann Arbor, Mich., Fest.; 
cond. Cincinnati Symph., after 1946. 

JommelH (y6m-mel'-ll), Wiccold, 
Aversa, near Naples, Sept. n, 1714 
Naples, Aug. 28, 1774; eminent 
operatic and church-composer; pupil 
of Canon Mozzillo, Durante, Feo, 
Leo, Prato and Mancini. C. ballets 
and songs, then dram, cantatas; at 
23 prod, opera "L'J&rrore Amoroso" 
(Naples, 1737), under the name 
* 'Valentino"; its succ. relieved his 
anxiety and removed his anonymity 
and he followed it with other succ. 
works in various cities under various 
patronage. He was made Dir, of 
the Cons, del Ospedaletto, Venice; 
1748-54 asst. Maestro at St. Peter's, 
Rome, until 1754; cond. to the Duke 
of Wtlrtemberg. Lived in Germany 
15 years and made great succ. He 
profited artistically by German in- 
fluence, but when the Stuttgart opera 
was disbanded and he retired to 
Italy his style was too serious and 
perhaps his best works "Armida 
Abbandonata" (1770), " Demofo'dnte"* 
1770), and "Ifigenia in Tauride"* 
(1771), were failures when prod, at 
Naples. The humiliation after such 
long triumph brought on apoplexy 
(i773)j from which he recovered 
only long enough to write a cantata 
on the birth of a prince, and his 
masterpiece, a "Miserere." The 
King of Portugal commissioned him 
to write 2 operas and a cantata; 
but he did not live to finish them; 
he c. over 50 known operas and 
divertissements, and equally fine 
sacred mus., incl. 4 oratorios, a 
magnificat, with echo, etc. 

Jonas (zhs-n&0, (i) fimile, Paris, 
March 5, 1827 St. Germain-en- 
L ? 3 ^ 7 Pa *is, May 21, 1905; pupil 
of Carafa at the Cons.; from 1847 
teacher there also mus.-dir. Portu- 
guese svnacroeue. (2) (h 



Alberto, Madrid, June 8, 1868 
Phila., Nov. 9, 1943; pianist; pupil of 
Madrid Cons.; at 18 with Gevaert, 
Brussels Cons.; won ist prize for pf ., 
and later 2 first prizes in harm,: 
d6but, Brussels, 1880; 1890, studied 
St. Petersburg Cons, under Rubin- 
stein's tuition; since toured Europe 
and America; 1894 head of the pf.- 
dep. Univ. of Michigan; since 1914 
taught in N. Y. (2) Maryla, Polish 
pianist; N. Y. dSbut, 1946. 

Joncifcres (zhdn-sl-&rs), Victorin de, 
Paris, April 12, 1839 Oct. 26, 1903; 
studied painting, then mus. with 
El wart at the Cons.; an ardent 
Wagnerian, he left the Cons, because 
of El wart's adverse opinion; pres. 
"Soc. des Compositeurs de musique," 
Chev. of the Legion of Honour, and 
officer of public instruction; 1871 
critic of "La Liberte" etc.; prod. 4 
operas, incl. "Le Chevalier Jean 9 * 
(Op.-com., 1885), a symph. ode, 
"La Mer"* a "Symphonic roman- 
tique"; "Li Tsin," a Chinese theme 
for soli and orch., etc. 

Jones, (i) Robt., Engl. lutenist and 
composer, 1601-16; one of his songs, 
"Farewell deere love" is alluded to 
in "Twelfth Night." (2) Wm. ("of 
Nayland")> Lowick, Northampton- 
shire, 1736 Nayland, Suffolk, 1800; 
writer and composer. (3) J., 1728 
London, 1796; organist and com- 
poser. (4) (Sir) Wm., London, 
1746 Calcutta, 1794; writer. (5) 
Edw. ("Brady Brenin")? Llander- 
fel, Merionethshire, April 18, 1752 
London, April 18, 1824; Welsh 
harpist, writer and composer. (6) 
Griffith, British writer, pub. "A 
History of the Origin and Progress 
of Theoretical and Practical Music?** 
1819. (7) Sidney, b. Leeds, 1869; 
theater conductor and composer of 
the succ. operetta "The Gaiety Girl" 
(London, 1893); "An Artist's Model 9 * 
(Daly's Th., London, 1895); "The 
Geisha" (1896); d. Kew, Eng.^ 1946. 

Jongen (zhdn'-g&n), (i) Joseph, b. 
Li6ge, Dec. 14, 1873 Sart-les-Spa, 
July 14, ip53; pupil Liege Cons., won 
1 many prizes incl. Prix de Rome; 
1903 prof, of harmony and cpt. 
there; after 1904 res. in Brussels; 
1920 taught at Cons, there; 1925, 
dir.; with Lekeu and Vreuls, one 
of leading Belgian comps., influenced 
by Franck and Debussy; c. much 
orch. and chamber music* 'cello 

concerto, cantatas, piano and prg. 
music, and stage works. (2) Leon, 
b. Liege, March 2, 1884; bro. of 
Joseph; studied Li6ge Cons., won 
Prix de Rome; c. dram, works. 

Jorda (hor-da/), Enrique, b. San Sebas- 
tian, 1911; cond., San Francisco 
Symph., 1054-55. 

Jor'dan, Jules, Willimantic, Conn., 
Nov. 10, 1850 Providence, R. I., 
March 5, 1927; studied singing with 
Osgood, Boston, Shakespeare, Lon- 
don, and Sbriglia, Paris; for 13 years 
choirm. of Grace Ch., Providence; 
1880 cond. Arion Club; c. comedy- 
opera "Rip Van Winkle 9 * (pub. 
1898); cantata with orch.; songs, 

J6rn (yarn), Karl, b. Riga, Jan. $, 
1876; tenor; pupil of Lohse, Schutte, 
Harmsen and Elis. Jacobs, also Mme. 
Ress and Weiss; made d6but at 
Freiburg, 1896; sang at Zurich, Ham- 
burg, Berlin; also inLondon, 1905-08, 
Met. Op., 1908-11; d, Denver, 1947- 

Joseffy (yo-zSf'-fl), Rafael, Miskolcz, 
Hungary, July 3, 1853 New York, 
June 25, 1915; eminent pianist; pupil 
of Moscheles, Leipzig Cons., Liszt^ 
Tausig; toured Europe with succ.; 
lived in Vienna; for many years at 
New York; teacher Nat. Cons.; c. 

Josephson (y5'-zf-z5n), Jacob Axel, 
Stockholm, March 27, 1818 Upsala, 
March 29, 1880; Swedish cond. ana 

Josquin. Vide DESPK&S. 

Josten (y5s'-tn), Werner, b. Elber- 
feld, Germany, June 12, 1888; com- 
poser; since 1923 prof, of music, 
Smith Coll., Northampton, Mass.; 
also dir. music fests. there, incl. 
perfs. of Handel operas, etc.; c. 
*' Jungle" for orch.; "Concerto Sacro 9 * 
for strings and piano; " Hymnus to 
the Quene of Paradys," for alto solo, 
women's chorus, strings and org.; 
"Crucifixion," for bass solo and 
mixed chorus; "Indian Serenade,"* 
for tenor and orch., "Ode for St. 
Cecilia 9 s Day" for soprano, barytone^ 
mixed chorus, orch.; "A Une 
Madone" for tenor and orch.; string 
quartet; (ballet) "Joseph and His 
Brethren" (Juilliard School of Music, 

Jouret (zhoo-ra), (i) Th., Ath, Bel- 
gium, 1821 Kissingen, 1887; critic 
and dram, composer. (2) Leon, 
Ath. Oct. 17, 1828 Brussels, June 6, 



1905; bro. of above; pupil Brussels 
Cons, and after 1874 vocal teacher 
there; c. 2 operas, cantatas, etc. 

Joitrnet (zhoor'-na), Marcel, Grasse, 
1869 Vittel, Sept. 6, 1933; bass; 
pupil of the Cons.; d6but Th. de la 
Monnaie, Brussels; sang often at 
Covent Garden; 1900 at Met. Op., 
N. Y.; 1914, Chicago Op. Co. 

Jousse (zhoos), J., Orleans, France, 
1760 1837; teacher and writer. 

Juch (yookh), Zmma, Vienna, July 4, 
1865 N. Y., March 6, 1939; soprano; 
studied in New York with Mme. 
Murio-CelU; concert dSbut, 1882; in 
opera at Her Majesty's Theat., 
London, the following year in t( Mi- 
gnon"; sang under Mapleson's mgt. 
there for 3 seasons in leading rdles; 
1886-87 with Amen Qp. Co. under 
Thomas; 1889 founded her own co. 
and sang in U. S. and Mexico; also 
heard in concerts and with orchs. in 

Judenktcaig (yoo '-den-koo-nSkh) ? 

TTflTigj b. Schwabisch-GmQnd; Intern- 
ist, vioHst and composer at Vienna, 

Jtte (zhu), Edouard, b. Paris, 1794 (?); 
violinist and writer. 

Jl(l)ien (zhiil-yan), (i) Marcel Bd., 
Paris, 1798 1881; writer. (2) Jean 
Lucien Ad., Paris, June i, 1845 
1932; son of above; prominent critic 
and writer. (3) Lotus Ant., Sisterotn, 
BassesK&lpes, April 23, 1812 in- 
sane, Paris, March 14, 1860; pop. 
conductor and composer of dance 
music, etq. (4) Paul, Brest, France* 
Feb. 12, 1841 a.t sea, 1866; violinist; 
pupil Paris Cons., took ist prize; 
toured America, 1853-66. 

Jmmlhac (zhii-mel-y&k), Dom P. Be- 
nott de, near Limoges, i6n-^St. 
Germain-des-Pres, 1682; writer. 

Jtmck (yoonk), Benedetto, Turin, Aug. 

24, 1852 Vigilio (Bergamo), Oct. 

5, 1903; pupil of Bazzini and Maz- 

zacato; lived in Milan; c. string- 

, quartet, etc. 

Jfingst (yinkst), Hugo, Dresden, Feb. 
26, 1853 Feb. 6, 1923; studied at 
Cons, there; founded the Julius Otto 
Soc,; and cond. Male Choral Soc.; 
1898 made prof, by King of Saxony; 
c* male choruses. 

Jtinker (yoonk'-Sr) , K. L., Ohringen, 
ca. 1740 Kirchberg, 1797; writer 
and composer. 

(zhw6n), Paul, Moscow, Mar. 8, 
iy. Switz.. Aug. 21, 1940; 

violinist; pupil Hrimal>, Taneiev 
and Arensky, later of Bargiel in 
Berlin, where he won the Mendels- 
sohn Scholarship; 1896 taught 
theory at Baku; 1897 settled in 
Berlin; 1906-34, teacher of compo- 
sition at the High School for Music; 
c. 2 symph., the second prod. with. 
much interest at Meiningen, 1003* 
and in London, 1904 and i955 * an " 
tasie for orch., "Wachterweise," on 
Danish folk-themes, orch. suite, "Aus 
meinem Tagebuch"\ chamber music, 
"Satyrs^ and Nymphs," ^and other 
piano pieces, 3 vln. concert!, etc. 

Jupin (zhii-pS-n), Chas. Fran., Cham- 
b6ry, 1805 Paris, 1839; violinist, 
professor, conductor, and dram. 

Jiirgenson (ylir'-g^n-zon), Peter, 
Reval, 1836 Moscow, Jan. 2, 1904; 
founded mus.-pub. house, Moscow, 

Kaan (kan) ("Alb6st-Kahn"), H. 

Tarnopol, Galicia, May 2p, 1852 
Rudna, May, 1926; pianist; pupil 
of Blodek and Sfcuhersky, Prague; 
dir. Cons, there, 1907-18, comp. 

Kabalev^ky, Dimtoi, b. Leningd., 
1904; pupil Mosc.* Cons., c. opera 
*'Colas Breugnon," 2 symphs., etc. 

Kade (ka 7 -d), Otto, Dresden, 182^ 
Schwerin, 1900; ct.-conductor, write! 
and composer. 

Kaempfert (kSmp'-ffirt), Max, b. 
Berlin, Jan. 3, 1871; studied in 
Paris and Munich; 1899 1 9 2 3 cond. 
at FrankfortH>n-Main; c, opera* 
4 rhapsodies for orch., etc. 

Kahl (kal), H., Munich, 1840 Berlin, 
1892; conductor. 

Kanlert (ka'-lgrt), Aug. K. TIHKK 
theus, Breslau, 1807 1864; writer 
and composer. 

Kann (kan), (i) Robt., b. Mannheim. 
July 21, 1865; pianist; pupil o{ 
Ernst Frank and V. Lachner, Kiel 4 
and Jos. Rheinberger (Munich. 
1885); 1891 founded Ladies' Choral 
l?nion, Leipzig; 1898 1930, prof. 
of comp., Berlin Hochscnule fiir 
Musik; c. orch., chamber and choral 
music, songs, etc. His bro. (2) 
Otto Hermann, Mannheim, Ger- 
many, Feb. 21, 1867 New York, 
March 29, 1934; patron of music; 
1908-31, chairman of board of 
directors, Met. Op. Co., and for some 
years dominated its artistic policies; 



oossessing wide interests, he was 
also a generous supporter of many 
of the foreign, musical and other 
productions brought to N. Y.; 
influential in sponsoring the Century 
Op* Co., Boston Op. Co., Chicago 
Op. Ass'n., the French- American 
Ass'n. for Mus. Art, and other 
projects; he was interested in pro- 
noting a plan for a new opera house 
m N. Y. and even bought up parcels 
of land for such a structure, but 
opposition in the Met. Op, director- 
ate caused the matter to be shelved. 

Kahnt (kant), Chr. Fr., 1823 Leipzig, 
1897; mus. -publisher. 

Kaiser (ki'-zSr), (i) K., Leipa, Bohe- 
mia, 1837 Vienna, 1890; founded 
sch. continued by his son (2) Rudolf. 
(3) Fr. Emily Coburg, Feb. 7, 1853 
Munich, 1929; regimental bandm. 
Prague; prod. 5 operas, incl. "Der 
Trompeter von Sitkkingen" (Olmiitz, 

Kajaxms (ka-ja'-noos), Robert, Helsing- 
fors, Dec. 2, 1856 July 6, 1933; 
Finnish composer; pupil Leipzig 
Cons.; returned to Helsingfors, 
founded an orchestra school, and 
developed the Phil, orch.; 1897 mus. 
director of the University; c. 2 
Finnish rhapsodies, symph. poems 
"Aino"< and " Kullervo"; orch. suite 
"Summer Memories, 99 ' cantata, etc. 

Kal'beck, Max, Breslau, Jan. 4, 1850 
Vienna, May 5, 1921; studied 
Munich Sch. of Mus.; 1875, writer, 
critic at Breslau; then on the "Wiener 
Montags- Revue,"> and the "Neues 

.Kalin'nikov, Vassili Sergeievich, 
Voina, Jan. 13, 1866 Jalta, Crimea, 
Jan. ii, 1901; pupil of Hjinski and 
Blaramberg at Moscow; 1893 as- 
sistant cond. at the Italian Opera 
there; compelled to retire because of 
pulmonary trouble and go south; c. 
2 symph., the first in G minor, much 
played; 2 symph. poems, "The 
Nymphs" and "Cedar and Palm"*, 
music to Tolstoi's "Czar Boris?* 
(Little Theatre, Moscow, 1899); 
"Russalka 99 ballade with orch., can- 
tata, "St. John of Damascus, 9 * etc. 

Kalisch (ka'-Ush), Paul, b. Berlin, 
Nov. 6, 1855; tenor; studied with 
Leoni; sang Berlin ct.-opera; m. 
Lilli Lehmann; sang at Cologne and 
six times in America; d. (?). 

Kalischer (ka'-lfeh-Sr), Alfred, Thorn, 
March 4, 1842 Berlin, Oct. 8, 1900; 

Dr. Phil., Leipzig TL; studied with 
Biirgel and BShmer; lived in Berlin, 
as a writer and teacher; editor "Neue 
Berliner Musikzeitung" ; pub. "Less- 
ing als Musikasthetiker" '; "Musik und 
Moral, 99 ' "Beethoven und seine 
Zeitgenossen" ; ed. collection of Bee- 
thoven's letters. 

Kalkbrenner (kalk'-brSn-ner), (i) Chr., 
Minden, Hanover, 1755 Paris, 1806; 
writer and dram, composer. (2) Fr. 
Wm. Michael, b. on a journey from 
Cassel to Berlin, 1788 d. of cholera 
Enghien-les-Bains, near Paris, June 
10, 1849; son and pupil of above; 
very succ. pianist and teacher; de- 
veloped modern octave-playing, left- 
hand technique and pedalling; wrote 
valuable 6tudes and other compos.; 
also studied Paris Cons, and with 
dementi and Albrechtsberger. (3) 
Arthur, d. near Paris, 1869; son of 
(2); composer. 

Kalliwoda (kalMX-vo-da), (i) Jo* 
Wenzel, Prague, 1801 Carlsruhe, 
1866; pianist, conductor and dram, 
composer. (2) Wm., Donaueschin- 
gen, 1827 Carlsruhe, 1893; son and 
pupil of above; dir., ct.-conductor, 
pianist and composer. 

Kallwitz, or Kalwitz. Vide CALVISITTS. 

Kal'man, Emmerich, b. Siofok, 
Hungary, Oct. 24, 1882; composer 
of operettas, some of which nave 
had world- wide popularity; pupil 
of Koessler; c. among other works 
"Die Czardasfttrstin,"* "Gr&fin 
Maritza" "Die Zirkusprinzessin"; 
lived U. S.; d. Paris, Oct. 30, 1953. 

KamiensM (kam-X-n'-shkI), Mathias, 
Odenburg, Hungary, 1734 Warsaw, 
1821; teacher and composer of the 
first Polish opera "The Wretched 
Made Happy" (1778), etc. 

Kamin'ski, Heinrich, b. Tiengen, 
Baden, Germany, July 4, 1886; com- 
poser; studied at Heidelberg Univ., 
and with Klatte, Kaun and Juon; 
his works based on pre-Bach poly- 
phonic style; c. (music drama) 
"Jilrg Jenatsch 9 * (prod. Dresden 
Op.), concerto grosso and suite for 
orch., chamber music, many choral 
works and motets, Magnificat, 
(widely sung, incl. Boston perf.); 
Psalms for chorus and orch.; Passion 
(mystery play); org. works, etc.; 
1930-32, leader of master school in 
comp. at Berlin Akad. der Kiinste; 
also cond. of orch. concerts in 
Bielefeld, 1930-33; d. 1946. 



Kam'mel, Anton, Hanna, Bohemia, 
1740 London, before 1788; violinist 
and composer; pupil of Tartini; c. 
masses, violin duets, etc. 

Kammerlander (kam'-mer-lant-er), K. f 
Weissenhorn, Swabia, 1828 Augs- 
burg, 1802: conductor and composer. 

Kandler (kantMer), Fz. Sales, Klos- 
terneuburg, Lower Austria, I79 2 
Baden, 1831; writer. 

Kapp, Julius, b. Steinbach, Baden, 
Oct. i, 1883; Ph. D.; editor; writer of 
biogs. of Wagner, BerKoz, Liszt, etc. 

Kappel (ka'-pel), Gertrude; b. Halle, 
Germany; studied piano and singing 
Leipzig Cons., with Nikisch and 
Noe; has appeared in opera at Han- 
over, Vienna, Munich, London, 
Madrid, Amsterdam, and after 1927 
with Met. Op. Co., N. Y., singing 
leading Wagnerian rdles, also 
Strauss's "Elektra." 

Kapsberger (kaps'-bfcrkh-Sr), Jn. 
Hieronymus von, b. of noble Ger- 
man family, d. Rome, ca. 1650; 
virtuoso on theorbo, chitarrone, lute, 
and trumpet; notable composer. 

Karajan (ka -ra-yan) , Herbert von; cond.; 
1035, Aachen; later. Vienna Symph. 

Karasowski (ka-ra-sfidf'-shklO, Mo- 
ritz, Warsaw, 1823 Dresden, 1892; 
'cellist, writer and composer. 

Karg-Elert (karkh-a'-lSrt) , Sigfrid, 
Oberndorf, Nov. 21, 1879 Leipzig, 
^pril 9, 1933; pupil Leipzig Cons.; 
-eacher and composer; after 1919, 
caught at Leipzig Cons.; eminent 
concert organist; toured U. S. shortly 
before his death; c. a large variety 
of works for org., incl. sonatas, etc. 

Karl, Tom, Dublin, Jan. 19, 1846 
Rochester,. N. Y., 1916; tenor; 
studied with H. Phillips, San- 
giovanni and Trivulzi; sang in 
Italian opera for years, went to 
America with Parepa-Rosa, then 
with "The Bostonians" in comic 
opera many years; retired 1896; 
later vocal teacher, N. Y. 

Karlovicz (karl'-yo-vlch), Mieczy- 
slav, Wisznievo, Lithuania, Dec. n, 
1876 (in an avalanche), Zakopane, 
Galicia, Feb. 10, 1909; composer; 
studied in Warsaw and Berlin; c. 
symph., symphonic-trilogy "Three 
Ancient Songs" (1907), "Lithuanian 
Rhapsody" (1908), also published 
Chopin letters and documents (War- 
jaw and Paris, 1905). 

Karpath (kar'-p&t), Ludwig, Budapest, 
^866 Vienna:, 1936; singer and 

critic; pupil Budapest Cons.; sang 
with Nat'l. Op. Co., N. Y., 1886-88; 
after 1894, critic H*?$ 
Tageblatt"', 1910-17, ed., "M*keit 
author of books on Wagner. 

E^sanOi, Nicolai Ivanovich, Tiraspol, 
Dec. 17, 1869 St. Petersburg, 1913 
(?); Russian composer; pupil Odessa 
Music School and St. Petersburg 
Cons.; had cond. Russian symph. 
concerts in Germany, Bohemia, etc.; 
c symph., Sinfonietta, cantata 
"Russalka" (Munich, 1897), and 
"Leonore" (do.). . ^ . 

Kasatchen'ko, Nicolai Ivanovicn, D. 
Russia, May 3, 1858; cond.; pupil 
St. Petersburg Cons.; 1883 chorus 
master at the Imperial Opera; cond 
"Russian Concerts" in Paris, 1898-. 
after 1924 prof, of choral singing, 
Leningrad Cons.; c. symph., 2 
oriental suites, 2 operas, "Prince 
Serebrianni" (St. Petersburg, 1892), 
and "Pan Sothin"', d. Leningrad (?). 

Kasch'in, Daniel NiMtich, Moscow, 
1773-1844; composer of Polish folk 
and patriotic songs : also three operas. 

Kash'perov, Vladimir Nikitich, 
Simbirsk, 1827 Romanzevo, July 
8, 1894; Russian composer; pupil 
of Voigt and Henselt; and comp. 
an opera in 1850, then went to Berlin 
to study with Dehn; thence with 
Glinka to Italy, where he produced 
various operas. "Maria Tudor" 
(Milan, 1859), "Rienzi" (Florence, 
1863), "Consuelo" (Venice); 1866-72 
he was singing teacher at Moscow 
Cons., and organised public chorus- 
classes; c. also operas "The Weather" 
(St. Petersburg, 1867). and "Tar as 
Bulba" (Moscow, 1893). 

Kaskel (kas'-k&), Preiherr K. von, 
b. Dresden, Oct. 10, 1866; studied 
law at Leipzig, also mus. in the Cons, 
with Reinecke and Jadassohn (1886- 
87), and later with Wiillner and Jen- 
sen, Cologne; lived in Dresden; c. 
succ. i-act opera " Hochzeitsmorgen" 
(Hamburg, 1893); v. succ. opera 
"Sjvla" (Cologne, 1895), etc. 

KSssmeyer (kSs'-mi-gr) ,Moritz, Vienna, 
1831 1884; violinist; c. 5 string- 
quartets, some of them humorous. 

KastaTsky, Alexander Dmitrievitch, 
Moscow, Nov. 28, 1856 Dec. 17, 
1926; important Russian church 
composer; after 1887 teacher and 
conductor at the School of the 
Synodal Chorus, renamed the 
People's Choral Acad. in 1918 and 



merged with Moscow Cons, in 1923; 
also c. operas, etc. 

Kastner (kast'-ner) , (i) Jn. G., S trass- 
burg, March 9, 1810 Paris, Dec. 19, 
1867; pupil of Maurer and Romer; 
at 10, organist; at 20, bandm.; at 
25 had prod. 4 operas, and was sent 
*y the town council to Paris, to study 
with Berton and Reicha; 1837, 
pub. treatise "On Instrumentation"* 
among others; also methods adopted 
at the Paris Cons.; lived thereafter 
at Paris as teacher; wrote learned 
essays and an it E,ncyclopedie de la 
musique"- C. 3 later operas incl. 
"Le dernier roi de JudaJ* his master- 
piece, also 3 symphonies, 5 overtures, 
10 serenades for wind; "Livres- 
partitions' ' (symphony-cantatas, 
prefaced by brilliant historical es- 
says, incl. "Les danses des marts"}, 
a vol. of 310 pages; "La harpe 
ffeole" (1856); "Les voix de Paris,"- 
followed by "Les cris de Paris"* 
grande symphonic humoristique voc. 
et instr. (1857); "Les Sirenes"' 
etc. Biog. by Jan (Leipzig, 1886). 
(2) G. Fr. Eugen, Strassburg, 1852 
Bonn, 1882; son of above; inv. 
the pyrophone (v. D. D.), and pub. 
work on it. (3) Emmerich, Vienna, 
March 29, 1847 1916; editor and 

Kate (ka'-te 1 ), Andre* Ten, Amsterdam, 
1796 Haarlem, 1858; 'cellist and 
dram, composer. 

Katims (ka'-tlms), Milton, American 
violist; cond. with NBC Symph.; 
i954-$5, cond. Seattle Symph. 

Kauer" tkow'-Sr), Fd., Klein-Thaya, 
Moravia, Jan. 8, 1751 Vienna, 
April 13, 1831; prolific c. of Sing- 
spiele; organist, conductor, 'cellist; 
c. 200 operas and operettas. 

KaTiffmann (kowf'-man), (i) Ernst 
Ft., Ludwigsburg, 1803 Stuttgart, 
1856; ^pianist and composer. (2) 
Emil^ Ludwigsburg, Nov. 23, 1836 
Tubingen, June 18, 1909; violinist; 
son of above; pupil of Stuttgart 
Cons.; musical dir, Tubingen Univ.; 
Dr. Phil., 1885. (3) Fritz, Berlin, 
June 17, 1855 Magdeburg^ Sept. 
29, 1934; a druggist, Leipzig and 
Hamburg; took up music, 1878, 
entered the Akademische Hochschule 
at Berlin, won Mendelssohn prize for 
comp. 1881; till 1889, lived in Berlin 
as a teacher and ther* cond. of the 
kt Oesellschaftsconcerle" at Magde- 
burg; 1893, Rc-a) ' 

c. comic opera, "Die Herzkrankheit" i 
symphony, etc. 

Kann (kown), Hugo, Berlin, March 
21, 1863 April 2, 1932; pupil at 
Royal High School under Grabau 

and Fr. Schulz; also with K. and O- 
Raif, and Fr. Kiel; 1887 took up 
residence in Milwaukee, Wis., as 
teacher and cond.; 1900 returned to 
Berlin; 1912, elected to Berlin RoyaJ 
Academy; c. symph. "An Mein 
Vaterland," symph. prolog "Marie 
M 'agdalene" '; symph. poems; festival 
march "The Star Spangled Banner" 
chamber music with orch., "Nor- 
mannen AbscMed"; i-act opera "Der 
Pietist" or "Oliver Brown," and 
important songs and piano pieces. 

Kazynski (kS-zgn'-shkl), Victor, Wilna, 
Lithuania, Dec. 18, 1812 St. Peters- 
burg, 1870; pupil of Eisner, Warsaw; 
prod. 3 operas; 1843, cond. Imp. Th. 
St. Petersburg. 

Ke'fer, Paul, Rouen, 1875 Rochester, 
N. Y., 1941; 'cellist; pupil Verviers 
Mus. School and Paris Cons.; after 
1900 played in Paris orchs., and 190^- 
13 with N. Y. Symph., also heard as 

Keiser (kl'-zSr), Reinhard, Teuchern, 
near Weissenfels, Jan. 9, 1674 
Hamburg, Sept. 12, 1739; the father 
of German opera, the first to employ 
popular subjects and to leave the 
Italian and French pattern; also note- 
worthy for his instrumentation and 
dramatic force; pupil of his father; ^. 
116 operas at Hamburg from 1694; 
mgr. the opera there, ct. cond. and 
later canon and cantor; c. also ora- 
torios, masses, etc. 

Kerberine, Alex, Kiev, 1903 N. Y., 
Jan. 30, 1940; pupil of Busoni and 
Siloti; toured in Europe; N. Y. 
d6but> 1928; head of piano dept., 
Sternberg Cons., Phila.; has ap- 
peared as soloist with leading Amer. 

Keler-Bela (rightly Adabert von Keler) 
(ka'-lftr ba'-la), Bartfeld, Hungary, 
Feb. 13, 1820 Wiesbaden, Nov. 20, 
1882; violinist, conductor and com- 

Keller, (i) Gottfried (called Godfrey), 
b. in Germany; teacher and writer in 
London, 1707. (2) Max, Trostberg, 
Bavaria, 1770 Altotting, 1855; 
organist and composer. (3) EL M 
Dessau, 1784 Schaffhausen, 1855; 
ct.-flutist, conductor and composer. 
(4) F. A. E. t inv., 1835 the unsuco 



'^pupttre^improvisateur" (v. D. D.), 
and pub. a method. 

Kellermann, (x) Berthold, Nftrnberg, 
March 5, 1853 Munich, June 14, 
1926; pianist; pupil of his parents 
and of Liszt, 1878-81 Wagner's 
secretary; 1882, teacher Munich R. 
Mus. Sctu ; conductor and ct.-pianist. 
(2) Chr., Randers, Jutland, 1815 
Copenhagen, 1866; 'cellist and com- 

Kelley, Edgar StUlman, Sparta, Wis., 
April 14, 1857 N. Y., Nov. 12, 1944;' 
composer; pupil of F. W. Merriam, 
Clarence Eddy, and N. Ledochowski 
(Chicago), and 1876-80 of Seifria 
(comp.}, Kriiger and Speidel (pf.) 
and Fr. Finck (org.), at Stuttgart; 
organist at Oakland and San Fran- 
cisco, Cal.; cond. comic opera, 
1890-91; teacher pf., org., and comp. 
in various schools, incl. N. Y. Coll. 
of Mus.; critic for the "Examiner," 
San Francisco, 1893-95; and essayist 
for various periodicals; 1896 lecturer 
on music for the Univ. of New York; 
1901-02 at Yale University: 1902-10, 
taught in Berlin; then head of comp. 
dept., Cincinnati Cons.; later held 
comp. fellowship, Western Coll., 
Oxford, Ohio; c. "Gulliver," humor- 
ous symph.; Chinese suite, "Alad- 
din," for orch.; comic opera, "Puri- 
tania" (Boston, 1892); succ. incid. 
music to "Macbeth" and to "Ben 
Hur,"> both for chorus and orch.; 
string-quartet and quintet; "Wed- 
ding-Ode," for tenor solo, male 
chorus and orch, (MS.); 6 songs, 
"Phases of Love"-, notable songs, 
"Eldorado" and "Israfel," and others. 
KelTner, (i) David, dir. German ch. 
and Th. at Stockholm, 1732. (2) 
Jn. Chp., Grafenroda, 1736 Cassel, 
1803; ct. -organist and dram, com- 

Kellogg, Clara Louise, Sumterville, 
S. C., July, 1842 New Hartford, 
Conn., May 13, 1916; noted soprano; 
1856-61, studied in New York; d6but 
Acad. of Mus. (1861); d6but, Lon- 
don, at H, M's. Th. (1867), as 
"Margherita," with great succ.; sang 
in many capitals. 

Kelly, Michael, Dublin, 1764 Mar- 
gate, 1826; tenor and dram, com- 
poser; friend of Mozart; wrote 
musical "Reminiscences." 
Kelterborn, Louis, Boston, April 28, 
1891 NeucMtel, July 9, 1933; 
composer and conductor; of Swiss 

parentage; studied at Basel and 
Geneva Cons.; 1917-19, teacher of 
theory at Wolff Cons., Basel; after 
1919, org. in Burgdorf; 1927, taught 
NeucMtel Cons.; c. symph., choral 
and org. music. 

Kempff, Wilhelm, b. Jiiterbog, Ger- 
many, Nov. 25, 1895; composer, 
pianist; studied at Berlin Hochsch., 
winning both Mendelssohn prizes, 
1917; toured as piano and org. 
virtuoso; 1924-29, dir. Stuttgart 
Cons.; c. orch., chamber and choral 

Kemp'ter, (i) K., Limbach, Bavaria, 
1819 Augsburg, 1871; conductor. 
(2) Lothar, Lauingen, Bavaria, Feb. 
5, 1844 Vitznau, July 14, 1918; 
cond., professor, and dram, com- 
poser; son and pupil of (3) Fr. K* 
(music-teacher) ; studied Munich 
Univ., then with Rheinberger; 
chorus-dir.; 1886 prof, of mus. 
theory, Zurich Mus. Sch. 
Ken'nedy, Daisy, b. Burra-Burra near 
Adelaide, Australia, 1893; violinist; 
studied at Adelaide Cons, and with 
Sevcik, in Vienna Master School; 
toured Great Britain, Austria and 
U. S,; m. Benno Moiseiwitsch, 
pianist; divorced; (2) John Drink- 
water, dramatist. 

Ken/nedy-Fra'ser, Marjory, Perth, 
Scotland, Oct. i, 1857 Edinburgh, 
Nov. 21, 1930; composer, alto singer 
and pianist; esp. known for her 
"Songs of the Hebrides."" 
Ker'by, Paul, b. South Africa; con- 
ductor, composer; studied at London 
R. Coll. of Mus. (Associate); began 
baton career at Capitol Theat., 
N. Y.; 1926, foreign adviser to 
Salzburg Fest.: res. in Vienna 1926- 
33, appearing as cond. with Philh. 
and Symph. in that city, also as 
guest in Budapest, Frankfort, Wies- 
baden; mus. dir. in Vienna for 
Columbia Phon. Co.; 1933 led 
Chicago Symph. in Viennese concert 
as official repr. of Austrian gov't.; 

season N. Y. Philh. at Lewisohn 

Kerekjar'to, Duci de (rightly Julius), 
b, Budapest, 1898; violinist; studied 
at Acad. of Mus. there, also with 
Hubay; toured in Europe and after 
1922 in America. 

Kerle (kgrl), Jacques de, b, Ypres, 



Flanders, i6th cent.; conductor and 

KerKl) (Kherl, Cherl), Jn. Caspar, 
Gaimersheim, near Ingolstadt, 1627 
- Munich, Feb. 13, 1693; organist, 
ct.-conductor, teacher, and notable 
composer of the "Missa nigra" Call 
in black notes) , etc. 

Kern, Jerome David, b. New York, 
Jan. 27, 1885; composer of operettas 
and musical comedies; studied with 
Gallico, Lambert and Pierce, also 
at N. Y. Coll. of Mus.; has produced 
since 1915 many operetta scores 
marked by pleasing melody and 
tasteful style, among which some of 
the outstanding were: "Sally," 
tk Sunny," "Show Boat," "Music in 
the Air," "The Cat and the Fid 

Marshall Rutgers, b. 
New York, Dec. 14, 1880; composer, 
editor; pupil of Wetzler, Knorr and 
6k>etschius; musical editor of The 
Outlook for a period; later pre&. of 
Galaxy Music Corp., N. Y. publish- 
ing firm; c. (cantata) "The FooUsh 
Virgins"-, "The Sleep of Summer" 
for women's chorus and orch.; and 
numerous songs. 

Kes (kas), Willem, Dordrecht, Hol- 
land, Feb. 1 6, 1856 Munich, Feb. 
21, 1*934; violinist; pupil of Bohm, 
etc., then of David, and, under royal 
patronage, of Wieniawski, and 
Joachrm; 1876, leader Park Orch. 
and Felix Mentis Soc., Amsterdam; 
then cond. "Society" concerts, Dor- 
drecht*, 1883-95 cond. at Amster- 
dam; 1895 Glasgow orch.; 1898 cond. 
Philh. and dir. Moscow Cons.; 
190526, dir. Coblenz Musikverein. 

Kess'ler, (i) Fr., preacher and writer, 
(2) Fd., Frankfort-on-Main, 1793 
1856; violinist and composer. (3) 
(rightly Kotzler) (kSts'-l&r), Jos, 
Chp., Augsburg, 1800 Vienna, 1872; 
teacher, organist and composer. 

Kfitel'bey, Albert William, b. Birming- 
ham, England; composer and con- 
ductor; studied Trinity Coll., Lon- 
don; cond. at theatres there; was 
music ed. and also dir, of Columbia 
Gramophone Co.; c. pop, orch. 
works, of which "In a Monastery 
Garden" has wide currency. 

Ket'ten, H., Baja, Hungary, 1848 
Paris, 1883; pianist and composer. 

KettenuB (kgt-ta'-noos) (or kSt-ntis), 
Aloys, Verviers, 1823 London, 
1896; violinist and dram, composer. 

Ketterer (kt-tu-ra), Eugene, Rouen, 
1831 Paris, 1870; pianist and conv* 

Keurvels (ktir'-v&s), Edw. H. J. 
Antwerp, 1853 Eeckeren, Jan. 19, 
1016; pupil of Benolt; till 1882, 
chonisra. Royal Th.; cond. Nat. 
Flemish Th., Antwerp, c. operas, 
cantatas, etc. 

Keiassler (kois'-ler), Gerhard von, 

b. Sclrwanenburg, Livonia, July 6, 
1874; pupil Leipzig Cons.; cond. 2- 
singing societies in Prague; 1918 31, 
Hamburg; after 1931 in Melbourne; 

c. orch.'wks.; d. n. Dresden, 1949. 
Kewitsch (Kiewics) (ka'-vltsh or 

ke'-vech), (Karl) Thaodor, Posilge, 
W. Prussia, Feb. 3, 1834 Berlin, 
July 1 8, 1903; son and pupil of an 
organist; studied with Maslon. 

Khachatur'ian, Aram, b. Tiflis, 1903; 
pupil of Moscow Cons.; c. symphs., 
^f . concerto, etc. 

Kiefer (ks'-ffcr), Heinrich, Nuremberg, 
Feb. 1 6, 1867 Eisenach, Aug. 15, 
1922; 'cellist; pupil of Royal Cons., 
1883 at Munich, 1884, Stuttgart, 
1887-90, Frankfort-on-Main with 
Cossmann; 1896, soloist of Leipzig, 
Phil.; 1898 do. of Berlin. Phil.; 1900, 
teacher at Stern Cons.; frorr 1902, 
co-founder of the Munich string 
quartet; toured widely. 

Kiel (kSl), Fr., Puderbach, near Siegen 
(Rh. Prussia), Oct. 7* 1821 Berlin, 
Sept. 13, 1885; notable teacher and 
composer of classic sch.; self-taught 
as pianist and composer; vln.-pupil 
of Prince Karl von Wittgenstein and 
later, on stipend from Fr. Wm. IV., 
studied with Dehn; lived in Berlin; 
1868 "Royal Prof."; c. oratorios, etc. 

Kiene (ke'-ng). Vide BIGOT. 

Kienle (kSn'-lS), Ambrosius, b. Sieg- 
maringen, May 8, 1852; Benedictine 
monk and writer, d. Einsiedeln 
Convent, June 18, 1905. 

Kienzl (kents'-'l), Wm., b. Waizen- 
kirchen, Jan, 17, 1857- Vienna, Oct. 
3, 1941; pupil of Buwa, Uhl, Remy, 
Mortier de Fontain, Jos. Krejci, and 
later, Liszt; 1879 Dr. Phil, at Vienna; 
1880 lectured at Munich; 1881-82 
toured as pianist; 188384 chief cond. 
of German Opera, Amsterdam; 1886 
m, the concert-singer Lili Hoke; 
1886-90 dir. Styrian Musikverein at 
Graz and cond.; 1890-92, ist cond. 
Hamburg Opera; 1892-93, at Mu- 
nich; 1899-1901 at Graz as compose*. 
His first opera " Urvasi" (Dresden, 



ISOO; Was SUCC., as was jaewwu-r, 

der Narr"> (Munich, 1892), and still 
more so ".Der Evangelimann" ; his 
opera, " Kuhreigen" (Vienna Volk- 
soper,Nov. 25, igxi) asucc.inEurope; 
c. also "Don Quichotej* a "musical 
tragi-comedy"; lie finished Jensen's 
"Turandot,"- and c. also songs, 
etc.; author of books on music, 
volumes of memoirs, etc* 

Kiepura (ks-a-poo'-ra), Jan; Polish 
tenor; after 1924 sang at Vienna 
State Op. with sensational succ., 
while still in his twenties ; also heard as 
guest artist in many other Eur. cities; 
with Chicago Op. Co., 1930; has 
sung in motion pictures in England 
and Hollywood. Met. Op., 1937-8. 

Kiesewetter (ke'-zS-vSt-ter), Raphael 
G. (Edler von Wiesenbrunn), Hol- 
leschau, Moravia, 1773 Baden, near 
Vienna, 1850; important coll. of 
mus. MSS. and historian of many 
obscure periods, etc.; later ennobled. 

Kiewics. Vide KEWITSCH. 

Kllen'yi, Edward, b. Hungary, Jan. 25, 
1884; composer; pupil of Nat'l. Mus. 
School, Rome, and Cologne Cons.; 
1913, Mosenthal Fellow at Columbia 
Univ.; studied with Mason and 
Rybner; c, opera, overture, string 
quartet, vln. pieces and songs. 

Elpinen (kn-p6'-nn), Yro, b. Helsing- 
fors, Feb. 4, 1892; studied in native 
city, Vienna and Berlin; comp. of 
Lieder in romantic style, incl. more 
than 400 works, some to German 

End (kXnt), J. F., Leipzig, 1768 
Dresden, 1843; librettist of "Der 
Freiscktilz," afterwards composer. 

Kmdennann (kint'-Sr-mSn), (i) Jn. 
Erasmus, b. Niirnberg, 1616 Venice, 
*655; organist and composer. (2) 
Aug., Potsdam, 1817 Munich, 1891; 
barytone. (3) Hedwig, daughter of 
above. Vide REICHER, K. 

Endler, Hans, b. Rotterdam, Jan. 8, 


studied at Rotterdam Cons.; also later, 
with Mossel, Casals and Gerardy; 
served as teacher of 'cello at Schar- 
wenka Cons., Berlin, and chief 
'cellist at Charlottenburg Op.; had 
toured widely in Eur, countries; 
also in U. S., where he had been 
resident for some years; organised 
and cond. Nat'l. Symph. Orch., 
Washington, D. C., after 1930; also 
Paris, Brussels, Vienna, Prague, 
e, Milan, and world premiere 

of Stravinsky's "Apollon 
at Washington Fest, 

King, (i) Wm., 1624 1680; EngL 
organist and composer. (2) Robt., 
d. after 1711; EngL composer. (3) 
Chas., Bury St. Edmunds, 1687 
London, 1748; composer. (4) Mat- 
thew Peter, London, 1773 1823; 
theorist and dram, composer. (5) 
Oliver A., London, 1855 Sept., 
1923; pianist; pupil of W. H. Holmes, 
and Reinecke, Leipzig Cons.; pianist 
to the Princess Louise, 1879; toured 
Canada and New York; 1899 pf.- 
prof. at R. A. M.; c. cantatas, i47th 
Psalm, with orch. (Chester Festival, 
1888), a symphony, "Night."* (6) 
Julie. Vide RIVE-KING. 

Kingston, Morgan, Nottinghamshire, 
1875 England, 1936; operatic tenor; 
in early life a coal miner; after period 
of struggle secured mus. education 
and made de*but at Queen's Hall, 
London, with succ., 1909; Amer. d6but 
as "Radames" at Century Theat., 
N. Y., 1913; mem. of Met. Op. Co., 
for several seasons after 1916; also 
sang with Chicago Op. Co., and 
at Co vent Garden, 1924-25. 

Kinkeldey (kgn'-kSl-di), Otto, b. New 
York, Nov. 27, 1878; musicologist; 
M. A., N. Y. Univ. and Columbia; 
Ph. D., Univ. of Berlin; studied with 
MacDowell, Radecke, Thiel, Flei- 
scher, Kretzschmar, Egidi, Wolf and 
Friedlander; was choir dir. and 
teacher, N. Y., 1898-1902; prof, 
org. and theory, Univ. of Breslau, 
1909; royal Prussian prof., 1910-14; 
chief of mus. div., N. Y. Public 
Library 1915-23; prof, of mus., 
Cornell Univ., 1923-27; wrote and 
ed. scientific works on music. 

Kipke (kip'-kS), K., Breslau, Nov. 20, 
1850 Leipzig, Nov. 14, 1923; editor. 

Kip'nis, Alexander, b. Schitomir, 
Ukrainia, Feb. i, 1891; bass; grad. 
Warsaw Cons., also studied Klind- 
wprth-Scharwenka Cons., Berlin, 
with Ernst Grenzebach; d6but, Ham- 
burg Op., 1915; 1916-18 in Wies- 
baden; after latter year sang at 
Deutsche Opernhaus, Berlin; toured 
America with Wagnerian Op. Co., 
1923; sang for several years with 
Chicago Op., also in Munich, Lon- 
don, Milan, Paris, Buenos Aires; 
after 1932 engaged at Berlin State 
Op., and in ^1936 at Vienna State 
Op., has a wide following as a con- 
cert singer. Mem. Met. Op. Co. 



Kip'per, Hn., Coblenz, Aug. 27, 1826 
Cologne, Oct. 25, 1910; pupil of 
Anschutz and H. Dora; teacher 
and critic at Cologne; c. operettas. 

Kircher (kerkh'-Sr), Athanasius, Geisa 
(Buchow ?), near Fulda, 1602 
Rome, 1680; Jesuit archasologist and 
coll. of airs, some of them supposed 
to have curative effects. 

Korchhofe (kgrkh'-hsf), Walther, b. 
Berlin, March 17, 1879; tenor; stud- 
ied with Lilli Lehmann and in Milan; 
1906-1920, a leading heroic tenor of 
the Berlin Op., thereafter appearing 
in Buenos Aires and for several 
seasons at the Met. Op. House in 
Wagnerian r61es. 

Kirchner (kerkh'-ngr), (i) Fz., Pots- 
dam, Nov. 3, 1840 Berlin, May 14, 
1907; pianist; pupil Kullak's Acad., 
where he taught 186489, then in the 
Madchenheim sch., Berlin; c. pf.- 
pcs., etc. (2) Hn., Wolfis, Jan. 23, 
1861 Breslau, Dec. 26, 1928; tenor, 
and composer at Berlin. (3) Theo- 
dor, Neukirchen, Saxony, Dec. 10, 
1823 Hamburg, Sept. 18, 1903; 

?upil of J. Knorr (pf.), K. F. Becker 
Drg.), Jn. Schneider, and at Leipzig 
Cons.; 1843-62, organist Winterthur; 
1862-72, teacher Zurich Mus. Sch., 
and cond.; 1873-75, dir. Wiirzburg 
Cons., Leipzig; 1883, Dresden; 1890, 
Hamburg; c. pf.-pcs., etc. 

Kirnberger (kgrn'-b&rkh-Sr), Jn. Ph., 
Saalf eld, Thuringia, 1721 B erlin, 
1783; eminent theorist, conductor 
and composer. 

Kir^sten, Dorothy, American soprano; 
studied with Astolf o Pescia; d6but in 
Italy; sang Met. Op. from 1945, 
Mimi, Louise, Fiora, etc. 

Kistier, Cyrill, Grossaitingen, near 
Augsburg, March 12, 1848 Kissin- 
gen, Jan. i, 1907; studied with Wiill- 
ner, Rheinberger, and Fr. Lachner; 
1883 teacher Sondershausen Cons.; 
since 1885 lived in Bad KLissingen as 
principal of a sch., pub. of text-books, 
incl. "A Harmony, based on Wag- 
ner"* etc.; c. 2 operas; a succ. 
"musical comedy" "Eulenspiegel"- 
(Wttrzburg, 1893); etc. 

Kist'ner, (i) Fr., Leip: " 


1797 1844; 
His son (2) * Julius succeeded 

Kittel (klt'-tel), (i) Jn. Chr., Erfurt, 
Feb. 18, 1732 May 18, 1809; J. S. 
Bach's last pupil; organist in Erfurt; 
famous but ill-paid virtuoso and 
teacher. (2) Bruno, b. Entenbruch, 

Posen, May 26, 1870; conductor; 
studied with Sauret and others in 
Berlin; early played as violinist; 
founded chorus named after him in 
Berlin, 1902, which has played im- 
portant rdle in that city's music; 
cond. at R. Theat. there, later 
founded and dir. Brandenburg Cons.; 
after 1935, dir. of Stern Cons., 

Kittl (klt'-'l), Jn. Fr., b. Schloss, Wor- 
lik, Bohemia, 1806 Lissa, 1868; 
conductor and dram, composer. 

Kitzler (klts'-lSr), Otto, Dresden, 
March 16, 1834 Graz, Sept. 6, 1915; 
pupil of Schneider, Otto, and KLum- 
mer ('cello), later of Servais and 
F6tis, Brussels Cons.; 'cellist in 
opera-orchs. at Strassburg and Lyons; 
cond. at various theatres; 1868 dir. 
Briinn Mus. Soc. and Mus. Sch., also 
cond. of the Mannergesangverein; 
he was Anton Bruckner's teacher; 
pub. orch.-mus,, pf.-pcs., etc. 

Kjerulf (k'ya'-roolf), Halfdan, Chris- 
tiania, Sept. 15, 1815 Bad Grafsee, 
Aug^. n, 1868, composer; gave up 
theology for music; studied at 
Leipzig; settled in Christiania; c. 
songs and pf.-pcs. 

Klafsky (Lohse-Klafsky) (klaf'-shkl), 
Katharina, St. Johann, Hungary, 
1855 Hamburg, 1896; sopr.; pupil 
of Mme. Marchesi ; sang in comic 
opera chorus, later leading Wagner- 
ian r61es in Europe and America; m. 
Otto Lohse. 

Elatte (kla'-tS), Wilhelm, b. Bremen, 
Feb. 13, 1870; author biog. of 
Schubert, etc. 

Klauser (klow'-zSr), (i) K. (of Swiss 
parents), St. Petersburg, Aug. 24, 
1823 Farmington, Conn., Jan. 9, 
1905; chiefly self-taught; 1850, New 
York; 1856, Mus.-Dir. Farmington 
Cons.; editor. (2) Julius, New 
York, July 5, 1854 Milwaukee, 
1907; pupil of Wenzel, Leipzig 
Cons. ; mus.-teacher, Milwaukee; pub. 
" The Septonate and the Centralization 
of the Tonal System" (1890). 

Klauwell (klow'-vel), (i) Ad., Langen- 
salza, Thuringia, 1818 Leipzig, 
1879; teacher, writer, etc. (2) Otto, 
Langensalza, April 7, 1851 Cologne, 
May 12, 1917; nephew of above; 
pupil of Schulpforta, and at -Leipzig 
Cons.; Dr. Phil.; 1875 prof. Cologne 
Cons.; 1885, dir. Teachers' Seminary; 
writer and dram, composer. 

Klee (kla), L., Schwerin, April 13, 1846 



Berlin. April 14, 1920; pupil of 
Tli. Kuliak, and until 1875, teacher 
Kullak's Acad., tlien dir. of his own 
sch.; "Musik-Direktor," writer and 

Kleeberg (kla-bSLr), Clotilde, Paris, 
June 27, 1866 Brussels, Feb. 7, 
1909; pianist; pupil of Mmes. Rety 
and Massart at the Cons., won ist 
prize; debut, at 12, with Pasdeloup 
arch.; toured Europe with great 
succ.; 1894, Officier de FAcad6mie. 

Kleefeld (kl/-f&t), Wilhefcn, b. May- 
ence, April 2, 1868; author and 
camp.; pupil of Radecke, Hartel and 
Spitta; 1891 cond. in Mayence, etc.; 
1897 Ph, D^ 1 898-^01 teacher at the 
IQmdworth-Scharwenka Cons.; c. 
opera "Anarella" (Konigsberg, 1896), 
string suite, etc. 

Seeirmrm (kla'-mSn), K,, Rudolstadt, 
Sept. 9, 1842 Gera, Feb. 18, 1923; 
pupil of MiiHer, 1878, studied in 
Italy; then 2nd opera cond, and ct. 
mus .-dir. Dessau; c. 2 symphonies, 

Kleffel (klf'-fel), Arno, Possneck, 
Thuringia, Sept. 4, i84<>y-near Ber- 
lin, July 15, 1913; studied Leipzig 
Cons., and with Hauptmann; 1863- 
67, dir. Riga Mus. Soc.; then th. 
cond. in Cologne; later teacher of 
theory, Stern's Cons., Berlin; 1895, 
professor; c. opera, Christmas legend, 
overtures, etc, 

Kleiber (kll'-ber), Erich, b. Vienna, 
Aug. 5, 1890; conductor; served in 
theatres at Darmstadt, 191219; 
Barmen-Elberfeld, DUsseldorf and 
Mannheim; general mus. director at 
Berlin 1923-35, incl. chief conductor- 
ship of one of the city's State Op. 
Houses and symph. concerts; also 
cond. as guest in Rome, Paris, Bar- 
celona, Budapest, Prague, Buenos 
Aires, Copenhagen, Bucharest, Vi- 
enna, Leningrad; N. Y. Philh. Orch., 
1930-31; in Feb., 1935, he resigned 
Berlin post as consequence of artistic 
differences with Nat'l. Socialist re- 
gime and took up res. in Mondsee, 
near Salzburg, Austria; in the 
autumn of that year he was invited 
to direct German opnera at La Scala, 
and later was active in Buenos Aires. 

Klein (kiln), (z) Jn. Jos., Arnstadt, 
1740 Kahla, near Jena, 1823; writer. 
(2) Bd., Cologne, 1793 Berlin, 1832; 
teacher and composer, (3) Joseph, 
1801 1862, bro. of above; lived as 
composer in Berlin and Cologne. 

(4) Bruno Oscar, Osnabrtick, Han* 
over, June 6, 1856 New York, 

gtne 22, 1911; son and pupil of 
) Carl K. (organist Osnabruck 
Cath.); (4) studied at Munich Cons., 
1878, gave concerts in America; 1883, 
New York; 1884, chief pf.-teacher 
Convent of the Sacred Heart; also, 
1884-94, organist St. Francis Xavier, 
and 1837-92, prof, of cpt. and comp. 
Nat. Cons.; 1894-95, gave concerts 
in Germany; prod. succ. gr. opera, 
" Kenilworth" (Hamburg, 1895), vln.- 
sonata, etc. (6) Hermann, Norwich, 
Ettg., 1856 London, March 10, 
1934; critic and teacher; studied law; 
1874 singing with Manuel Garcia; 
1881-1901, critic London Sunday 
Times; 1887, prof, of singing at 
Guildhall; 1896, dir. opera-class (vice 
Weist Hill); 1901-09, taught N. Y.; 
them again in London; author, "30 
Years of Musical Life in London,'* 
"The Reign of Patti," etc. 

Kleinmichel (klin'-mlkh-'l), (i) Her- 
mann; (?) 1816 Hamburg, 1894; 
bandmaster. (2) Richard, Posen, 
Dec. 31, 1846 Berlin, 1901; son and 
pupil of above; studied also at Ham- 
burg and at Leipzig Cons.; teacher, 
Hamburg; 1876, Leipzig; 1882, mus. 
dir. City Th.; c. 2 operas; 2 sym- 
phonies; chamber-music, valuable 
6tudes, etc.; m. a dramatic soprano, 
{3) Clara Monhaupt. 

Klem'perer, Otto, b. Breslau, May 15, 
1885; conductor; studied Frankfort 
Cons., with P. Scharwenka and 
Pfitzner; after 1907 cond. at Prague 
Op., on recommendation of Mahler; 
Hamburg Op., 1909, also in Bremen, 
Strasbourg and Cologne (1917-24); 
general mus. director, Wiesbaden, 
1924-27; similar post at State Op. on 
Plata der Republik, Berlin, 1927-31, 
and that on Unter den Linden, 
i93i~33j where he inst. a regime of 
notable enterprise in the prod, of 
modern works and novel scenic dress, 
also cond. symph. concerts; resigned 
Berlin posts on accession to political 
power of Nat'l. Socialists; after 1935, 
cond. Los Angeles Philh. Orch., also 
led part of season with N. Y. Philh. 
Orch., 1934 and 1935: c. opera, 
choral works and songs. 

Kle'nau, Paul von, b. Copenhagen, 
Feb. ii, 1883; composer; pupil of 
Bruch, Thuille and Schillings; theatre 
cond,, Freiburg, 1897-1908, and after 
1920 of Copenhagen Phillv; c. 



(operas) "Sulamith" (Munich, 1913); 
"Kjartan und Gudrun" (Mannheim, 
1918); "The School for Scandal" 
(after Sheridan), prod. Frankfort; 
(dance-play) "Klein Idas B lumen" 
(Stuttgart, 1916); 4 symphonies, 
(orch.) "Paolo and Francesca"- y "Ges- 
frock mit dem Tod" for alto and 
orch.; "Ebba Skammelsen," ballade 
for barytone and orch.; piano quin- 
tet, string quartet, songs. 

Klengel (klSng'-el), (i) Aug. Alex. 
("Kanon-Klengel"), Dresden, 1783 
1852; organist and composer of an at- 
tempt to rival Bach's "Well -tempered 
Clavichord," etc. (2) Paul, b. Leip- 
zig, May 13, 1854 April 24, 1935; 
violinist; Dr. Phil., Leipzig; 1 88186, 
cond., Leipzig, "Euterpe" concerts; 
1888-93, 2nd ct.-cond., Stuttgart; 
cond. "Arion," Leipzig; 1898, New 
York. (3) Julius, Leipzig, Sept. 24, 
1859 Oct. 26, 1933; bro. of above; 
'cellist, pupil of Emil Hegar ('cello) 
and Jadassohn (comp.); ist 'cello in 
Gewandhaus Orch., and teacher at 
the Cons.; composer. 

Klenov'ski, Nicholas Semenovich, b. 
Odessa, 1857; pupil Moscow Cons.; 
leader of private concerts there 
1883-93; when he became cond. at 
the Imperial Theatre, then a teacher 
at Tinis till 1902, then assistant 
cond. of the Imperial Chapel at St. 
Petersburg; c. ballets, "Hasheesh,"* 
Moscow, 1885; "Salanga" (St. Peters- 
burg, 1900); orch. suites, cantatas; 
d. Petrograd, July 6, 1915. 

KHebert (klg'-bSrt), K., Prague, Dec. 

Sch. of Mus., Wiirzburg. 
Klindworth (klmt'-v6rt), K., Hanover, 
Sept. 25, 1830 Oranienburg (Ber- 
lin), July 27, 1916; pianist, eminent 
teacher and editor; self-taught pian- 
ist; at 6 played in public; at 17, 
cond. of an opera-troupe; 1849, 
teacher at Hanover; 1852, a Jewish 
woman advanced him money to 
study with Liszt; 1854, music-dSbut, 
London; Wagner admired him, and 
they became friends. 1854-68, he 
gave concerts and lessons, London; 
then pf.-prof. Imp. Cons., Moscow; 
while here he completed two monu- 
mental works, his pf.-scores of 
Wagner's "Ring des Nibelungen"* 
and a rev. ed. of Chopin. 1882-92, 
cond. at Berlin the Wagnerverein 

and (with Joachim and Wiillner) the 
Philharm. Concerts. Est. a "Kla- 
vierschule" (Sch. of Pf. -playing), 
later united with the Scharwenka 
Cons., 1893, when he retired to 
Potsdam; composed piano-pieces. 

Kling, H., Paris, Feb. 14, 1842 
Geneva, May 2, 1918; prof. Geneva 
Cons, and teacher in city schools; 
writer and dram, composer. 

KHtzsch (klltsh), K. Emanuel, Sch5n- 
haide, Saxony, 1812 Zwickau, 1889; 
writer and composer. 

Klose (klo'-ze 1 ), Friedrich, b. Karlsruhe, 
Nov. 29, 1862; composer; pupil of 
Lachner, Ruthardt and Bruckner; 
190719, teacher of comp. at the 
Akademie der Tonkunst, Munich; 
c. dramatic symph. "Ilsebill," or 
"The Fishtr and His Wife" (Karls- 
ruhe, 1903); mass with orch.; symph. 
poem in three parts "Das Leben ein 
Traum" with organ and women's 
chorus, chamber, orch. and vocal 
music: d. n. Lugano, Dec. 24, 1942, 

Klose (kl6-za), Hyacinthe Eleonore, 
Isle of Corfu, 1808 Paris, 1880; 
clarinettist and prof-, Paris Cons.; 

Klotz (k!6ts), family of Bavarian violin- 
makers at Mittenwald. The first 
the best; another, 
-1743)- Mat- 
Sebastian and 

(4) Joseph, and their sons (5) Gee _ 
(6) Karl, (7) Michael, and (8) ^Egi- 
dius, Jr. 

Elughardt (klookh'-hart), Aug. (Fr. 
Martin), KQthen, Nov. 30, 1847 
Dessau, Aug. 3, 1902; pupil of 
Blassmann and Reichel, Dresden; 
ct.-cond. at Neustrelitz and later at 
Dessau; prod. 4 operas, the sym- 
phonic poem, "Leonore"; 3 symph. 
(i. "Waldweben"), overtures "Im 
Frilhline"; "Sophonisbe," "Siegesou- 
vertitre,' and "Pestouverture," etc. 

Knabe (k'na/-b), (i) Wra., Kreuz- 
burg, Prussia, 1 797 Baltimore, 1864; 
founder of pf.-factory at Baltimore, 
Md.; succeeded by his sons (2) Win. 
(1841 89) and (3) Ernest, and they 
by (4) Ernest J. (b. July 5, 1869) 
and (5) Wm. (b. March 23, 1872). 
In 1908 the business was amalga- 
mated with the Amer. Piano Co. of 
N. Y. 

Knap'pertsbusch, Hans, b. Elberfeld, 
Germany, March 12, 1888; con- 
ductor; studied Bonn Univ. and 
Cologne Cons.; cond. in Elberfeld, 



Leipzig, Dessau, and 1920-35 suc- 
ceeded Bruno Walter as general 
music director of Munich Op.; he 
resigned this post following contro- 
versy with Nat'l. Socialist authorities 
as to his political views, and in 1936 
was active as guest cond. at Vienna 
State Op. 

Knecht (knSkht), Justin H., Biberach, 
Wiirtemberg, Sept. 30, 1752 Dec. i, 
1817; rival of Vogler as organist, and 
important theorist, conductor and 

Kneisel (knl'-zel), (i) Fz. (of German 
parents), Bucharest, Jan. 26, 1865 
Boston, March 27, 1926; violinist; 
pupil of Griin and Hellmesberger, 
Vienna; Konzertmeister, Hofb\irg 
Th.-Orch,; then of Bilse's Orch., 
Berlin; 1885-1903, concertm. and 
soloist, Boston Symphony Orch.; 
1887, founded the "Kneisel Quartet," 
which played with greatest succ. in 
America and Europe until 1917; 
1902, cond. Worcester (Massachu- 
setts) Festival; after 1905, prof, of 
vln., Inst. of Mus. Art, N. Y. 
(2) Frank, his son, and (3) Marianne, 
his daughter, both accomplished 
string players. 

Rniese (kne'-zS), Julius, Roda, near 
Jena, Dec. 21, 1848 Dresden, April 
22, 1905; pianist and organist; 
pupil of Stade, at Altenburg, Brendel 
and C. Riedel, Leipzig; 1884-89, 
mus.-dir. at Aix; 1882, chorusm. at 
Bayreuth, where he lived; 1889, dir. 
Preparatory Sch. for Stage-Singers; 
c. opera, " K'tinig Wittichis"; sym- 
phonic poem, "Frithjof" etc. 
niD'per, Lyof, b. Tiflis, Dec. 16, 1898; 

composer; studied in Russia, also 
with Jarnach in Berlin; c. works in 
modern style, some in satirical vein, 
incl. (operas) "Til Eulenspiegd* 
"Cities and Years"; (orch.) "Legend 
of a Plaster God' 9 (Phila. Orch., 1930) >, 
symphonies; chamber music; (ballet) 

Enoch (kn6kh), Ernst, b. Carlsruhe, 
Aug. i, 1875; conductor; pupil of 
Mottl; esp. known as interpreter of 
Wagner works; 1914, cond. for Cen- 
tury Op. Co.; 1916, Ravinia Park 
Op.; also with many other touring 
organisations in U. S. 

Knorr (kndr), (i) Julius, Leipzig, 1807 
1861; pf. -teacher and deviser of 
standard rudimentary exercises; pub. 
"Mettods," etc. (2) Ivan, Mewe, 
West Prussia* Jan. 3, 1853 Frank- 

fort-on-Main, Jan. 22, 1916; studied 
Leipzig Cons, with Richter, Reinecke; 
1883, prof, of theory, Hoch Cons. 
Frankfort-on-Main; c. 2 suites, etc. 
Knote, Heinrich, b. Munich, Nov. 20, 
1870; tenor; studied with Kirschner 
in native city, where he was mem. 
pf Op., 1892-1914; guest appearances 
in America, incl. Met. Op. Co., 1903; 
also at Charlott enburg Op., and after 
J924 again in Munich; one of leading 
Wagner tenors; d. Garmisch, 1952. 
.Kny'vett, (i) Chas., England, 1752 
London, 1822; tenor and organist. 
(2) Chas., 1773 1852; son of above; 
organist and teacher. (3) Wm., 
1779 Ryde, 1856; bro. of above; 
composer and conductor. 
Kobbe (k6b-b), Gustav, New York, 
March 4, 1857 Bay Shore, N. Y., 
July 27, 1918; studied pf. and comp. 
with Adolf Hagen, Wiesbaden; later 
with Jos. Mosenthal, New York; 
1877, graduated Columbia Coll.; 
1879, Sch. of Law; served as music 
critic on various N. Y. papers; wrote 
"Wagner's Life and Works" "The 
Ring of the Nibelung" etc.; teacher; 
pub. a few songs. 

Kobelius (ks-ba'-ll-oos), Jn. Augustin, 
Wahlitz, near Halle, 1674 Weisen- 
fels, 1731; ct.-cond. and dram, 

Koch (k6kh), (i) H. Clip., Rudolstadt, 
1:749 1816; violinist; writer and 
composer. (2) Eduard Emil, Schloss 
Solitude, near Stuttgart, 1809 
Stuttgart, 1871; writer. (3) Emma, 
b. Mayence; pianist; pupil of Liszt, 
Moszkowski, etc.; 1898, teacher Stern 
Cons. (4) Fr., Berlin, July 3, 1862 
Jan. 30, 1927; pupil of the Hoch- 
schule; conductor, 'cellist and c. of 
operas, "Die Halliger"* and "Lea" 
(Cologne, 1896), etc.; 1901, mem. of 
the Prussian Acad. of Arts; 1917, 
head of theory dept., Berlin Hochsch. 
Kochanski (ko-h^n^sks), Paul, Odessa, 
1887 New York, Jan. 12, 1934; 
violinist; studied with Mlynarski, 
and C6sar Thomson, Brussels Cons., 
d6but with Musical Soc., Warsaw, 
1898; toured Europe and U. S.; 
estab. high reputation as solo and 
chamber music player; was dir. oi 
vln. dept., Juilliard School of Mus.. 
N, Y., until his death. 
KSchel (kSkh/-'!), L. Ritter yon, Stein- 
on-Danube, Lower Austria, 1800- 
Vienna, 1877; writer. 
Kocher (kokh'-er), Conrad, Ditzingen 



near Stuttgart, 1786 Stuttgart, 
1872; mus.-dir. and dram, composer. 

Kocian (k6'-tsl-ttn), Jaroslav, b. Wil- 
denschwert, Bohemia, Feb. 22, 1884; 
violinist, son and pupil of a school- 
teacher; studied violin at 34 years; 
at 12, Prague Cons, under Sevcik 
(vln.), and Dvofak (comp.); d6but, 
1901; toured Europe with much 
succ.; 1902, Amer.; d, Prague, 1950. 

KoczalsM (ko-chal'-shkO, Raoul (Ar- 
mand G.), b. Warsaw, Jan. 3, 1885;